Flashcards in Lower Respiratory Bacterial diseases Deck (144):
the Upper respiratory system usually has a lot of what?
Many normal microbiota
The normal microbiota may become what type of pathogens?
the Lower respiratory system is what type of environment?
Bacterial infections of the Lower respiratory system can cause what?
Can cause life threatening illness
Strep throat causes the pharynx to appear red, swell the lymph nodes and cover the tonsils in what?
Purulent abscesses covering the tonsils (PUS POCKET)
Many cases of Strep throat can process into what?
scarlet or rheumatic fever/heart disease
Strep throat is caused by what pathogen
Strep throat can be spread via what?
Strep throat is most common in children in what age range?
how would one go about treating strep throat
antibiotics recommended to prevent developing Rheumatic Fever/heart disease
Scarlet fever is also known as what?
scarlet fever can develop 1-2 days after what?
what is the hallmark sign of scarlet fever?
the tongue becomes strawberry red
Scarlet fever often accompanies what?
strep throat when infections involve strain of S. pyogenes
Signs of diphtheria are sore throat, localized pain, fever and what adhering to posterior throat structures?
In severe cases of diphtheria the pseudomembrane can do what?
occlude the airway, resulting in death by suffocation
Diphtheria is caused by what pathogen
Corynebacterium diphtheriae produces what?
Corynebacterium diphtheriae divides by snapping fission, forming what?
characteristic palisade arrangement
Diphtheria is spread via what?
respiratory droplets or skin contact
Diphtheria is mainly symptomatic in which type of individuals?
immunocompromised or non immune individuals
Diphtheria is based on the presence of what?
How does one treat diphtheria
with antitoxin and antibiotics
in severe cases of diphtheria blocked airways must be opened how?
surgically or bypassed with tracheotomy
what is an effective prevention for diphtheria?
Sinusitis causes what?
pain and pressure of the affected sinus
otitis media results in severe what?
pain in the ears
what is the most common pathogen to cause Otitis media?
what are some pathogens that can cause sinusitis and otitis media
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae b, staphylococcus aureus, moraxella catarrhalis, streptococcus pyogenes
In sinusitis and otitis media bacteria in the pharynx spreads to the sinuses via what structure?
Out of Sinusitis and otitis media, which one is more common in adult and more common in children?
Sinusitis MC in adults
Otitis media MC in children
what are two ways of preventing sinusitis?
Neti Pots and avoiding dairy
can adjusting be a good treatment for sinusitis and Otitis media?
What is the most common cause of the common cold?
what is the second most common cause of the common cold?
what else is common for the common cold cause?
The rhinovirus is highly what?
the common cold can be spread by what?
coughing/sneezing, fomites, or person to person contact
what is a good way to prevent the common cold?
What type of pneumonia is the most severe and most frequent in adults?
Pneumococcal pneumonia is also known as what
what is the hallmark sign of pneumococcal pneumonia
pneumococcal pneumonia is caused by what?
pneumococcal pneumonia infection occurs by inhalation of what?
inhalation of bacteria
what is it called when bacterial replication causes damage to the lungs and is a key symptom of pneumococcal pneumonia?
what is the usual method of diagnosis when testing for pneumococcal pneumonia?
a chest xray
mycoplasmal pneumonia is also known as what?
Primary Atypical pneumonia or “walking pneumonia"
Mycoplasmal pneumonia is typically mild, possibly what?
In mycoplasmal pneumonia the bacteria spread by what?
Mycoplasmal pneumonia is caused by what pathogen
Typical (pneumococcal) pneumonia often has what associated with it? (symptom wise)
High fever, rapid breathing and will more often be in fall and winter
atypical (mycoplasmal) pneumonia often has what associated with it? (symptom wise)
Malaise, headache, sore throat and occurs year round
Klebsiella pneumonia is caused by what pathogen
Klebsiella pneumonia has a hallmark symptom of what?
bloody sputum (“currant jelly sputum”)
Who are at the greatest risk for klebsiella pneumonia?
immunocompromised individuals because it is an opportunistic infections
What is dr. Barbers favorite disease?
ornithosis is also known as what?
within ten day of being infected with ornithosis individuals get what?
what is the pathogen that causes ornithosis
how is ornithosis transmitted?
via inhalation of aerosolized feces or respiratory secretions, or ingestion from fingers or fomites that have contacted infected birds or via direct beak-to-mouth contact
Most cases of Legionnaires disease is caused by what pathogen
legionella pneumophilia can also cause what?
Pontiac disease has what type of symptoms to it?
non fatal flu like illness
how does one become infected with legionnaires disease?
inhalation of bacteria in aerosols from water source
what type of individuals are at risk for legionnaires disease?
Elderly, smokers and immunocompromised individuals
Is tuberculosis a re-emerging or emerging disease?
it is a re-emerging disease
Tuberculosis is caused by what pathogen?
Tuberculosis usually affects what population
Tuberculosis forms hard calcified nodules in the lungs known as what?
What is it known as if you have calcified nodules in the lungs AND calcification of an associated Lymph nodule
Tuberculosis causes caseous necrosis of the lungss meaning what?
lung tissue appears "cheese-like"
Secondary tuberculosis is common in TB infected individual with what?
a compromised immuse system
Disseminated TB causes wasting of the body from multiple sites and has the name of what?
TB is spread via what?
Why are immunocompromised individuals infected with TB at a high risk?
TB is the leading killer of HIV+ individuals
why is TB considered a re-emerging disease?
due to drug resistant strains it is making a come back (DMR, XMR)
What are some ways to test for TB?
Skin test and a chest xray in an activley infected individual
What is the method for treating TB since common antibiotics are ineffective against the disease?
what is a good way to prevent the spread of TB?
immunization in areas that it is common
Pertussis is also known as what?
pertussis will commonly go through how man phases?
The pathogen that causes pertussis is what?
what are the four stages of pertussis?
incubation, Catarrhal, peroxysmal, convalescent
during which of the four stages does the hallmark whooping cough of pertussis develop?
is pertussis contagious? if so how does it spread
highly contagious and spreads via airborne droplets
Mose cases of pertussis is in what population
MC in children
is pertussis a reemerging, emerging or none of these?
what is a good diagnostic symptom of pertussis?
the whooping cough
what is the treatment of pertussis
in epiglottitis what is the tripod postion?
when the individual that is infected with the disease has to lean forward and sit upright in order to breathe
Epiglottitis is MC in what population
epiglottitis is commonly spread how?
person to person, direct contact, and respiratory droplets
Is epiglottitis a medical emergency?
yes it is and required immediate medical attention
Inhalation anthrax ultimately leads to what
Is one mode of transmission for inhalation anthrax person to person
how is inhalation anthrax transmitted
contact or inhalation of endospores
How frequently is a case of inhalation anthrax in humans
rare in humans
what is the mortality rate of inhalation anthrax
what is the leading pathogen in influenza
influenza virus (orthomyxovirus)
each influenza virus has two special pieces of what
Mutation in influenza occurs via?
antigenic drift and antigenic shift
What is antigenic drift
small changes to the Ha and Na pieces
what is antigenic shift
they get a brand new Ha or Na pieces
Influenza is transmitted via
inhalation of viruses or by self-inoculation
flue patients are susceptible to what
secondary bacterial infections
complication in influenza most often occurs in what type of individual
elderly and children
antiviral medication for the influenza virus must be administered when
within first 48 hours
the Trivalent flu vaccine is protective against what?
only protective against the strains included in the vaccine
what are the five famous strains of the influenza virus
spanish, asian, hong kong flu, bird flu and Swine flu
spanish flu killed how many people
over 50 million
asian flu killed how many people
about 2 million people
hong kong flu killed how many people
about 1 million
the bird flu killed how many people
over 200 hundred of the 400 it was found in
swine flue killed how many people
killed more the 18000
about what percent of bronchitis is viral
some of the viral cases of bronchitis include
rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, influenza
about what percent of the bronchitis cases are bacterial
Bronchitis is transmitted via
person to person from direct and indirect contact
Treatment for acute bronchitis is
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is caused by a previously unknown pathogen known as
coronavirus (sars virus)
SARS virus spreads via
What is the treatment and vaccine regiment for SARS
there is no treatment or vaccine vaccine
what is in place for treatment of sars
Supportive treatment only
retention of SARS is accomplished through what
Is Bronchiolitis fatal
it can be
what are some symptoms of bronchiolitis
bluish skin, intercostal retractions, nasal flaring, rapid breathing,
what is recommended for bronchiolitis
seek emergency treatment
that is the pathogen related to bronchiolitis
RSV: Respiratory syncytial virus
Bronchiolitis is transmitted via
fomites, hands, and respiratory droplets
Most commonly bronchiolitis is a what type of disease
a childhood respiratory disease
for the treatment in young children it is supportive treatment including what
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is or is not fatal
it is often fatal
what is Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome caused from
in HPS the pathogen is transmuted via
inhalation of visions in dried mouse urine or feces
is hantavirus able to spread person to person
no it is NOT
what is the specific treatment for HPS
there is no specific treatment
Croup is also known as what
Croup is caused by what pathogen
parainfluenza virus (75% of the cases)
Croups is particularly susceptible in who
croup is transmitted via
respiratory droplets and person to person contact
how is croup diagnosed
the characteristic cough
HHC-5 (cytomegalovirus) has why type of symptoms
what is the second most common cause of lower reparatory infection in young children after RSV