Session 8 Flashcards Preview

Head & Neck > Session 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 8 Deck (41):
1

Where, in the brainstem, do CN 9-12 leave?

The Medulla

2

Where, in the brainstem, do CN 5-8 leave?

The Pons

3

Where, in the brainstem, do CN 2-3 leave?

The Midbrain

4

Where do CN 1 & 2 leave?

The brain

5

What artery supplies CN III?

Posterior communicating artery

6

How can CN III be damaged by its artery?

Aneurysm

7

What is the action of the Superior Oblique muscle of the eye?

Moves it down & out

8

Roughly, what is the course of CN III?

Leaves the oculomotor nucleus in the midbrain
Passes along the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus
Passes through the superior orbital fissure
Splits into branches

9

What effect does CN III have on the eye?

Innervates levator palpabrae superioris (Keeps upper eyelid up)
Constricts the pupil via parasympathetic fibres

10

Where do the parasympathetic fibres that travel with CN III come from?

Edinger - Westphal nucleus
Hitch hike on the outside of the oculomotor nerve proer

11

What is the oculomotor nerve proper?

Nerve that comes from the oculomotor nucleus
Sympathetic innervation only

12

What is the sign of damage to the oculomotor nerve proper?

Eye ptosis
Eye faces down and out
*Usually due to issues with the blood supply*

13

What is the sign of damage to the parasympathetic fibres of the oculomotor nerve?

Pupil dilation
*Usually due to an infection*

14

What can cause a CN III palsy?

Tumour
Aneurysm
Infection
Issues with blood supply

15

What does CN III innervate?

Superior rectus
Inferior rectus
Medial rectus
Inferior oblique

16

What does CN IV innervate?

Superior oblique

17

What does CN VI innervate?

Lateral rectus

18

What are the 3 separate roots of the Trigeminal nerve in the brainstem?

Ophthalmic
Maxillary
Mandibular

19

Does the Trigeminal nerve have autonomic fibres?

No, but it carries some

20

What ganglion does Vi come from?

Trigeminal ganglion

21

Is Vi sensory, motor or both?

Sensory

22

Where does Vi exit the cranium?

Foramen superior orbital fissure

23

What are the 5 branches of Vi?

Supratrochlear
Supraorbital
Lacrimal
Infratrochlear
External nasal

24

Is Vii sensory, motor or both?

Sensory

25

Where does Vii exit the cranium?

Foramen rotundum

26

What are the 3 branches of Vii?

Infra orbital
Zygomaticofacial
Zygomaticotemporal

27

Is Viii sensory, motor or both?

Sensory and motor

28

Where does Viii exit the cranium?

Via the Foramen ovale

29

What are the 3 branches of Viii?

Auriculotemporal
Buccal
Mental

30

Where does Viii come from?

The pons in the brain

31

Is the facial nerve sensory, motor or mixed?

Both
Also has parasympathetic nerve fibres

32

What are the 2 roots of the facial nerve?

Lateral (nervus intermedius)
Medial

33

What are the 5 branches of the facial nerve?

Temporal
Zygomatic
Buccal
Marginal mandibular
Cervical

34

Where do taste fibres terminate?

In the nucleus solitaris of the medulla

35

What is important to remember about the frontalis muscle?

Bilateral innervation from CN VII

36

What are the extra cranial branches of the facial nerve?

Posterior auricular
5 branches when leaving the parotid gland

37

What are the intracranial branches of the facial nerve?

Greater petrosal nerve
Nerve to stapedius
Chords tympani

38

What is Bell's palsy?

A facial nerve palsy that is idiopathic and lasts 6 weeks

39

What is the difference between a Bell's palsy and a facial nerve palsy?

A facial nerve palsy has a known cause and is permanent

40

How can the facial nerve be damaged by the parotid gland?

Parotidectomy
Inflammation of the facial nerve as in a sheath
Tympandectomy
Forceps delivery of a baby can damage in the stylomastoid Foramen

41

How can the forehead distinguish between a nerve palsy and a stroke?

In a lower motor neurone palsy (eg Bells) looses forehead movement
In strokes there is forehead sparing as it is an upper motor neurone lesion that doesn't knock out the dual supply to the forehead