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Flashcards in Pulmonary Histology Deck (67)
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1

The respiratory system consists of a ______ portion and a _____ portion

Conducting, gas exchange

2

Respiratory mucosa lines the respiratory passageway and consists of

- Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium:
- Respiratory epithelium
- Lines most of conducting structures
- Lamina propria
- Thin layer of loose CT
- Submucosa
- Dense irregular CT

3

Respiratory epithelium structure

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

4

The lamina propria of respiratory mucosa is

thin layer of loose CT

5

The submucosa of respiratory system

dense irregular CT

6

Respiratory epithelium lines

most of the conducting structures

7

Epithelium of the nares/Nostrils composition

-Stratified squamous epithelium continuous with epidermis
- Contains sebaceous glands, sudoriferous glands, and hair follicles

8

Respiratory/nasal mucosa begins where in the nose

at the level of nasal septum

9

Nasal mucosa includes:

-Respiratory epithelium
- basement membrane
- Lamina propria (blends with underlying bone or cartilage)
- Depending on location, mucosa may be called mucoperiosteum, mucoperichondrium, or the Schneiderian membrane)

10

Where is olfactory epithelium located

in the nasal cavity roof

11

composition of olfactory epithelium

-pseudostratified columnar epithelium without goblet cells
- no distinct basement membrane

12

Cell of olfactory epithelium

-Sustentacular cells (supporting cells) with pigment granules
- basal cells with pigment granules:
- Stem cells-give rise to immature olfactory cells
- Olfactory cells:
- Bipolar neurons
- Apical end projects into nasal cavity as a knoblike ending with nonmotile cilia
- Cilia possess G-protein-linked odor-specific receptors
- Basal end of the cell extends as an unmyelinated axon, bundled with other similar axons, through the ethmoid plate to mitral cells located in the olfactory bulb
- Olfactory cells senesce and are replaced from basal cells
- olfactory glands of bowman:

13

Where are olfactory glands of bowman located

in the lamina propria of olfactory mucosa

14

What do olfactory glands of bowman secrete

odorant-binding protein, which binds to odorant molecule in nasal cavity

15

Generation of AP in Olfactory system

odorant-binding protein+ odorant molecules---> binds to odorant receptor protein (G protein) on olfactory cell cilium---> G-protein activated adenyl cyclase---> G-protein activated adenyl with ATP ----> cAMP---> Opening of Na+ channels ----> AP

16

What are the only neurons that can repopulate

Olfactory cells

17

mucosa of the nasopharynx

-Respiratory epithelium
- Lamina propria with FECT, mucous glands, serous and mixed glands, and diffuse lymphatic tissue

18

Submucosa of Nasopharynx

-Loose CT
- MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue)

19

What is Waldeyer's ring

-Located in the Nasopharynx
- Ring of lymphoid tissue around nasopharynx
- Includes Tonsils and Adenoids

20

What is FECT

Fibrous-elastic Connective Tissue

21

Histology of the Larynx components

Epiglottis
False vocal cords (vestibular folds)
True vocal cords
- Remainder of the larynx is covered with pseudostratified ciliated epithelium

22

Epiglottis

-sits above the opening to the trachea
- Lingual surface: covered with stratified squamous epithelium
- Lamina propria with loose CT and elastic fibers
-Pharyngeal surface:
- Covered with pseudostratied ciliated epithelium
- Lamina propria with tubuloacinar seromucous glands
- Core of the epiglottis consists of elastic cartilage

23

False vocal cords (vestibular folds)

-Covered with pseudostratified ciliated epithelium
- Lamina with seromucous glands

24

True vocal cords

-Covered with stratified squamous epithelium
- Lack seromucous glands in lamina propria

25

Tissues found in the layrnx

-Epithelium
- Respiratory epithelium (pseudostratified ciliated columnar)
- Stratified squamous epithelium (in 2 places)
- Cartilage
- Hyaline cartilages:
- Thyroid, cricoid, arytenoids
- Elastic cartilages:
- Corniculates, cuneiforms, tips of arytenoids, epiglottis
-Muscle
- Skeletal muscle

26

Composition of the Trachea

-Mucosa:
- Respiratory epithelium with thick basement membrane
- Lamina propria with delicate FECT and lymphatic tissue
- Submucosa
- many sero-mucous glands
- Adventitia
- 16-20 horseshoe-shaped cartilages interconnected by FECT
- opening between arms of horseshoe-shaped cartilages closed by: FECT, Mucous membrane, and smooth muscles (Trachealis muscles)
- mixed glands and capillaries

27

The right lung has how many lobes

3

28

Lungs refers to

all respiratory system components distal to the trachea

29

each lobe of the lung is divided into a number of lobules called

bronchopulmonary segments

30

The trachea divides into ____ primary bronchi

two, one to each lung