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Flashcards in Lower Limb Deck (40):

Lower limb consists of 30 bones ...

femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal bones (7), metatarsals (5), phalanges (14)


Describe the femur and its articulations - 4 points

longest, strongest, heaviest bone, proximally articulates with acetabulum of pelvis, distally articulates with tibia and patella, proximal end = rounded head and its this + acetabulum that creates the hip joint


fovea capitis - description and purpose - 3 points

depression in the head of the femur, provides point of attachment for ligament of head of femur, connects femur to acetabulum


neck of femur - 3 points

constricted region, found distal to head, often site of fracture


Greater & Lesser Trochanters - where found and description

projections from junction of neck and shaft of femur,
lesser trochanter = inferior and medial to greater trochanter
Greater trochanter = easily distinguished and palpable


Intertrochanteric Line

lies between anterior surfaces of trochanters


Intertrochanteric Crest

between posterior surfaces of trochanters


Purpose of the trochanters

attachment for tendons of thigh and buttock muscles


Gluteal Tuberoscity and Linea Aspera - 4 points

inferior to intertrochanteric crest, vertical ridge, and the line aspera which is part of the shaft of the femur, point of attachment for tendons of some thigh muscles


Describe the shaft of the femur and the differences between male and females - 3 points

shaft angles medially, brings knee joint closer to midline, angle = greater in females due to broader pelvis


Describe the distal end of the femur - 2 points

expanded distal end, features femoral medial & lateral condyles which articulate with tibial medial & lateral condyles


What are the 2 names given for between the femoral condyles at the distal end of the femur, anterior and posterior

Anterior = patella surface
Posterior = intercondylar fossa


collateral ligaments in the knee attach to ...

medial and lateral epicondyles - found superior to condyles of femur


Anterior & posterior cruciate ligaments - where found and purpose

major in the knee, maintain anteroposterior relationship of distal femur and proximal tibia during flexion and extension


Describe the Patella

small, triangular, sesamoid bone, anterior to knee joint, develops in tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle


Base of the patella

broad proximal end


Apex of the patella

pointed distal end


Describe the articular facet of the patella

on the posterior, articulate with femoral condyles (medial & lateral), creates the patella-femoral joint between posterior surface of patella and the patella surface of the femur


Purpose of the Patella

protects the knee joint, increases the leverage and maintains position of the tendon and quadriceps femoris muscle when the knee is flexed


Describe the tibia - 4 points

larger/more medial than the fibula, the weight-bearing bone of the two, connected to fibula by interosseous membrane, has a medial & lateral condyle proximally where it articulates with the condyles of the femur - medial & lateral tibio-femoral joints


Describe the tibia's articulation with the fibula

the inferior surface of the lateral tibial condyle articulates with the head of the fibula - proximal tibiofibular joint


Intercondylar eminence

an upward projection separating the condyles on the tibia posteriorly


tibial tuberoscity

a prominence on the anterior aspect of the proximal tibia


medial malleolus - where found, articulates with

on the distal, medial surface of the tibia, articulates with the talus of the ankle


fibular notch - 3 points

found on the tibia, articulates with the distal end of the fibula, forms the distal tibiofibular joint


Describe the fibula

lies parallel and later to the tibia


Describe the fibula's articulations with the femur/tibia/talus

doesn't articulate with the femur, articulates proximally with the lateral condyle of the tibia - proximal tibiofibular joint, distal end has a projection = lateral malleolus which articulates with the talus of the ankle


Purpose of the fibula

helps stabilise the ankle joint


7 tarsal bones - anterior

navicular, 3x Cuneiform - medial, intermediate, lateral, cuboid


7 tarsal bones - posterior

Talus, calcaneus


Describe the Intertarsal joints

joints between the tarsal bones


Describe the Talus - 3 points

most superior, articulates with tibia & fibula at the medial & lateral malleolli = talocrural joint - during walking, half the weigh transmitted through the talus to the calcaneum, the rest is distributed to remaining tarsal bones


Describe the metatarsals - 3 points

form the intermediate portion of the foot, numbered I-V from medial to lateral, 1st = thickest because it bears more weight


Describe the parts of the metatarsals and their articulations - 3 points

each metatarsal has a proximal base, shaft and a distal head, articulate proximally with all the cuneiform bones and the cuboid - forming tarso-metatarsal joints, articulate distally with the phalanges forming metatarso-phalangeal joints


Describe fractures found in the metatarsals and how - 3 points

fractures are common at the base of the 5th metatarsal, this is where the peroneus brevis tendon lies, when this tendon is wrenched from the bone in an inversion injury it can pull bone fragment with it


Describe phalanges - 3 points

form most distal component in the foot, numbered I-V from medial to lateral, each has a proximal base, intermediate shaft and a distal head


Describe the Hallux and compare with the other phalanges - 2 points

Otherwise known as the Big Toe, this is 2 large phalanges (proximal and distal), other 4 toes have 3 phalanges (proximal, intermediate and distal)


Describe the Inter-phalangeal Joints

joints between the phalanges


Describe the 2 arches of the foot - 2 points

longitudinal and transverse arches, arranged by ligaments and tendons


Role of arches in the foot - 3 points

support & evenly distribute weight of body, provide leverage when walking, absorb shock when walking/running