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Flashcards in Upper Respiratory Tract Infections Deck (39)
1

What is the upper respiratory tract?

Everything above the trachea e.g. the nose, paranasal sinuses, middle ear, nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, tonsils and adenoids

2

Is the upper respiratory tract sterile?

No, it's colonised by a variety of normal flora

3

What causes the vast majority of upper respiratory tract infections?

Viral infections

4

What causes a 'cold'?

Caused by many strains of rhinovirus and sometimes coronaviruses

5

What is the main virus implicated in causing a cold?

Rhinovirus

6

What may follow as a result of a cold?

Transient opportunistic bacterial infection such as otitis media in children and sinusitis in adults

7

How is a 'sore throat' referred to medically?

Pharyngitis

8

What may cause a sore throat?

Pharyngitis may be caused by group A streptococci infection

9

What are the four main viruses that are implicated in the cause of upper respiratory tract infection

Rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus and adenovirus

10

What are two important bacterial causes of upper respiratory tract infection?

Group A streptococci (pyogenes) infection and haemophilia influenza type B

11

What is quinsy?

Peritonsillar abscess

12

What types of antibiotic are given to fight group A streptococci infection?

Penicillin (all Streptococci are sensitive to this) or erythromycin

13

What are the potential complications of untreated pharyngitis?

Rheumatic fever and/or glomerulonephritis

14

What is otitis media?

A middle ear infection that most often effects children

15

What is the cause of otitis media?

This commonly occurs due to viral infection causing dysfunction of the Eustachian tube which allows for opportunistic bacterial infection

16

What is sinusitis?

Inflammation of the air sinuses in the head due to viral or bacterial infection due to the overgrowth of the normal sinus flora

17

What may cause sinusitis?

Overgrowth of the normal sinus flora such as treptococcus pneumoniae, haemophilus influenza and moraxalla catarrhalis that leads to infection

18

What is epiglottitis?

Inflammation of the epiglottis which has a role in closing off the trachea to allow swallowing of food

19

What is the most common cause of epiglottis?

It is almost always caused by a bacterial infection

20

Why is epiglottitis a medical emergency?

It can lead to asphyxiation if it becomes so inflamed that it prevents the opening to the trachea from being available

21

How is epiglottitis treated?

Airway opening (either via intubation or tracheostomy), antibiotics (cefotaxime or ceftriaxone), prophylaxis for unimmunised household contacts and immunisation of index cases

22

What is whooping cough?

A highly contagious bacterial disease that appears similarly to a cold

23

What is the cause of whooping cough?

Bordatella pertussis bacterial infection

24

What are the symptoms of whooping cough?

To begin there is just a cough, but after 2 weeks there will be severe coughing with a typical whoop on vigorous inspiration

25

Describe the treatment of whooping cough

Erythromycin is given in the first week (catarrhal phase) to decrease transmission

26

How can whooping cough be prevented?

Acellular vaccines – these contain an inactive form of the pertussis toxin alongside filaments of haemaglutinin, agglutinogens and an outer membrane protein

27

What is diphtheria?

Diphtheria is a potentially fatal contagious bacterial infection that mainly affects the nose and throat, and sometimes the skin.

28

What causes diphtheria?

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

29

Outline the pathophysiology of diphtheria

Normally EF-Tu is a molecule that is required to transfer tRNA to the growing polypeptide in gene translation, diphtheria toxin binds to EF-Tu and inactivates it, inhibiting protein synthesis

30

How is diphtheria treated?

Use of antitoxin

31

What is glandular fever?

Infectious mononucleosis (mono) which is a viral infection that effects the upper respiratory tract

32

What is the cause of glandular fever?

Epstein-Barr virus

33

What are the symptoms of glandular fever?

Tonsilar exudates, gross pharyngeal swelling, hepatosplenomegaly

34

How is adenovirus transmitted?

Via droplets, fomites and ingestion

35

What is the action of adenovirus?

It effects he mucous membranes of the • eye, respiratory and GI tract and local lymph nodes become enlarged and tender

36

What can adenovirus infection lead to?

o Epidemic kerato-conjunctivitis – a mild trauma to the eye may facilitate damage and lead to infection of the cornea e.g. if towels are shared
o Pneumonia – adenovirus infection may follow measles and may cause a severe destructive pneumonia
o Acute respiratory disease (ARD)

37

What is main pathogen involved in respiratory infections in childhood?

Respiratory syncytial virus

38

Describe the structure of paramyxoviruses

Apears similarly to influenza virus , it is roughly spherical with an inner helical nucleocapsid which contains protein and the envelope of the virus is covered with haemaglutinin and neuroaminidase

39

How may infection with influenza virus be treated?

With neuraminidase inhibitors e.g. zanamavir or oseltamivir