Flashcards in Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Deck (22)
What is the lower respiratory tract?
The trachea downwards
Name 5 bacteria that may cause respiratory tract infections
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci), and mycoplasma pneumoniae
Name two viruses that may cause respiratory tract infections
Influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
Name a fungus that may cause respiratory tract infections?
Name a protozoa that may cause respiratory tract infection
Why are lung infections from fungi and protozoa uncommon?
They only occur if the individual is immunosuppressed
Who is most likely to be affected by community-acquired pneumonia?
Very young and very old, can be secondary to a viral respiratory tract infection
What's the most common cause of community acquired pneumonia?
Bacterial infection by Streptoccus pneumoniae
What are the typical bacterial causes of community acquired pneumonia?
S. pneumoniae (most common), H. influenzae, moraxella cattarhalis, group A streptococcus (pyogenes)
What type of bacteria usually cause hospital-acquired pneumonia?
Gram negative bacteria
What may predispose someone to hospital-acquired pneumonia?
Abnormal consciousness, intubation, surgery or immune suppression
What is meant by 'typical pneumonia'?
Pneumonia that is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae
What is meant by 'atypical pneumonia'?
Pneumonia that is not caused by S pneumoniae
What are the signs and symptoms of typical pneumonia?
Sudden onset of chills, fever, pleuritic chest pain and productive cough (thick, purulent, rust-coloured sputum)
Describe the sputum produced as a result of typical pneumonia?
Sputum is thick, purulent and sometimes rust-coloured
What are the symptoms of atypical pneumonia?
Onset is more insidious than typical pneumonia. There will be a non-productive cough, fever and headache
What may mycoplasma pneumoniae infection lead to?
What bacteria may lead to the development of atypical pneumonia?
Myocoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia pneumoniae, C pittaci, Legionella pnumophilia, Coxiella burnetii, Pneumocystic carinii
Name three potential complications of pneumonia
Pleural effusion, emphysema and lung abscess
What is the main cause of tuberculosis?
Infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis
Describe the structure of mycobacterium tuberculosis
Bacteria is aerobic and non-motile, formed of straight rods with a distinct waxy, fatty-acid cell wall that is resistant to external effects