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Flashcards in male GU- testicle Deck (49)
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1

what is cryptorchidism?

failure of testicle to descend into scrotal sac

2

what is the most commonly seen congenital male reproductive abnormality?

cryptorchidism

3

how do you treat cryptorchidism?

most cases resolve spontaneously but if still there after 2 years of age- orchiopexy

4

what are the complications of untreated cryptorchidism?

testicular atrophy with infertility and increased risk for seminomas

5

what is orchitis

inflammation of testicle

6

what are the 6 causes of orchitis?

1. chlamydia trachomatis
2. neisseria gonorrhoeae
3. e coli
4. pseudomonas
5. mumps
6. autoimmune

7

what serotypes of chlamydia cause orchitis

serotypes D-K

8

in young adults, what causes orchitis?

chlamydia and gonorrhoeae

9

in older adults what are the 2 agents that cause orchitis

e coli and pseudomonas

10

in teenage males, what causes orchitis

mumps

11

what 4 tissues are affected in mumps?

parotid gland
septic meningitis
orchitis
pancreatitis

12

what characterizes autoimmune orchitis

granulomas involving seminiferous tubules

13

what is the usually cause of testicular torsion

usually due to congenital failure of testes to attach to the inner lining of scrotum (via processus vaginalis)

14

adolescent with sudden testicular pain and absent cremasteric reflex. what's goin on?

testicular torsion

15

what is a varicocele

dilation of the spermatic vein due to impaired drainage

16

testicle looks and feels like a "bag of worms" what are you thinking?

varicocele

17

what testicular side is more likely to have a varicocele? why?

left because left testicular vein drains into left renal vein (whereas the right drains right into the IVC)

18

what condition:
"fluid collection within tunica vaginalis"

hydrocele

19

what is the tunica vaginalis?

serous membrane that covers the testicle as well as the internal surface of scrotum

20

what is hydrocele associated with

incomplete closure of the processus vaginalis leading to communication within peritoneal cavity (infants) or blockage of lymph drainage (adults)

21

you have scrotal swelling, what do you think if it can be transilluminated? what if it cannot be?

transilluminated-hydrocele
non transilluminated-testicular tumor

22

firm, painless testicular mass that can NOT be transilluminated

what are you thinking

testicular tumor

23

why shouldn't you biopsy a testicular tumor?

due to risk of seeding of the scrotum

24

what is the most common cause of testicular tumors

germ cell tumor

25

what are 2 risk factors for germ cell tumors

cryptochidism and klinefelter syndrome

26

what germ cell tumor (seminoma or nonseminoma):
"highly responsive to radiotherapy, metastasize late, have excellent prognosis"

seminoma

27

what germ cell tumor:
"malignant tumor comprised of large cells with clear cytoplasm and central nuclei (resemble spermatogonia)"

seminoma

28

what germ cell tumor:
" homogenous mass with NO hemorrhage or necrosis"

seminoma

29

seminomas resemble ____in the ovaries

ovarian dysgerminoma

30

what tumor:
"malignant tumor comprised of immature, primitive cells that may produce glands"

embryonal carcinoma