Upper Limb I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Upper Limb I Deck (24):
1

Describe the pectoral (shoulder) girdle - 4 points

2 pectoral girdles, attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton, each consist of a clavicle anteriorly and a scapula posteriorly, these don't articulate with the vertebral column - held in place by a group of large muscles which extend form the vertebral column & ribs to the scapula

2

Describe the clavicle - 3 points

slender "s" shaped bone, lies anterior to thorax and is superior to the 1st rib, on an x-ray - if there is a ligamentous injury then the space in the acromioclavicular joint will widen

3

Describe the sternoclavicular joint

where the medial rounded end of the clavicle articulates with the manubrium of the sternum

4

Describe the acromioclavicular joint

where the lateral acromial end of the clavicle which is broad and flat, articulates with the acromion of the scapula

5

Describe the conoid tubercle - 2 points

a promience on the inferior surface of the lateral end of the clavicle, point of attachment for the conoid ligament which attaches the clavicle and the scapula

6

Describe a fractured clavicle - how it could occur and its weakest point

most common fracture, occurs due to a fall onto an outstretched arm causing the force to be transmitted from the upper extremity to the trunk via the clavicle, weakest point = midpoint where the 2 curves meet

7

Describe the scapula - 4 points

lies between the level of the 2nd-7th ribs, has a prominent ridge called the spine running diagonally across the posterior surface of the flattened triangular body, has a supraspinous fossa and an infraspinous fossa on either side of the spine (superiorly & inferiorly) which serve as attachment points for the shoulder muscles, the subscapular fossa on the anterior surface of the scapula serves the same purpose

8

Describe the acromion process of the scapula

flattened and expanded process lying at the lateral border of the scapula

9

Describe the glenoid cavity of the scapula

lies inferior to the acromion, a shallow depression that articulates with the head of the humerus thus forming the glenohumeral joint

10

Describe the inferior & superior angles of the scapula

the thin medial (vertebral) border and the thicker lateral (axillary) border meet to form the inferior angle of the scapula
the superior border and the medial (vertebral) border meet to form the superior angle of the scapula

11

Describe the scapula notch - 2 points

a prominent indentation found at the superior border of the scapula - before the superior border develops into the coracoid process

12

Describe the coracoid process - description of placement and its function

projects from the anterior surface of the lateral aspect of the superior border of the scapula, point of attachment for tendons of muscles and ligaments of the shoulder girdle

13

Describe the humerus

longest & longest bone of the upper limb, rounded humeral head which articulates proximally with the glenoid cavity of the scapula forming the glenohumeral joint, distally articulates with the radius and ulna

14

Describe the difference between the anatomical neck and the surgical neck - where found and description

the anatomic neck is distal to the head of the humerus and visible as an oblique groove, the surgical neck is a constriction found just distal to the tuberosities - where fractures often occur

15

Describe the greater and lesser tuberosities

the greater tuberosity is a lateral projection which can be palpated, the lesser tuberosity projects anteriorly, serve as attachments for the 4 rotator cuff muscles

16

Describe the shaft of the humerus

proximally cylindrical becoming more triangular until its flattened & broader distally

17

Describe the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus

lays on the lateral aspect of the middle of the shaft of the humerus where there is a roughened "v" shaped area, a point of attachment for the tendons of the deltoid muscle

18

Describe the capitulum of the humerus

at the distal end of the humerus on the lateral aspect, rounded knob of bone, articulates with the head of the radius

19

Describe the radial fossa of the humerus

just above the capitulum, a depression that articulates with the radial head when the arm is flexed

20

Describe the trochlea of the humerus

medial to the capitulum, spool-shaped surface, articulates with the ulna

21

Describe the coronoid fossa of the humerus

superior to the trochlea, a depression that articulates with the coronoid process of the ulna when the forearm is flexed

22

Describe the olecranon fossa of the humerus

on the posterior aspect of the distal humerus, large depression which receives the olecranon process of the ulna when the forearm is extended

23

Describe the medial & lateral epicondyles of the humerus

rough projections found either side of the distal end of the humerus, serve as attachment points for the tendons of most of the muscles of the forearm

24

Describe the ulnar nerve - 3 points

can be palpated, above posterior surface of the medial epicondyle, hitting this nerve is known as hitting the "funny bone"