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Flashcards in The Cell Deck (38):
1

Molecules combine to form

cells

2

groups of similar cells

tissue

3

different tissues join together to form

organs

4

Related organs with a common function form

organ system

5

all cells arise via

cell division

6

describe the plasma membrane - 2 points

thin but sturdy/flexible barrier, fluid mosaic model - phospholipids (heads = phosphates, tails = fatty acids) and proteins

7

Integral proteins

embedded across whole membrane, some = channels for transporting substances, others = chains of carbs to identify and respond to dangerous cells

8

Peripheral proteins

loosely attach to membrane, easily separated

9

Role of plasma membrane - 4 points

separates internal parts of cell from external environment, facilitates contact with other cells/substances, receptors for hormones/chemicals/ABs, selective barrier - substances in and waste out

10

factors affecting permeability - size of mols

large (proteins) = unable to pass through, small (water/AAs) = can

11

factors affecting permeability - solubility in lipids

dissolve easily (o2) = readily pass through because mainly lipid molecules

12

factors affecting permeability - charge on ions

ions = opposite charge to membranes and are therefore attracted to it and pass through easily, ion of same charge = repelled

13

factors affecting permeability - presence of carrier molecules

integral proteins attract and transport substances regardless of size/ability/charge

14

4 Passive processes

diffusion/osmosis/filtration/dialysis

15

An active process

use of ATP

16

ATP stands for

Adenosine Triphosphate

17

Describe nucleus and explain role of nucleus - 3 points

largest structure in cell, double nucleus membrane - with pores to allow passage in/out and for communication with ER in cytoplasm, contains all genetic material for cell growth/division/reproduction

18

Describe nucleolus and explain role of nucleolus - 5 points

spherical, composed of RNA/protein, where DNA is found, appears threadlike = chromatin, then shortens during cell division and coils = chromosomes

19

Describe the cytoplasm - 2 points

thick/elastic fluid, site of chemical reactions and synthesis of new substances

20

Role of cytoplasm - 3 points

facilitates excretion of waste, contains cytoskeleton - network of microfilaments/microtubules providing support/shape - also allows movement of entire cell and structures in cytoplasm

21

Describe and explain role of ribosomes - 2 points

found attached to outer surface of nuclear membrane/ER, site of protein synthesis - used/exported

22

Describe the 2 types of ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum)

Granular - contains ribosomes, Agranular - no ribosomes

23

General Role of ER - 3 points

allows exchange/transport of material in cell, provides surface for chemical reactions, storage area for synthesised molecules

24

Describe role of Granular ER - 2 points

processes/sorts proteins, synthesises/packages proteins with Golgi Apparatus

25

Describe role of Agranular ER - 2 points

network of tubules, synthesises lipids/glycogen/steroids

26

Describe and explain role of Golgi Apparatus - 3 points

4-8 flattened sacs = cristernae, found close to nucleus and Granular ER, process/sort/deliver proteins

27

Describe mitochondria - 3 points

smooth outer surface, inner folds = cristae - provide increased surface area for chemical reactions

28

Explain role of mitochondria - 3 points

produces ATP (stores energy for cellular activities) during aerobic respiration, found in large numbers where there are active cells, able to self-replicate when an increase of ATP is required

29

Describe a centrosome - 3 points

located near nucleus, contains a pair of centrioles, made up of micro-tubule triplets and protein tubulin

30

Explain role of centrosome - 2 points

organising centre for growth of mitotic spindle, critical for/in cell division and reproduction

31

Describe lysosomes - 2 points

membrane-enclosed spheres, form from Golgi apparatus

32

Explain role of lysosomes - 4 points

the cells digestive system - contains digestive enzymes which break down complex molecules, digest bacteria, break down damaged cells (autolysis)

33

Describe and explain role of a vacuole - 3 points

storage bubble, mass of fluid surrounded by membrane, stores nutrients/waste products

34

Describe and explain role of flagella - 3 points

projections from cell surface, contains cytoplasm and bound by plasma membrane, co-ordinated movement causes steady movement across its surface (e.g. ciliated cells move mucus with trapped bacteria from respiratory tract)

35

Explain the purpose of cell division - 2 points

for growth, to replace damaged/diseased/worn out cells

36

2 types of cell division

somatic and reproductive

37

cell division involves 2 types of division -

nuclear and cytoplasmic

38

sex cells

gametes