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Human Anatomy > Lower Limb > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lower Limb Deck (30):
1

Describe the hip joint

-Synovial
-Ball and Socket
-Acetabulum to head of femur
-Strong capsule with ligaments

2

What are the ligaments of the hip?

Anterior:
-Pubofemoral ligament
-Iliofemoral ligament
Posterior:
-Iliofemoral ligament
-Ischiofemoral ligament

3

Describe the knee joint

-Synovial, hinge
-Between femur and tibia
-Transfers weight= stability

4

What are the menisci in the knee?

Medial meniscus
Lateral meniscus
-Distribute load, conform to articular surfaces as joint moves

5

Describe the popliteus muscle

-Originates on lateral condyle of femur, lateral meniscus
-Inserts on posterior proximal tibia
-Knee flexion and medial rotation of tibia
-Innervates by tibial nerve

6

Describe the Tibiofibular Joint

-Synovial, plane joint
-Movement: glides when ankle moves
-Stability

7

What is the lateral compartment of the leg?

-Fibularis longus
-Fibularis brevis
(foot eversion, superficial fibular nerve)

8

What is the posterior (deep) compartment of the leg?

-Popliteus
-Flexor hallucis longus
-Flexor digitorum longus
-Tibialis posterior
(ankle plantar flexion & knee flexion, tibial nerve)

9

What is the posterior (superficial) compartment of the leg?

-Gastrocnemius
-Soleus
(ankle plantar flexion & knee flexion, tibial nerve)

10

What is the anterior compartment of the leg?

-Tibialis anterior
-Extensor hallucis longus
-Extensor digitorum longus
(ankle dorsiflex + invert foot + extend toes/hallux, deep fibular nerve)

11

What is the function of the ankle?

-Stability (push-off, stable base of support)

12

Name the tarsal bones

-Talus
-Calcaneus
-Cuboid
-Navicular
-Medial, intermediate, lateral cuneiform

13

Describe the ankle joint

-Synovial/hinge
-Dorsiflexion
-Plantar flexion
-Thin anterior/posterior capsule

14

What structures pass through the tarsal tunnel?

-Bones and retinaculum
-Passageway for arteries, veins, nerves and tendons
-Tibialis posterior tendon
-Flexor digitorum longus tendon
-Posterior tibial artery and vein
-Tibial nerve: divides into the medial and lateral plantar -
-Flexor hallucis longus tendon

15

Describe the plantar fascia

-Dense layer of thick fascia
-Covers medial and lateral muscles
-Maintains longitudinal arch

16

What muscles adduct the hip?

-Adductor Magnus
-Adductor Longus Brevis
-Pectineus
-Gracilis (knee flexion also)

17

What muscles abduct the hip?

-Gluteus Medius
-Gluteus Minimus

18

What muscles flex the hip?

-Iliacus
-Tensor Fascia Lata
-Psoas Major

19

What muscles extend the hip?

-Gluteus Maximus

20

What muscles extend the hip and flex the knee

*Hamstring muscles*
-Biceps femoris
-Semimembranous
-Semitendinous
(sciatic nerve)

21

What muscles extend the knee and flex the hip?

*Quadriceps muscles*
-Rectus femoris
-Quadriceps Vasti (only knee extension)
(femoral nerve)

22

What muscles flex the knee?

-Sartorius (hip flexion also)
-Popliteus

23

What muscles plantar flex the ankle?

-Gastrocemius (knee flexion also)
-Soleus
-Tibialis Posterior (ankle inversion also)
(tibial nerve)

24

What muscles dorsi flex the ankle?

-Tibialis Anterior (invert ankle also)
-Extensor Digitorum Longus (toe extension also)
-Extensor Hallucis Longus (hallux extension also)
(deep fibular nerve)

25

What muscles evert the ankle?

-Fibularis Longus
-Fibularis Brevis
(superficial fibular nerve)

26

What muscles flex the hallux?

-Flexor Hallucis Longus
-Flexor Hallucis Brevis
-Abductor Hallucis
-Adductor Hallucis

27

What muscles extend the hallux?

-Extensor Hallucis Brevis

28

What muscles flex the toe?

-Flexor Digitorum Longus (plantar flexion also)
-Flexor Digitorum Brevis
-Flexor Digiti Minimi

29

What muscles extend the toe?

-Extensor Digitorum Brevis

30

What muscles abduct the 5th toe?

-Abductor Digiti Minimi