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Human Anatomy > Spine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Spine Deck (17):
1

Describe the vertebral column

-7 cervical
-12 thoracic
-5 lumbar
-5 sacral (fused)
-4 coccygeal (fused)

2

Functions of the spine

-Support body weight
-Transmit forces through pelvis to lower limb
-Carry and position head
-Brace and help manoeurve upper limbs
-Protects spinal cord

3

What are examples of abdominal curves?

Lordosis
Kyphosis
Scoliosis

4

Describe a typical vertebra

Body: weight-bearing
Arch: Pedicle: attaches arch to body
Lamina: arch from pedicle to midline
Foramen for spinal cord, spinous processes and transverse processes

5

What are the joints between vertebrae

4 synovial joints between articular processes: zygapophyseal
-Cervical (flexion/extension)
-Thoracic (rotation)
-Lumbar (flexion/extension)
2 symphyses between vertebral bodies

6

Describe the spinal cord

-Sensory (dorsal) and motor (ventral)
-Nerves from lumbar and sacral levels
-Butterfly shaped centre if the cord: grey matter
- Surrounding white matter contains nerve fibres

7

Describe the nerve root

-Nerve root divides almost as soon as it leaves the vertebral canal
-It divides into an anterior ramus (or branch) and a posterior ramus (or branch)
-By the time the nerve gets out of the bony vertebral canal it contains both sensory and motor nerve fibres and then, just on the outside of the canal it collects some sympathetic fibres from the sympathetic trunks.

8

Describe the spinal meninges

-3 protective sheaths around spinal cord and brain
-Innermost: pia mater
-Middle layer: arachnoid mater
-Outer layer: dura mater, durable= tough/hard

9

What is the posterior ramus?

Motor and sensory branch travels anteriorly and posteriorly from spine

10

What are the muscles that act superficially on the back?

Splenius Capitus and Cervicis
-Bilaterally extend and unilaterally rotate back

11

Describe the erector spinae?

Iliocoastalis, Longissimus, Spinalis
-Spinal extension and lateral flexion

12

Describe the thoracolumbar fascia

Lumbar fascia that is in between erector spinae muscles

13

Describe the hypaxial (abdominal) muscles

-Flex and rotate abdominal muscles
-Transverse Abdominus
-Internal Oblique
-External Oblique
-Rectus Abdominus

14

Describe Transverse Abdominus

Compress abdomen, innervated by thoracic spinal nerves T8-T12

15

Describe Internal Oblique

Compress abdomen, flexes & rotates trunk. Innervated by lower intercoastal nerves

16

Describe External Oblique

Compresses abdomen, flexes & rotates trunk. Innervated by lower intercoastal nerves

17

Describe Rectus Abdominus

Trunk flexion, innervated by thoracic spinal nerves.