Flashcards in Session 7 Deck (42):
What are the 3 parts of the nose?
What is the Vestibule?
The entrance of the nasal cavity, it has vibrissae which are course hairs
What are the two linings of the nose?
Below the limen nasi is skin
Superior to the limen nasi is mucosal lining (Continuous with areas draining into the cavity)
What is a complication of nasal fractures?
What can a nasal fracture lead to?
Deformity, but can be hard to notice initially due to oedema
What is the Choanae?
The opening at the posterior of the nasal cavity
What makes up the floor of the nasal cavity?
Palatine bone of the maxilla
What makes up the lateral wall of the nasal cavity?
Conchae (Prominent bony spurs)
What is the function of the Conchae?
Allow for heat exchange and humidity
Increased surface area
Increase turbulance of air flow which allows mixing
What makes up the medial wall of the nasal cavity?
Smooth wall with the septum
Anteriorly has cartilage, ethmoid bone and vomer bone
What are the passages into the nasal cavity?
Superior, middle and inferior meatus
What are ethmoidal labyrinths?
A honeycomb like bone that has ethmoidal air cells and bulla
Has frontonasal ducts
What property of the cribiform plate aids its function?
It has many holes for the olfactory nerves
What is the Infundibulum?
A groove penetrating the ethmoidal labyrinth
What does the Foramen cecum contain?
It is a passageway that allows nasal veins through to the superior sagittal sinus
What does the Sphenopalatine foramen contain?
sphenopalatine artery, vein
posterior superior nasal nerves.
What are the arteries supplying the nose?
What is the Superior labial artery a branch of?
The facial artery (From the External Carotid artery)
What are the Sphenopalatine and Greater palatine arteries branches of?
The Maxillary artery (From the External Carotid artery)
What are the Anterior and Posterior ethmoidal arteries branches of?
The Opthalmic artery (From the Internal Carotid artery)
What is the venous drainage of the nose?
What is Kiesselbach's plexus?
Aka Little's area
Extensive long capillary loops just below the mucosal lining of the nose, between the limen nasae
What 2 groups of people are more prone to Epistaxis?
Young children (2-10)
What is Epistaxis?
Bleeding from the nose
What are the 2 main causes for Epistaxis?
Local causes (Mainly in children)
Systemic causes such as coagulation issues
Where can the bleed causing an Epistaxis occur?
Anteriorly at the Keisselbach's plexus (In 90% of cases)
Posteriorly at the sphenopalatine artery (In the sphenopalatine foramen, worse pathology)
What is Nasal septum deviation?
There is narrowing/obstruction on one side of the nares due to the septum not being placed equally in the middle.
Can be congenital or aquired
What is the Saddle nose deformity?
There is necrosis of the Nasal septum due to injury
What is the general innervation to the septum and lateral wall of the nose?
Opthalmic nerve (CN V1)
Maxillary nerve (CN V2)
What is the special sensory innervation to the nose?
The olfactory nerve
What is the olfactory region?
Olfactory cells with olfactory receptors.
The turbinates ensure odor spreads across the olfactory cells
Where does the Maxillary sinus drain into?
The middle meatus
Where does the Frontal sinus drain into?
Middle meatus via the frontonasal duct (A bony tube passing through the ethmoid bone)
What innervates the external nose?
Infraorbital nerve (CN V2)
External nasal nerve (CN V1)
Where does the Sphenoid sinus drain into?
Directly into the nasal cavity
Where do the Ethmoidal air cells drain into?
Anterior cells - Middle meatus via the infundibulum
Middle cells (Bulla) - Directly into Middle meatus
Posterior cells - Superior meatus
What is Rhinitis?
Inflammation of the nasal mucosa causing swelling and an increase in the volume of secretions
What are some of the causes of Rhinitis?
Infection (Viral, or secondary bacterial to viral)
What is a Nasal polyp?
A sac like structure with many eosinophils
Swollen with lots of oedema
Where do Nasal polyps usually grow?
Close to the ostiomeatal complex of the nasopharynx (Posteriorly)
What can Nasal polyps cause?
Nasal obstruction leading to snoring or obstructive sleep apnoea