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Head & Neck > Session 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 1 Deck (30):
1

What is the Mastoid process?

A bony landmark near the superior aspect of the Mandible (Behind the ear). It is an attachment point for muscles.

2

How many heads does the Sternocleoidomastoid have?

One superiorly which attaches to the Mastoid process
Two inferiorly - one attaches to the medial third of the clavicle, the other to the sternum

3

What nerve innervates the Sternocleoidomastoid?

Accessory nerve

4

Where on the clavicle does the Trapezius attach?

The later third

5

What are the 2 main triangles in the neck?

Anterior
Posterior

6

What are the borders of the Posterior triangle of the neck?

Anterior - Posterior border of Sternocleoidomastoid
Posterior - Anterior border of Trapezius
Base - Middle third of clavicle

7

What is the contents of the Posterior triangle of the neck?

Spinal accessory nerve (Vulnerable during lymph node biopsy)
External Jugular vein (JVP)
Subclavian artery

8

How is the Anterior triangle of the neck separated?

By an imaginary line down the middle of the triangle from the middle of the mandible

9

What are the borders of the Anterior triangle of the neck?

Superior - Lower border of the body of the mandible
Inferior - Manubrium of the sternum
Posterior - Anterior of Sternocleidomastoid
Anterior - Midline of neck

10

What are the 4 triangles of the Anterior triangle of the neck?

Submandibular
Submental
Carotid
Muscular

11

What is the contents of the Submandibular triangle of the neck?

Myohyloid muscle
Hypoglossal nerve
Facial artery

12

What is the contents of the Submental triangle of the neck?

Anterior jugular veins
Lymph nodes

13

What is the contents of the Carotid triangle of the neck?

Carotid sheath

14

What is the contents of the Carotid sheath?

Common Carotid artery
Internal jugular vein
Vagus nerve
Deep cervical lymph nodes

15

What is the contents of the Muscular triangle of the neck?

Infrahyoid muscles
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Thyroid gland
Trachea
Oesophagus

16

What is the function of Anatomical planes/compartments?

Determine the spread of infection
Allow ease of movement
Natural planes (Can be used to incisions)
Compartmentalise

17

What are the layers of the neck?

Skin
Subcutaneous fat
Platysma muscle (Anterior only)
Deep cervical fascia (Double layer around the SCM & Trapezius)
SCM & Trapezius
Pretracheal layer of fascia

18

What does the Pretracheal layer of fascia contain?

Trachea
Oesophagus
Thyroid

19

What is the clinical importance of the Retropharyngeal space?

It is a potential space that runs from the skull base to the diaphragm. This means that any infections that enter it can spread to the diaphragm and mediastinum

20

What is the Parapharyngeal space?

Lateral to the pharynx and runs to T2/3

21

What is the Hyoid bone?

A free floating bone that holds muscles for the larynx

22

What are the 2 groups of muscles attached to the Hyoid bone?

Suprahyoid
Infrahyoid

23

What are the Suprahyoid muscles?

Digastric (2 heads)
Stylohyoid
Geniohyoid
Mylohyoid

24

What is the main action of the Suprahyoid muscles?

Elevate the hyoid and larynx during swallowing

25

What are the Infrahyoid muscles?

Sternohyoid
Sterothyroid
Thyrohyoid
Omohyoid (2 heads)

26

What is the main action of the Infrahyoid muscles?

Depress the hyoid and larynx during swallowing

27

What does the Internal carotid artery supply?

The brain
*No branches*

28

What does the External carotid artery supply?

5 branches that supply the head and neck

29

What does the cranial nerve VII innervate?

Muscles involved in facial expression

30

What does the cranial nerve V innervate?

Muscles of Mastication