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Flashcards in MATERNITY Deck (32):

Purple coloration of the mucous membranes of the cervix, vagina, and vulva that occurs at about 4 weeks of pregnancy d/t increased vascularity. This sign of probable pregnancy is called?

Chadwick's Sign


A term used for a pregnant woman; also called primigravida during the first pregnancy.



What is the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio?

L/S ratio is 2:1. The two components of amniotic fluid used for predicting fetal lung maturity


How long does lochia last?

2-6 weeks after delivery


How do you determine the estimated date of birth using Nägele's rule?

Add 7 to the first day of last menstrual period; subtract 3 months and add a year.

Or, add 7 days to last period and count forward 9 months.


The number of pregnancies that have reached viability regardless of whether the fetus was born alive our still born is called?



When and what is it called when a mother perceives fetal movement for the first time?

Quickening occurs from the 16th-20th week of pregnancy


When it's the embryonic period and the fetal period?

Embryonic period begins at day 15 thru the 8th week. Fetal period begins the 9th week after conception.


What is the average amniotic fluid?

800-1200 mL of amniotic fluid


When can genetic testing be done via chorionic villus sampling (CVS)?

CVS can be done by work 10-12


What is the normal FHR?

120-160 BPM FHR


The embryo's asteroids and veins carry what products?

The embryo's two arteries carry deoxygenated blood and wastes from the fetus; the vein carries oxygenated blood and nutrients to the fetus


The ductus venosus connects to?

The DV contests the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava.


The ductus arteriosus connects the?

The DA connects the aorta and the pulmonary artery


What is the pathway in the stimulation and secretion of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone?

Hypothalamus releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone-> anterior pituitary gland releases FSH and LH = stimulate follicular growth and production of progesterone


What type of pelvis is most favourable for a successful birth/labor?

Gynecoid pelvis is most favourable


What does the placenta provide the fetus?

The placenta provides exchange of oxygen, nutrients, waste products


What is the importance of the amniotic fluid?

The amniotic fluid surrounds, cushions, protects, allows movement, maintains temperature, assesses kidney functions


What does GTPAL stand for?

G= gravidity, the number of pregnancies.
T= term births, born longer than 37wks
P= preterm birth, before 37wks
A= abortion/miscarriages, before 20wks, (a termination of after 20wks, is called therapeutic termination)
L= number of live children


A woman is pregnant for the fourth time. She had one elective abortion in the first trimester, a daughter who was born at 40wks gestation, and a son who was born at 36wks gestation. What's her GTPAL?

She's G 4, Parity 2 (past 20wks), T 1 (daughter born at 40wks), P 1 (the son born at 36wks), A 1 (the abortion is counted in the G but not included in the parity bc it occurred before 20wks), L 2


Ballard scale:

Determines gestational age by observing reflex responses.

Gestational age can be estimated by using other physical characteristics, such as the amount of lanugo, creases on the plantar surface of the feet, ear cartilage, and appearance of the eyes as well as genitalia.


A newborn who is delivered at home and without a birth attendant is admitted to the hospital for observation. The initial temperature is 95 F (35 C) axillary. The nurse should recognize that cold stress may lead to what complication?

A: Reduced partial pressure of O2 in arterial blood (PaO2)

B: Lowered BMR

C: Metabolic alkalosis

D: Hyperglycemia

A: Reduced PaO2

Hypothermia and cold stress cause a variety of physiologic stresses including increased oxygen consumption, metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia, tachypnea and decreased cardiac output. The baby delivered in such circumstances needs careful monitoring. In this situation, the newborn must be warmed immediately to increase its temperature to at least 97 F (36 C). Normal core body temperature for newborns is 97.7 F to 99.3 F (36.5 C to 37.3 C).


Hypothermia in a newborn causes what S/S:

increased oxygen consumption, M. Acidosis, hypoglycemia, tachypnea, decreased CO


A newborn is diagnosed with hypothyroidism. In discussing the condition and treatment with the family, the nurse should emphasize which point?

A: This rare problem is always heredity

B: They can expect the child will be mentally retarded

C: Physical growth and development will be delayed

D: Administration of thyroid hormones will prevent complications

D: Administration of thyroid hormones will prevent complications

Early identification (ideally before 13 days-old) and continued treatment with levothyroxine (thyroid hormone replacement) corrects hypothyroidism in newborns, preventing problems. If undetected and untreated, hypothyroidism can result in poor growth and weight gain, slow heart rate, low blood pressure, and babies who are unusually quiet; the child will be at risk for permanent brain damage and intellectual disabilities. Approximately one in every 4000 babies is born with hypothyroidism.


A community health nurse has been caring for a 16 year-old who is 22-weeks pregnant with a history of morbid obesity, asthma and hypertension. Which of these lab reports need to be communicated to the health care provider as soon as possible?

A: HCT 33% and plts 200,000

B: Mg 0.8 mEq/L and creatinine 3 mg/dL

C: BUN 28 & glucose 225 mg/dL

D: Hgb 11 g/L & calcium 6.7 mg/dL

B: Mg 0.8 mEq/L & creatinine 3 mg/dL

The magnesium is low and the creatinine is high, which indicates acute renal failure, which is the highest priority. With the history of hypertension, the findings may indicate preeclampsia. The rest of client’s lab values are all abnormal except for the platelets. The client needs to be referred for immediate follow-up with a health care provider.


While assessing an Rh positive newborn whose mother is Rh negative, the nurse should recognize the risk for hyperbilirubinemia. Which of these lab results should be reported immediately?

A: Serum bilirubin of 12 mg

B: Positive Coombs test

C: Jaundiced evident at 26 hours

D: Hct of 55%

A: Serum bilirubin of 12 mg

The elevated bilirubin is in the range that requires immediate intervention, such as phototherapy. At a serum bilirubin of 12 mg, the neonate is at risk for the development of kernicterus and bilirubin encephalopathy. The health care provider should determine the appropriate therapy after a review of all laboratory findings plus assessment of the newborn


A nurse is providing a parenting class to individuals living in a community of older homes that were built prior to 1978. During a discussion about formula preparation, which statement is the most important by the nurse to tell the parents how to prevent lead poisoning?

A: Use ready-to-feed commercial formula

B: Buy bottled water labeled "lead free" to mix with the formula

C: Let tap water run for two minutes before adding to formula concentrate

D: Boil the tap water for 10 min prior to preparing the formula

C: Let tap run 2 min

The use of lead-contaminated water to prepare infant formula is a major source of lead poisoning in infants who live in older houses. Drinking water may become contaminated by lead from old lead pipes or the lead solder used in sealing the water pipes in homes prior to 1978. Letting tap water run for several minutes will diminish the risk for lead contamination. These same houses have the risk of lead contamination from paint chips because prior to that time, paint and gasoline contained lead.


A nurse is teaching a mother who will breast-feed for the first time. Which of these approaches is a priority?

A: Give the mother several illustrated pamphlets
B: Give the mother privacy for the initial feeding
C: Assist the mother to position the newborn at the breast
D: Show the mother films on the physiology of lactation

C: Assist the mother to position the newborn at the breast

All of the approaches should be helpful in teaching. However, the priority is to place the infant to the breast as soon after birth as possible to establish contact and allow the newborn to begin to suck.


The father of an 8 month-old asks the nurse if the child's vocalizations are normal for his this age. Which sound should the nurse expect from a child at this age?

A: Throaty sounds
B: Cooing
C: Laughter
D: Imitation of sounds

D: Imitation of sounds

Imitation of sounds such as "da-da" is expected at this time. Laughter occurs after the initial cooing.


At a well-child checkup, the nurse is assessing a 1 year-old who was born prematurely and is being evaluated for cerebral palsy (CP). Which information provided by the parents would support this diagnosis?

A: “Our child isn’t talking yet.”
B: “Mealtime is so messy when he tries to feed himself.”
C: “He crawls by pushing off with one hand and leg while dragging the opposite hand and leg.”
D: “We think our child seems smaller than other babies this age."

C: “He crawls by pushing off with one hand and leg while dragging the opposite hand and leg.”

Cerebral palsy refers to a group of conditions that affect movement, balance and posture. Prematurity, infections during pregnancy, and asphyxia during labor and delivery are risk factors for CP. Some children with CP may have delays in learning to roll over, sit, crawl or walk. Because this child was born prematurely, it would be expected that he would be smaller than other babies. At this age, most children can say a few words (like “mama”), but they are not talking, and mealtime can get pretty messy.


A nurse is teaching the parent of a 9 month-old infant about diaper dermatitis. Which of these actions would be appropriate for the nurse to include during the teaching?

Use commercial baby wipes with each diaper change

Do not use occlusive ointments on the rash

Stop any new food that was added to the infant's diet prior to the rash

Use only cloth diapers that are rinsed in bleach

Stop any new food that was added to the infant's diet prior to the rash

The addition of new foods to the infant's diet commonly can cause diaper dermatitis. The other actions are incorrect to deal with this problem.


The nurse is caring for a newly admitted 6 month-old infant diagnosed with nonorganic failure-to-thrive (NOFTT). What findings would the nurse expect to observe during the initial assessment?

A: Alert, laughing, playing with a rattle, and sitting with support

B: Pale skin, thin arms and legs, and uninterested in surroundings

C: Dusky in color with poor skin turgor over abdomen

D: Irritable and "colicky," making no attempts to pull to standing

B: Pale skin, thin arms and legs, and uninterested in surroundings

Diagnosis of NOFTT is made on anthropomorphic findings with documentation of growth retardation, which would lead a nurse to expect muscle-wasting and paleness. In cases of NOFTT, the cause may be a variety of psychosocial factors and these children may be below normal in intellectual development, language and social interactions.