Flashcards in Respiratory Failure Deck (12)
What factors affect alveolar pO2?
The amount of oxygen in the alveoli is affected by ventilation rate (increased ventilation increases alveolar pO2) and the amount of CO2 produced, as the higher the alveolar CO2 levels, the lower the pO2
What is the most common cause of hypoxia?
Excessive shunting in the lungs
What is oxygen delivery to the tissues dependent on?
Oxygen saturation, haemoglobin concentration, cardiac output
What are the indicators respiratory compensation prior to failure?
Tachynoea, use of accessory muscles, nasal flaring, intercostal/suprasternal recession
What signs are indicative of CO2 retention?
Bounding pulse and liver flap hands on extension
What is type 1 respiratory failure?
An individual has to have lung disease and there is a lot of hypoxia due to shunting, therefore arterial pO2 levels are low but there is no hypercapnia (as actual ventilation isn't affected)
Give some examples of type 1 respiratory failure
Pneumonia, pulmonary oedema, asthma, COPD, pulmonary oedema, pneumothorax
What is type 2 respiratory failure?
Hypoxaemia and hypercapnia cause this form of respiratory failure and it results from a lack of ventilation generally (hypoventilation)
Give some examples of type 2 respiratory failure
Brainstem issues, depressant drugs, metabolic encephalopathy, nerve defects, decreased chest wall or lung compliance, airway obstruction
How do you treat hypoxia?
Howdo you treat hypercapnia?