Flashcards in male GU- testicle Deck (49)
what is cryptorchidism?
failure of testicle to descend into scrotal sac
what is the most commonly seen congenital male reproductive abnormality?
how do you treat cryptorchidism?
most cases resolve spontaneously but if still there after 2 years of age- orchiopexy
what are the complications of untreated cryptorchidism?
testicular atrophy with infertility and increased risk for seminomas
what is orchitis
inflammation of testicle
what are the 6 causes of orchitis?
1. chlamydia trachomatis
2. neisseria gonorrhoeae
3. e coli
what serotypes of chlamydia cause orchitis
in young adults, what causes orchitis?
chlamydia and gonorrhoeae
in older adults what are the 2 agents that cause orchitis
e coli and pseudomonas
in teenage males, what causes orchitis
what 4 tissues are affected in mumps?
what characterizes autoimmune orchitis
granulomas involving seminiferous tubules
what is the usually cause of testicular torsion
usually due to congenital failure of testes to attach to the inner lining of scrotum (via processus vaginalis)
adolescent with sudden testicular pain and absent cremasteric reflex. what's goin on?
what is a varicocele
dilation of the spermatic vein due to impaired drainage
testicle looks and feels like a "bag of worms" what are you thinking?
what testicular side is more likely to have a varicocele? why?
left because left testicular vein drains into left renal vein (whereas the right drains right into the IVC)
"fluid collection within tunica vaginalis"
what is the tunica vaginalis?
serous membrane that covers the testicle as well as the internal surface of scrotum
what is hydrocele associated with
incomplete closure of the processus vaginalis leading to communication within peritoneal cavity (infants) or blockage of lymph drainage (adults)
you have scrotal swelling, what do you think if it can be transilluminated? what if it cannot be?
non transilluminated-testicular tumor
firm, painless testicular mass that can NOT be transilluminated
what are you thinking
why shouldn't you biopsy a testicular tumor?
due to risk of seeding of the scrotum
what is the most common cause of testicular tumors
germ cell tumor
what are 2 risk factors for germ cell tumors
cryptochidism and klinefelter syndrome
what germ cell tumor (seminoma or nonseminoma):
"highly responsive to radiotherapy, metastasize late, have excellent prognosis"
what germ cell tumor:
"malignant tumor comprised of large cells with clear cytoplasm and central nuclei (resemble spermatogonia)"
what germ cell tumor:
" homogenous mass with NO hemorrhage or necrosis"
seminomas resemble ____in the ovaries