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Flashcards in Lymphatics Deck (26):
1

How is lymph formed?

Interstitial fluid leaves and goes into lymph vessels, now called lymph

2

Where does fluid go when there is an increase in hydrostatic pressure?

Lymph vessels

3

What are primary lymphoid organs?

Generate lymphocytes
eg Thymus and bone marrow

4

What are secondary lymphoid organs?

Maintain lymphocytes
eg Tonsils, adenoids, sleen and MALT

5

What is Lymphoedema?

The lymphatic system doesn't work proerly (may be due to blockage from tumours or lymphoma) causing oedema due to lymph

6

What is the right drainage area?

The right arm
Right chest
Right head & neck

7

What is the left drainage area?

Everything else not drained by the right drainage area

8

Where are the main lymph aggregations?

Cervical
Pelvic
Groin
Axilla

9

What is the thoracic duct?

The largest lymph drainage
Behind the abdominal aorta

10

Where does all lymph eventually end up?

In the venous system

11

How is lymph involved in fat absorption?

Fat is absorbed into the intestinal lymph system
Now called chyle
Travels into the venous system

12

Where does the right lymphatic duct drain into?

Short and drains into the right subclavian vein

13

What are lymph nodes densely packed with?

WBCs

14

What are the main parts of a lymph node?

Cortex
Paracortex
Germinal centre

15

What occupies the Cortex of a lymph node?

B cells

16

What occupies the Paracortex of a lymph node?

T cells

17

What occupies the Germinal centre of a lymph node?

Maturation of B cells, this is why it swells in disease states

18

How can lymph nodes become cancerous?

The metastatic cells travel in the lymphatic system and get trapped in the node.
They then proliferate
The node becomes cancerous

19

What is lymphoma?

Cancer of lymphocytes/immune cells.
They tend to aggregate in the lymph nodes, making them swell

20

What are some of the signs a lymph node may be cancerous?

Immobile
Swollen
Hard

21

What does the Deep cervical nodes drain into?

Internal jugular vein
Spinal accessory vein
Transverse cervical vein (Supraclavicular)
*These then all drain into the thoracic duct (On the left) or the right lymphatic duct

22

What can be enlarged in tonsilitis?

The jugular digrastic lymph node (Just below the mandible)

23

What can be enlarged in oral cancer?

Jugulo-omohyoid lymph node (Lies above the omohyoid)

24

What can cause the supraclavicular nodes to be enlarged?

Gastric cancer
Lung cancer

25

How can you check for a Thyroglossal cyst?

Ask the patient to stick their tongue out (It will move up as still attached)
Would be a midline swelling

26

What causes a Thyroglossal cyst?

Develops from cells remaining after the formation of the thyroid gland
Forms from a persistent thyroglossal duct