Anatomy of the Larynx Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy of the Larynx Deck (46)
1

Describe the blood supply to the medial and lateral walls of the nasal cavity?

Anterior and posterior ethmoidal (from the ophthalmic artery), sphenopalatine and greater palatine arteries (from the maxillary artery) and the septal branch of the superior labial artery (from the facial artery)

2

Name the five arteries that supply the nasal cavity

Anterior ethmoidal, posterior ethmoidal, sphenopalatine, greater palatine and septal bench of the superior labial artery

3

What are air sinuses?

Paranasal sinuses are air-filled extensions of the respiratory part of the nasal cavity connected by small openings into the cavity

4

What is the purpose of nasal air sinuses?

The mucosa of the sinuses helps to warm and humidify the air as it comes in. The air sinuses also aid in lightening the skull and enhancing vocal resonance

5

What are the four main types of nasal air sinus?

Frontal, maxillary, sphenoid and ethmoid air cells

6

Which three structures make up the nasal septum?

Anterior = septal cartilage
Superior = perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone
Inferior/posterior = vomer bone

7

What are nasal conchae?

Long, narrow, curled shelf of bone that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose

8

Define epistaxis

Bleeding from the nose

9

What is Kiesselbach's plexus? What is it's clinical significance?

The region in the anteroinferior part of the nasal septum where all of the arteries supplying the nasal cavity anastomose to form a vascular plexus

10

What is sinusitis?

Where the linings of the sinuses become inflamed

11

Name the four different types of tonsil

Adenoid (pharyngeal tonsil), tubal tonsil, palatine tonsil and lingual tonsil

12

Where are the adenoids located (pharyngeal tonsil)?

In the roof of the pharynx

13

Define tonsil

Tonsils are collections of lymphoid tissue facing into the aerodigestive tract.

14

Where are the tubal tonsils located?

In the roof of the pharynx

15

Where are the palatine tonsils located?

At the sides of oropharynx between palatoglossal
and palatopharyngeal arches

16

Where is the lingual tonsil located?

Behind terminal sulcus (tongue)

17

What is the blood supply to the palatine tonsil

Blood supply is provided by tonsillar branches of five arteries:
> dorsal lingual artery
> ascending palatine artery
> descending palatine artery
> tonsillar branch (of the facial artery)
> ascending pharyngeal artery

18

What is the function of tonsils?

These immunocompetent tissues are the immune system's first line of defense against ingested or inhaled foreign pathogens

19

What is quincy?

Peritonsillar abscess; a collection of pus forms between one of your tonsils and the wall of your throat

20

What may cause quincy?

Tonsillitis ; a bacterial infection can spread from the infected tonsil to the surrounding area

21

What are the three sections of the pharynx?

Nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx

22

What is the sensory supply to the pharynx?

Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) from the pharyngeal plexus

23

What is the motor supply to the pharynx?

Vagus nerve (CN X) from the pharyngeal plexus

24

Which nerve is the motor in the gag reflex?

Vagus (CN X) as it's the motor to the pharynx

25

Describe the cartilaginous and bony structures of the pharynx

Superiorly is the hyoid bone (floating), followed by the thyroid cartilage, the laryngeal prominence (adam's apple) and then the cricoid cartilage. Thereafter is the tracheal rings.

26

Where is the hyoid cartilage found?

At T3

27

What is the Adam's apple?

It is the laryngeal prominence of the thyroid cartilage

28

Where is the cricoid cartilage found?

At C6, the junction of the pharynx, oesophagus and larynx

29

How many cartilaginous structures are there in the larynx?

9; 3 paired and 3 unpaired

30

Name the cartilages of the larynx

Unpaired: epiglottis, cricoid and thyroid cartilage

Paired: arytenoid, cuneform and corniculate cartilage

31

What are the vocal folds?

Sharp-edged folds of mucous membrane that contain vocal ligament and vocalis muscle

32

Name the two extrinsic muscles of the larynx

Infrahyoid and suprahyoid

33

What is the function of the extrinsic muscles of the larynx?

To elevate and depress the larynx

34

What is the role of cricothyroid?

Cricothyroid is a muscle that can pull the thyroid cartilage down to increase the distance so that the folds tighten and you get an increased pitch

35

What is the function of the intrinsic relaxer muscles of the larynx?

Lower the pitch of your voice by pulling the arytenoid cartilage anteriorly

36

What is the role of the adductors and adbuctors of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles?

Open and close the rima glottidis by rotating the adenoids

37

What is the nerve supply to the cricothyroid muscle?

External laryngeal nerve

38

Which nerve provides the visceral afferents for the cough reflex?

Internal laryngeal nerve

39

What is the motor nerve supply to the intrinsic muscles of the larynx

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

40

Define phonation

The production of speech

41

Which nerve is involved in phonation?D

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

42

Which nerve is involved in pitch?

External laryngeal nerve (branch of the vagus via the superior laryngeal nerve)

43

What would happen if there was injury to the superior laryngeal nerve?

This here supplies sensory branches for the choking reflex (internal) and motor to the cricothyroid which regulates pitch (external) so damage could cause loss of the choking reflex and lead to monotonous voice

44

What would happen if there was injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve?

The recurrent laryngeal nerve supplies all of the internal laryngeal muscles which are involved in phonation therefore damage can lead to hoarseness

45

What structures travel in the carotid sheath?

Common carotid artery (and internal carotid), internal jugular vein, vagus nerve and deep cervical lymph nodes

46

How does the body respond to the aspiration of foreign bodies?

If there is a foreign object in the vestibule then the laryngeal muscles will go into spasm and the rima glottidis will close. Air will remain in the lungs, so the Heimlich manoeuvre is used inferior to the sternum to increase abdominal pressure and force the ejection of the foreign body.