Bone Structure I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bone Structure I Deck (27):
1

6 Functions of the Skeleton

support, protection, movement, mineral storage/homeostasis, blood cell production, lipid storage

2

function of the skeleton - support - 2 points

framework to support soft tissue, point of attachment of muscles

3

function of the skeleton - protection - 1 point

to protect internal organs

4

function of the skeleton - movement - 2 points

bones = levers which muscles are attached, muscles contract to allow movement

5

function of the skeleton - mineral storage/homeostasis - 2 points

calcium/phosphorus, distributed on demand to maintain mineral balance

6

function of the skeleton - blood cell production - 2 points

Red marrow in certain bones produce RBCs, some WBCs and platelets

7

function of the skeleton - lipid storage - 1 point

yellow bone marrow serves as chemical energy reserve

8

2 types of connective tissue

cartilage and bone (the proportions of these 2 change as you grow)

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Differences between cartilage and bone - 3 points

cartilage = tough/flexible/relatively light, bone = rigid/heavier/more resistant to deforming forces

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Diaphysis

shaft of the bone

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Epiphysis - 3 points

extremities of the bone, covered in articular cartilage, thin layer of hyaline cartilage where bone forms a joint with another bone

12

Metaphysis

where the diaphysis and the epiphysis meet

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Epiphyseal Plate

only found in growing bone, where the metaphysis includes a layer of hyaline cartilage, where bone growth occurs

14

Epiphyseal Line

in adult bone, the hyaline cartilage at the metaphysis is replaced by bone

15

Medullary Cavity - 3 points

lies within diaphysis, lined with thin membrane = endosteum, contains fatty yellow bone marrow in adults

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Periosteum - 2 points

tough sheath of dense irregular connective tissue, covers surface of bone not covered by articular cartilage

17

Role of Periosteum - 4 points

contains bone forming cells which enable bone growth in diameter (not length), protects the bone & assists in fracture repair, nourishes the bone tissue, serves as a point of attachment for muscles and tendons

18

Bone tissue

made up of matrix of extracellular material which surrounds widely separated cells

19

Matrix contains ... 3 points

mineral salts (mainly Calcium Phosphate & some Calcium Carbonate), framework formed by collagen fibres, water

20

Ossification/Calcification

Salts are deposited in framework, they crystallise and the tissue hardens - initiated by osteoblasts

21

4 types of bone cell

Osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts

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Osteogenic Cells - 2 points

found within periosteum, endosteum & canals within bone carrying blood vessels, cell division creates daughter cells which develop into osteoblasts

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Osteoblasts - 4 points

bone-building cells, synthesise and secrete collagen & other components required to build matrix, initiate ossification, as osteoblasts secrete the matrix they become trapped - become osteocytes

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Osteocytes - 3 points

mature osteoblasts which no longer produce new bone tissue, have long branching arms that connect them to neighbouring osteocytes - facilitates communication between them and metabolism of bone tissue by exchange of nutrients/waste with blood

25

Osteoclasts - 4 points

huge cells, mainly found in endosteum, derived from fusion of up to 50 monocytes (a type of WBC), where they face the bone surface their plasma membrane is folded to forma ruffled border, here powerful enzymes and acids breakdown underlying bone matrix - reabsorption (normal part of bone development/growth/maintenance/repair

26

Spaces in Bone act as ...

storage areas - for red bone marrow, channels - for blood vessels supplying bone with nutrients

27

whether a bone is compact or cancellous depends on ...

size and distribution of spaces in the bone