Lower Respiratory Bacterial diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower Respiratory Bacterial diseases Deck (144):
1

the Upper respiratory system usually has a lot of what?

Many normal microbiota

2

The normal microbiota may become what type of pathogens?

opportunistic

3

the Lower respiratory system is what type of environment?

Axenic

4

Bacterial infections of the Lower respiratory system can cause what?

Can cause life threatening illness

5

Strep throat causes the pharynx to appear red, swell the lymph nodes and cover the tonsils in what?

Purulent abscesses covering the tonsils (PUS POCKET)

6

Many cases of Strep throat can process into what?

scarlet or rheumatic fever/heart disease

7

Strep throat is caused by what pathogen

Streptococcus pyogenes

8

Strep throat can be spread via what?

respiratory droplets

9

Strep throat is most common in children in what age range?

5-15

10

how would one go about treating strep throat

antibiotics recommended to prevent developing Rheumatic Fever/heart disease

11

Scarlet fever is also known as what?

scarletina

12

scarlet fever can develop 1-2 days after what?

strep throat

13

what is the hallmark sign of scarlet fever?

the tongue becomes strawberry red

14

Scarlet fever often accompanies what?

strep throat when infections involve strain of S. pyogenes

15

Signs of diphtheria are sore throat, localized pain, fever and what adhering to posterior throat structures?

the pseudomembrane

16

In severe cases of diphtheria the pseudomembrane can do what?

occlude the airway, resulting in death by suffocation

17

Diphtheria is caused by what pathogen

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

18

Corynebacterium diphtheriae produces what?

diphtheria toxin

19

Corynebacterium diphtheriae divides by snapping fission, forming what?

characteristic palisade arrangement

20

Diphtheria is spread via what?

respiratory droplets or skin contact

21

Diphtheria is mainly symptomatic in which type of individuals?

immunocompromised or non immune individuals

22

Diphtheria is based on the presence of what?

a pseudomembrane

23

How does one treat diphtheria

with antitoxin and antibiotics

24

in severe cases of diphtheria blocked airways must be opened how?

surgically or bypassed with tracheotomy

25

what is an effective prevention for diphtheria?

immunization

26

Sinusitis causes what?

pain and pressure of the affected sinus

27

otitis media results in severe what?

pain in the ears

28

what is the most common pathogen to cause Otitis media?

Streptococcus pneumoniae

29

what are some pathogens that can cause sinusitis and otitis media

Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae b, staphylococcus aureus, moraxella catarrhalis, streptococcus pyogenes

30

In sinusitis and otitis media bacteria in the pharynx spreads to the sinuses via what structure?

throat

31

Out of Sinusitis and otitis media, which one is more common in adult and more common in children?

Sinusitis MC in adults
Otitis media MC in children

32

what are two ways of preventing sinusitis?

Neti Pots and avoiding dairy

33

can adjusting be a good treatment for sinusitis and Otitis media?

yes

34

What is the most common cause of the common cold?

Rhinovirus

35

what is the second most common cause of the common cold?

Coronaviruses

36

what else is common for the common cold cause?

adenovirus

37

The rhinovirus is highly what?

infective

38

the common cold can be spread by what?

coughing/sneezing, fomites, or person to person contact

39

what is a good way to prevent the common cold?

hand washing

40

What type of pneumonia is the most severe and most frequent in adults?

Bacterial pneumonias

41

Pneumococcal pneumonia is also known as what

typical pneumonia

42

what is the hallmark sign of pneumococcal pneumonia

rust-colored sputum

43

pneumococcal pneumonia is caused by what?

streptococcus pneumoniae

44

pneumococcal pneumonia infection occurs by inhalation of what?

inhalation of bacteria

45

what is it called when bacterial replication causes damage to the lungs and is a key symptom of pneumococcal pneumonia?

consolidation

46

what is the usual method of diagnosis when testing for pneumococcal pneumonia?

a chest xray

47

mycoplasmal pneumonia is also known as what?

Primary Atypical pneumonia or “walking pneumonia"

48

Mycoplasmal pneumonia is typically mild, possibly what?

asymptomatic

49

In mycoplasmal pneumonia the bacteria spread by what?

nasal secretions

50

Mycoplasmal pneumonia is caused by what pathogen

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

51

Typical (pneumococcal) pneumonia often has what associated with it? (symptom wise)

High fever, rapid breathing and will more often be in fall and winter

52

atypical (mycoplasmal) pneumonia often has what associated with it? (symptom wise)

Malaise, headache, sore throat and occurs year round

53

Klebsiella pneumonia is caused by what pathogen

Klebsiella pneumoniae

54

Klebsiella pneumonia has a hallmark symptom of what?

bloody sputum (“currant jelly sputum”)

55

Who are at the greatest risk for klebsiella pneumonia?

immunocompromised individuals because it is an opportunistic infections

56

What is dr. Barbers favorite disease?

ornithosis

57

ornithosis is also known as what?

psittacosis

58

within ten day of being infected with ornithosis individuals get what?

flu-like symptoms

59

what is the pathogen that causes ornithosis

Chlamydophila psittaci

60

how is ornithosis transmitted?

via inhalation of aerosolized feces or respiratory secretions, or ingestion from fingers or fomites that have contacted infected birds or via direct beak-to-mouth contact

61

Most cases of Legionnaires disease is caused by what pathogen

legionella pneumophila

62

legionella pneumophilia can also cause what?

Pontiac

63

Pontiac disease has what type of symptoms to it?

non fatal flu like illness

64

how does one become infected with legionnaires disease?

inhalation of bacteria in aerosols from water source

65

what type of individuals are at risk for legionnaires disease?

Elderly, smokers and immunocompromised individuals

66

Is tuberculosis a re-emerging or emerging disease?

it is a re-emerging disease

67

Tuberculosis is caused by what pathogen?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

68

Tuberculosis usually affects what population

usually children

69

Tuberculosis forms hard calcified nodules in the lungs known as what?

Tubercles

70

What is it known as if you have calcified nodules in the lungs AND calcification of an associated Lymph nodule

Ghons complex

71

Tuberculosis causes caseous necrosis of the lungss meaning what?

lung tissue appears "cheese-like"

72

Secondary tuberculosis is common in TB infected individual with what?

a compromised immuse system

73

Disseminated TB causes wasting of the body from multiple sites and has the name of what?

Consumption

74

TB is spread via what?

Respiratory droplets

75

Why are immunocompromised individuals infected with TB at a high risk?

TB is the leading killer of HIV+ individuals

76

why is TB considered a re-emerging disease?

due to drug resistant strains it is making a come back (DMR, XMR)

77

What are some ways to test for TB?

Skin test and a chest xray in an activley infected individual

78

What is the method for treating TB since common antibiotics are ineffective against the disease?

Combination therapy

79

what is a good way to prevent the spread of TB?

immunization in areas that it is common

80

Pertussis is also known as what?

Whooping cough

81

pertussis will commonly go through how man phases?

four phases

82

The pathogen that causes pertussis is what?

Bordetella pertussis

83

what are the four stages of pertussis?

incubation, Catarrhal, peroxysmal, convalescent

84

during which of the four stages does the hallmark whooping cough of pertussis develop?

peroxysmal phase

85

is pertussis contagious? if so how does it spread

highly contagious and spreads via airborne droplets

86

Mose cases of pertussis is in what population

MC in children

87

is pertussis a reemerging, emerging or none of these?

reemerging

88

what is a good diagnostic symptom of pertussis?

the whooping cough

89

what is the treatment of pertussis

primarily supportive

90

in epiglottitis what is the tripod postion?

when the individual that is infected with the disease has to lean forward and sit upright in order to breathe

91

Epiglottitis is MC in what population

children

92

epiglottitis is commonly spread how?

person to person, direct contact, and respiratory droplets

93

Is epiglottitis a medical emergency?

yes it is and required immediate medical attention

94

Inhalation anthrax ultimately leads to what

death

95

Is one mode of transmission for inhalation anthrax person to person

NOPE

96

how is inhalation anthrax transmitted

contact or inhalation of endospores

97

How frequently is a case of inhalation anthrax in humans

rare in humans

98

what is the mortality rate of inhalation anthrax

high mortality

99

what is the leading pathogen in influenza

influenza virus (orthomyxovirus)

100

each influenza virus has two special pieces of what

proteins

101

Mutation in influenza occurs via?

antigenic drift and antigenic shift

102

What is antigenic drift

small changes to the Ha and Na pieces

103

what is antigenic shift

they get a brand new Ha or Na pieces

104

Influenza is transmitted via

inhalation of viruses or by self-inoculation

105

flue patients are susceptible to what

secondary bacterial infections

106

complication in influenza most often occurs in what type of individual

elderly and children

107

antiviral medication for the influenza virus must be administered when

within first 48 hours

108

the Trivalent flu vaccine is protective against what?

only protective against the strains included in the vaccine

109

what are the five famous strains of the influenza virus

spanish, asian, hong kong flu, bird flu and Swine flu

110

spanish flu killed how many people

over 50 million

111

asian flu killed how many people

about 2 million people

112

hong kong flu killed how many people

about 1 million

113

the bird flu killed how many people

over 200 hundred of the 400 it was found in

114

swine flue killed how many people

killed more the 18000

115

about what percent of bronchitis is viral

about 90%

116

some of the viral cases of bronchitis include

rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, influenza

117

about what percent of the bronchitis cases are bacterial

10%

118

Bronchitis is transmitted via

person to person from direct and indirect contact

119

Treatment for acute bronchitis is

primarily symptomatic

120

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is caused by a previously unknown pathogen known as

coronavirus (sars virus)

121

SARS virus spreads via

respiratory droplets

122

What is the treatment and vaccine regiment for SARS

there is no treatment or vaccine vaccine

123

what is in place for treatment of sars

Supportive treatment only

124

retention of SARS is accomplished through what

quarantine

125

Is Bronchiolitis fatal

it can be

126

what are some symptoms of bronchiolitis

bluish skin, intercostal retractions, nasal flaring, rapid breathing,

127

what is recommended for bronchiolitis

seek emergency treatment

128

that is the pathogen related to bronchiolitis

RSV: Respiratory syncytial virus

129

Bronchiolitis is transmitted via

fomites, hands, and respiratory droplets

130

Most commonly bronchiolitis is a what type of disease

a childhood respiratory disease

131

for the treatment in young children it is supportive treatment including what

oxygen therapy

132

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is or is not fatal

it is often fatal

133

what is Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome caused from

hantavirus

134

in HPS the pathogen is transmuted via

inhalation of visions in dried mouse urine or feces

135

is hantavirus able to spread person to person

no it is NOT

136

what is the specific treatment for HPS

there is no specific treatment

137

Croup is also known as what

“seal-bark” cough

138

Croup is caused by what pathogen

parainfluenza virus (75% of the cases)

139

Croups is particularly susceptible in who

children

140

croup is transmitted via

respiratory droplets and person to person contact

141

how is croup diagnosed

the characteristic cough

142

HHC-5 (cytomegalovirus) has why type of symptoms

monolike symptoms

143

what is the second most common cause of lower reparatory infection in young children after RSV

Human Metapneumovirus

144

human metapneumovirus is similar to what

RSV