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Flashcards in Spine II Deck (22):

Describe the general cervical vertebra - 4 points

C1-C7, bodies are smaller than all other vertebra other than those that make up the coccyx, vertebral arches are larger, C3-C6 follow the typical structural pattern of a cervical vertebra, all have 3 formina - 1 vertebral foramen (largest than in all vertebrae to house the cervical enlargement of the spinal cord) and 2 transverse foramina (within the transverse process containing vertebral artery, vein and nerve fibres)



C2-C6 often have a bifid spinous process meaning its split into 2


Describe C1 - the atlas - 4 points

1st cervical vertebrae and so is inferior to the skull, its a ring of bone with anterior and posterior arches and large lateral masses (lacks body and spinous process), the transverse processes/foramina of the atlas = quite large


Describe the superior articular facets of C1

concave superior surfaces of the lateral masses - articulate with occipital condyles of occipital bone forming the atlanto-occipital joints allowing you to nod "yes"


Describe the inferior articular facets of C1

lie on the inferior surface of C1 and articulate with C2


Describe C2 - the axis -

does have a body, it also has a peg-like process called either dens/odontoid process which protects superiorly though the anterior portion of the vertebral foramen of the atlas, the peg is a pivot on which the atlas and the head rotate , allow you to shake head "no"


Describe the articulations of C2 and the spinous process of C2

articulation formed between the anterior arch of the atlas and dens of the axis is and between their articular facets of is known as the atlanto-axial joint


Describe the thoracic vertebrae - 4 points

larger/stronger/longer/larger transverse processes than cervical, unlike any other vertebrae it articulates with the ribs, all the transverse processes have for facets for articulating with the tubercles of the ribs (except for T11/T12) - known as the vertebrocostal joints - limits movements of thoracic region because the ribs are attached to the sternum


Describe the difference in spinous processes from T1/T2 to T11/T12

Spinous process on T1/T2 = long, laterally flattened, directed inferiorly, spinous processes on T11/T12 = shorter, broader, directed more posteriorly


Describe the lumbar vertebrae - 3 points

lumbar vertebrae L1-L5 are the largest & strongest of the unfused bones in the vertebrae column, the various projections are short and thick, amount of body weight supported by vertebrae increases towards inferior end hence these carry a lot of the bodys weight


Describe the directions of the articular processes

superior articular process = directed medially
inferior articular process = directed laterally


Describe the spinous processes and their function - 4 points

quadrilateral in shape, thick & broad, project nearly straight posteriorly, serve as attachment for large back muscles


Describe the sacrum

triangular bone formed by union of 5 sacral vertebrae (S1-S5), lies at posterior aspect of pelvic cavity, medial to the 2 hip bones


Describe the differences of a female sacrum to a male sacrum

female sacrum = shorter/wider/more curved


Apex of the sacrum

narrow, inferior portion


Base of the sacrum

broad, superior portion


Describe the concave anterior side of the sacrum

faces pelvic cavity, smooth, contains 4 transverse lines (ridges) where the sacral vertebral bodies join


Describe the sacral foramina and the sacral canal

has anterior and posterior sacral foramina allow the passage of nerves and blood vessels, sacral canal is a continuation of the vertebral cavity


Sacaral Promontory

anteriorly projecting border of the base of the sacrum, 1 of the points used to measure the pelvis


Sacroiliac Joint (SIJ) - 2 points

on both lateral surfaces, sacrum has a large ear-shaped articular surface that articulates with the ilium of each hip bone


Lumbosacral Joint - 2 points

the superior articular process of the sacrum articulates with the inferior articular process of the 5th lumbar vertebrae, and the base of the sacrum articulates with the body of the 5th lumbar vertebrae


Describe the coccyx - description, articulations, differences between males/females - 4 points

triangular, formed by fusion of 4 coccygeal vertebrae, articulates superiorly with the apex of the sacrum, in females = points inferiorly to allow passage of baby during birth, in males = points anteriorly