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Flashcards in Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Deck (22)
1

What is the lower respiratory tract?

The trachea downwards

2

Name 5 bacteria that may cause respiratory tract infections

Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci), and mycoplasma pneumoniae

3

Name two viruses that may cause respiratory tract infections

Influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

4

Name a fungus that may cause respiratory tract infections?

Aspergillus spp

5

Name a protozoa that may cause respiratory tract infection

Toxoplasma gondii

6

Why are lung infections from fungi and protozoa uncommon?

They only occur if the individual is immunosuppressed

7

Who is most likely to be affected by community-acquired pneumonia?

Very young and very old, can be secondary to a viral respiratory tract infection

8

What's the most common cause of community acquired pneumonia?

Bacterial infection by Streptoccus pneumoniae

9

What are the typical bacterial causes of community acquired pneumonia?

S. pneumoniae (most common), H. influenzae, moraxella cattarhalis, group A streptococcus (pyogenes)

10

What type of bacteria usually cause hospital-acquired pneumonia?

Gram negative bacteria

11

What may predispose someone to hospital-acquired pneumonia?

Abnormal consciousness, intubation, surgery or immune suppression

12

What is meant by 'typical pneumonia'?

Pneumonia that is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae

13

What is meant by 'atypical pneumonia'?

Pneumonia that is not caused by S pneumoniae

14

What are the signs and symptoms of typical pneumonia?

Sudden onset of chills, fever, pleuritic chest pain and productive cough (thick, purulent, rust-coloured sputum)

15

Describe the sputum produced as a result of typical pneumonia?

Sputum is thick, purulent and sometimes rust-coloured

16

What are the symptoms of atypical pneumonia?

Onset is more insidious than typical pneumonia. There will be a non-productive cough, fever and headache

17

What may mycoplasma pneumoniae infection lead to?

Atypical pneumonia

18

What bacteria may lead to the development of atypical pneumonia?

Myocoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia pneumoniae, C pittaci, Legionella pnumophilia, Coxiella burnetii, Pneumocystic carinii

19

Name three potential complications of pneumonia

Pleural effusion, emphysema and lung abscess

20

What is the main cause of tuberculosis?

Infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis

21

Describe the structure of mycobacterium tuberculosis

Bacteria is aerobic and non-motile, formed of straight rods with a distinct waxy, fatty-acid cell wall that is resistant to external effects

22

What are the symptoms of tuberculosis?

Dry cough, weight loss, fever, night sweats and GI symptoms