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Flashcards in MD Fires Deck (118):

A roof line in an MD should only be used for

Prevent fire from passing a trench
Protect exposures
Extinguish fire that cannot be reached from below such as fire in a cornice


Windows in apartments of MDs not involved in fire should not be broken These windows were possible should open what distance fr top and what distance fr bottom ?

2/3 s from top and 1/3 from bottom


In a MD who is responsible for informing the IC and members of the manner I'm which the apts and floors are designated

The first officer inside the fire building


Where should the first line go and how should it operate at a stairway fire I'm an OLT?

First line should be stretched up the stairway operated to extinguish fire shut down then advanced further up stairway .. When possible should be operated up well hole. Procedure repeated till line is advanced to top floor
2nd line serve as protection and finish up extinguishment


When operating a line in rooms involved in fire in the vicinity of a shaft and fire is in shaft when should you operate Line up shaft to extinguish fire

After fire in room has been controlled


A fire escape in the throat in an MD MEANS

2 seprate apts


Stack effect in a high rise MD is influenced by all of the following

1 height of building
2 temp differential between outside and inside temps
3 air leakage to other floors
4 wind


When can the doors to the elevator machinery room at roof level be used for ventilation ?

Not until fire is under control and as long as wind will not force smoke back into building


When both engine company and ladder companies arrive together and HRFPMD and only one elevator mom fireman service is available who should enter this elevator?

Truck officer , FE Team , Engine officer , nozzle and control with all rolled up lengths and standpipe kit


If eng and truck arrive at HRFPMD with only one elevator at same time and this elevator is a fireman service elevator with no outside operations who gets in first

Inside team and OVM eng officer and one member of engine


If first due OVM is involved in outside operations and the fire is above the 7 floor of a HRFPMD WHO controls the fireman service elevator

A member of 2 due truck
Or member designated by IC


If the fire in HRFPMD Is on the 7!floor where should the FAST unit and CFRD ENGINE stage

floor below the fire floor


If the fire in a HRFPMD IS ON sixth floor where should Fast/cfrd unit stand fast

As determined by IC


When using the in- line pressure gauge at the standpipe outlet to regulate pressure the control FF should keep it what PSI for 3 lengths of hose and what PSI FOR 4 lengths

3 lengths of 2/12 at 70 PSI
4 lengths if 2/12 at 80 PSI


In a HRFPMD when should the bulkhead be vented and upon direction of who

By orders of the IC and fire has been controlled


Who brings the POST radio In a HRFPMD ?

Second due eng officer


Who insures that Siamese is supplied at HRFPMD

Second Due eng


If a WCD deployment is initiated who is responsible to coordinate this evolution

2nd ladder company officer


When should the ECC of 1st to arrive engine company at HRFPMD charge the standpipe system with 3 1/2 line?

If any evidence of fire present


A 2nd supply line at a HRFPMD FIRE SHALL be stretch to supply Siamese if ?

1. More than one line used from standpipe
2. There are indications that system is not receiving engough water , volume or pressure(as determined by HT transmission from ECC /IC OR readings on pump panel flow meter
3 no flow on flow meter a valve is closed in system / High flow indicted pipe may be fractured or outlet valves open on riser


When should the ECC of 1st to arrive engine company at HRFPMD charge the standpipe system with 3 1/2 line?

If any evidence of fire present


A 2nd supply line at a HRFPMD FIRE SHALL be stretch to supply Siamese if ?

1. More than one line used from standpipe
2. There are indications that system is not receiving engough water , volume or pressure(as determined by HT transmission from ECC /IC OR readings on pump panel flow meter
3 no flow on flow meter a valve is closed in system / High flow indicted pipe may be fractured or outlet valves open on riser


When estimating pressure for a standpipe you should start whst PSI And add how much PSI per floor

Start at 100 PSI and add 5 PSI PEF FLOOR


What should be included in the standpipe kit

2/12 controlling nozzle with 1 1/8 main stream tip and 1/2 outer tip
Hand control wheels
21/2 to 21/2 In line pressure gauge
Pipe wrench
Spanner wrenches
Door chocks
Extra 21/2 controlling nozzle with 1 1/2 to 2/1/2 increaser


I'm cellar fires of a HRFPMD consider using a hand stretch into below grade areas .. When can and engine officer use standpipe

When fire is controlled by the sprinkler system and connecting to a standpipe outlet would not expose our members to an IDLH and engine officer with sound judgement use the standpipe and notify IC


Who will vent the roof at LRFPMD

First and Second Roof FFs


Who will authorize vertical vent at LRFPMD



In a LEFPMD with very long public hallway whst should be brought in addition to normal tool assignment

Search Rope


When can you stretch a 1 3/4 hand line in a LRFPMD ?

If hallways are small meAning every apt door is within 50 of every stairway thst floor


In a LRFPMD with two. Stairways once the attack stairway is selected all ops are to proceed from this star way with one exception?

When roof FFs use the evacuation stair to reach roof


Priority access to the ROOF of LRFPMD is

Stairway in an attached adjoining bld
An enclosed evacuation stairway
Aerial or TL


If a LRFPMD is isolated building with one open stairway and roof access is not possible with aerial or TL how long with roof man remain on roof

Fire is under control and the interior stair is safe to descend


The impact of wind on a FPMD will be effected by the following 3 factors

1.the size of the window opening
2. The fuel load
3 . The stage fire is when widow failed


Who must be notified immediately when wind impacted conditions are noted

The company officers operating inside the building and IC


Fire partition

Partition provided for the purposes of protecting life by furnishing an area of refuge or exit and having a fire resistance rating of at least 3 hours

1938 code


Fire wall

Wall provided primarily for the purpose of resisting passage of fire from one structure to another or from one are of structure to another and having a resistance rating of at least four hours
1968 code


Old law tenements b4 4/12/01

3-7 stories
20' to 25' wide
50' to 85 deep
two means of egress almost always interior stair and exterior fire escape
Two to four apt.
Originally stairs and stairways enclosure s wood and wood lath
Air and light shafts
Railroad flats


New law tenements built after 4/12/1901 b4 1916

Six or seven stories
35' to 50 ' frontage
85 ' in depth
5 to 6 apts per floor
First floor ( cellar ceiling)is fireproof construction and unpierced
Exterior cellar entrance
Interior stairs fireproof and apt doors are constructed of fire resistive materials
Second means of egress either another stair or exterior fire escape ( more generally found)
Steel I-beams introduced


NLT between 1916 and 1929

150 x 200
Floor areas broken up into 2500 sq ft or less to avoid being built with fireproof construction
Between apt brick or fireproof construction
Only go as high as ceiling of top floor/ large undivided cockloft
Unprotected steel beams
Entrance to basement on side or rear


NFP multiple dwelling s after 4/18/29

Between 1930 and 1940 firewalls to underside of roof boards
After 1940 to top of roof boards
3000 square feet areas
May be taller than 75 if on grade with no standpipe


Fireproof MDS

4 to 40 stories high
Irregularly shaped
Well constructed and maintained
Rarely exposure problem
Life hazard not severe outside apt


First line in MD is stretched via interior stair to the location of the fire unless

Exception is when flame is issuing from windows opening into fire escape and endangering people trying to come down the fire escape then first line may be operated from street to protect ppl on fire escape
Second line must be promptly stretched into interior of the building
NOTE : other variations of stretching to interior stairs are :
Store fires
Cellar fires
Dumbwaiter fires


In MD if the entrance door is self closing and equipped with locking device who chock door

First member through door


Criteria for throwing material out of windows in MDS

1. Member posted in yard or street below
2. Examination of yard first before discarding material
3. No material on setbacks
4 no material in narrow shafts


It is responsibility of first ladder company to determine

Location of fire
Whether it has extended
Where it's extending


Old law or new law tenement special call if:

Fire on two floors / extra engine and truck
If progress not made on at least one floor in short period Time/2nd alarm
Fire in shaft extending into exposure /2nd alarm
Fire extending into two exposures/ 3rd alarm


Gas meters in MDS

1. Usually in cellar but may be in apts and in public halls
2. If burning allow to burn until gas supply shut off
3. Combustible material near the burning meter should be wet down
4. Gas leaking without be ignited such gas ,vent , move members away from area of leak .. Fog lines may be used


Outsized streams at MDS

Only IC order use of outside streams
Occupants should be removed first unless life safety
May use outside streams for :
1. Protect life
2. Protect exposures
3. Confine the fire
4. Diminish heavy fire so that interior attack can be made


If operating LCS into building members inside building must be

Moved to safe location before
Safe location verified by radio or personal contact by IC of fire


Cellar fires in OLT

1. First line to cellar entrance door which located inside building under interior stairway on first floor
Remain in this position to protect ppl coming down stairs
Do not advance down stairs if outside entrance to cellar unless fire minor
2nd line stretched to cellar via rear or front entrance to cellar


Store fires at OLT

1. Stretch 2 1/2 line for large volume fires
2. Second line stretched to entrance hallway, if not needed on first floor it may be advanced to floor above the may have door that leads to public hall check immediately for extension if so stretch line
NOTE : charge line ready b4 store is vented ( no plate glass window broken w/o charged line ready


Who will report layout of shafts in OLT and if any visible fire extending

Roof FF


Air and light and dumb waiter shaft fires

Especially concern in warm weather when windows may be open
Some shafts have doors at cellar level leading to both basements
Sufficient hose for upper floors of building
Second hose may be necessary in adjoining bld
Shafts may be open or closed important to vent over shafts that are covered


Collapse potential at OLT

Not usually problem because of short span of beams
Collapse generally due to previous fire damage
Floor joist supported by masonry walls provided with fire cuts
Older buildings may collapse due removal of adjoining building or excavations being dug adjacent to
Indications of collapse promptly reported to IC


Roof cornices may collapse

Heavy fire for considerable time cornice may suddenly fail
Members stretching lines or operating on fire escapes must be warned and moved to safety


Extension to exposures

Exposure 2 and 4 greatest
Buildings in rear are less because there are at least 10' to 25 or more away
However spread to fire in rear must be kept in mind if:
1. Heavy fire in rear
2. Windows in exposed building open
3. Wind blowing in direction of exposed buildings


OLT converted to SRO's

1. No longer permitted but still exist
2. Buildings require sprinklers in each room and stairway ..sprinkler supplied by city main and not FD no roof tank
3. require interior alarm system to warn occupants of fire
4. Exit lights and signs must be provided
5.the layout of the rooms must be arranged so that each occupant has access to both means of egress without having to go trough some one else's room


Rehab OLT's

May be as many as three rehabbed to look like one
Interconnected inside
One main entrance
Still have same avenues of extension as OLT's


Who _______FF must inform __________ of party wall balconies in rear of building?

Roof FF


IC should consider calling extra ladder


Rear tenements

1. Some OLT found in rear of other buildings
2. 10-25 between buildings
3. May not be visible from street
4. Portable ladders a problem may have carried through hallway of front or up and over front building
Extreme measures may be required to bridge front and rear


3 structural components h- type MDS

Masonry walls
Wood beams that support floors and roof
Structural steal columns


Structural steel in h- type buildings

Steel expands and may push out walls
Steel heated to higher temps may fail , floor beams supported by steel will floor to floor
Steel columns or girders generally in "I beam" shape transmit fire heat


Transverse stairs in h- types

stairs located at remote points from one another but person can form one stairway to another on all floors of building
Ease evacuation
Assist in examination
Permit lines to be stretch to any apartment via any stairs
Tremendous asset in heavy fire ops on the top floor


Wing stairs

One or two stairs
Located front and rear of each wing
Does not transverse
Floor landing leads public hall that will join other stairs in that wing only( if two stairs )


Isolated stairs

Usually I'd by individual entrances
Floor landings limited space and absence of public hall
Access limited to those apts serving that wing
Hose lines ops confined to their limited space


Channel rails

Result from use of steel columns
Locations vary
May be difficult to find
Often located in voids behind closets
Not fire stopped
If burning I lath near channels must check above immediately


Pipe recess

Exists wherever kitchen or bathroom exists
Poor workmanship may allow for fire spread into walls
Presence may be picked up by roof ff
Pipe hot to touch top floor examination required and notify officer and IC



Constructed on top one another
Vertical and horizontal extension because usually back to back


Dumb waiter shafts

Used for new electrical and water pipes
Shaft fires may readily get into apt. Because of above


Voids in h- types

Unusual shape buildings that are square off
Voids run entire height of building
Spread fire up or down


If fire is showing out windows in throat ,courtyard and front the TL should be positioned so that the stream can operate into which windows first

Throat first the then courtyard then front window

NOTE aerial should give tower ladder access to courtyard unless rescue ops
If conditions indicate roof ops( top floor fire,shaft fire ,two floors fire ,heavy fire condition ) aerial May be raised to roof for access


Additional alarms at h- type

Additional ladder and engine on medium fire condition(that is two lines will be required )
Two floors of fire or extensive cockloft fire 2 nd alarm


The officer arriving first on the fire floor shall transmit following info to IC

1. Location of fire apt
2. Number apts on the floor of the fire wing
3. Fire conditions
4. Access ( locations of stairway closet to fire apt. Report if possible to transverse
5 . Fire extension ( need and locations additional lines give reasons
6. Difficulties delays gaining entry into fire apt or advancing line .. Give reasons
7. Occupants ,if located and accounted for


Roof FF shall inform his officer or IC

1. Configuration of building
2. Fire showing out building which not visible form street exposure problem
3. Color or volume smoke
4. Persons trapped and exact location
5. Location of stairways and fire escapes
6. If building fronts more than one street
7. Difference in height of building from street to street or from front or rear
8. Evidence any unusual heat I cockloft
9. Location of parapet and dividing walls
10. Any other info that will be relevant to aid ops


What is the most probable point of vertical extension in h- type buildings

Vertical steel columns


Trenching in H- Types

Defensive op
Should be cut but not open until adequate vent hole over fire, ideally precut but not pulled
Two or more inspection holes may be cut on fire side , fire reaches inspection hole pull trench
At least 3 feet wide from wall to wall or from other suitable fire stop
Should be cut about 20 ' from the initial vent hole
Do not depend on firewalls within structure
Charged line in position on roof


When can a line be operated into a trench

To prevent fire from extending across trench
After proper precautions are taken to prevent injury of operating forces

NOTE : in brief side to side motion


If there is no fire showing at trench then in most likelihood the fire has not past the trench

False this should not be taken as an indication of fire passing the trench


You must be cautious with trench cuts because they may interfere with the main roof ventilation cuts ability to properly vent the cockloft

False it will not interfere with large vent hole over the main body of fire


In rehabilitated buildings may contain boxed out areas that contain plumbing eclectic or steam the may be indicated by

Unusually thick partition walls which are inconsistent with previous structure


If the second ladder is not on scent in h- type building who is responsible for making sure that the floor above gets checked for extension

Officer of first ladder will make sure that members check for extension and report any extension to officer or IC


If during examination for extension hot spots are found what should be done

Small holes made for visual check
Any fire encountered notify IC
Immediately go to top floor and check termination point of this void for any extension
Fire found at termination point of void then must bring line and open roof
Entire top floor must be examined for extension


General ops HRFPMDS

1. All extinguish efforts from initial one attack stair
2. If second attack stair needed should not be one designate evacuation stair
3 IC notify dispatcher and members on scene letter designation of attack stair
4.if enclosed stairs encountered then the evacuations stairs on fire floor must be maintained closed


Info at HRFPMDS that members must gather from floor below or two floors below ( scissor stairs )

Determine :
Letter designation
And number of stairs serving fire floor
Prior to designation of attack stair all members must access fire floor from same stairway
I'd stairways that have standpipes
Determine the layout ,shape and size of the public hallways including dead end hallways before enter the fire floor public hall


Scissor stairs In HRFPMDS

When present should be communicated via ht to all members
Early In fire ops make sure stairways correctly labeled
If Labeled incorrectly relay to IC
Priority at BI is make sure stairway labeled correctly


Ventilation in HRFPMDS

Horizontal vent of fire apartment limited and controlled by officer in fire apt
All other vent controlled must be strictly limited and controlled by IC (coordinated with engine and truck officers operating in fire sector)


Wind as a factor smoke movement in HRFPMDS

Major factor
Create pressure on both leeward and windward side of building because of leakage through windows walls or other openings however small

NOTE : degree of internal pressure depends upon the extent of leakage

Wind blowing across roof can effect smoke movement no matter which way it's blowing or where bulkhead is positioned


Ventilation in HRFPMDS should take place when

After main body of fire is under control


Ventilation of public hallway windows shall be ventilated only with approval of



Vertical Ventilation in HRFPMDS

Stairways other than evacuation stairs used for vent
IC will inform all members of stairs used for vent and smoke removal ops and only at the authorization of IC
When only two Stairs the attack stair will be the primary means of vertical vent when main body of fire knocked down
IC may authorize smoke cleared from stairway before attacks ops commence using positive pressure fans


Elevators at HRFPMDS

Exit at least two floors below
Before proceed to fire floor members :
1. Shall survey the layout of the stairs ,hallway and apartments below the fire apt
2. Stairs used when fire is on 7th floor or below
3 consider each member and their equipment to be greater 275 lbs


Control of elevators in HRFPMDS

1. First ladder shall recall elevators whether or not being used
2. 2nd due shall ensure all elevators recalled and searched
3. IC ensures all elevators are recalled , searched and controlled regardless of fire floor


1st due OVM at HRFPMDS

Outside survey first
No outside ops and building has fireman service:
Report to lobby
Place elevator car in phase two
If involved in outside ops and fire above 7 floor than elevator will be operated by member of second due and or other members designated by IC
After all units In position and two elevators are available and serviceable , one elevator in lobby and one two floors below fire


Elevator use in more exclusive type HRFPMD

Use service elevator
Two floors below
Standpipe usually found in service stairway
Service stair may be locked on first floor . Doors easily forced
Enter location of service elevator and stair into CIDS


Forcing doors on fire floor other than fire apt door

After main body has been controlled
High Co readings
Or severe smoke conditions in public hall
Ladder companies report in with co meters


Forcing doors on floor above other than apt above fire

No other doors should be forced unless :
High co readings at end of hall
Specific reports of persons needing assistance
Concentrated smoke conditions due to stack effect on particular floor


Communications that can be considered by IC if communications hampered

1. Post radios on command
2. High rise repeaters on command
3. HT relay
4. Personnel outside building on ht to relay
5. Moving in different positions in lobby
Cell phones by batt and division
6. Utilizing any building communications system if reliable
Ie. arcs


10-77 signal given to manage a medium fire and smoke condition examples of

Wind impacted fire
Advanced fire on arrival
Heavy smoke on numerous floors
Numerous reports of persons in difficulty due to smoke
10-77 given where fire is visible from exterior on arrival
10-75 may be give as initial signal at HRFPMD if internal conditions cannot be accurately determined on arrival


1st eng company at HRFPMD fire

1st and second team up
Stretched from standpipe outlet from floor below fire
If building requires more than 3 lengths from standpipe enter in CIDS and inform 1st alarm units
Eng company officer shall announce via ht when initial hose line attack commences
Any variations from stretching from standpipe outlets from floor below approved by division commander and entered into CIDS


Eng company officer shall examine for the following when arriving two floors below fire floor :

1. Hallway layout
2. Scissor stair correctly labeled
3. Location of reported fire apt
4. Best stair from which to attack from
5. Length of stretch from attack stair to fire apt
6. Number of apt doors from attack stair to fire apt door
7. All turns hose will need to make in order to reach the fire apt


Selecting attack stair in HRFPMD

Engine officer and ladder officer to select attack stair
Need not be stairway with standpipe
Once attack stair selected all hose lines will be stretched and operated from stairway
Other stairways shall be maintain for evacuation
1 st Engine officer Inform IC and second engine officer designation of attack stair


Advance of line at HRFPMD

Ladder company has control of fire apt entrance door than :
1. Line advanced to that location and charged
2. Engine officer assist in keeping fire apt door until water at nozzle and ready to advance in
3. Most cases hose line shall not enter apt until ladder company locate fire and provided direction


Advance of hose line HRFPMD

Apt door left open
1. Hose line charged before exiting attack stair
2. Most of time hose line shall not enter public hall until ladder company locates the fire apt and provides direction
Eng companies shall not enter IDLH without charged line


When can a fog nozzle be used for ventilation at a HRFPMD

After fire has been extinguished
If positive pressure fans are ineffective


What should first engine due cannot advance line out of attack stair

Maintain position in attack stairway with door closed
Notify IC
Alternate strategies implemented


Second engine company at HRFPMD fires

1. Communicate with first due eng officer to ensure that there are sufficient members to properly position first handline
2. Recognize and request additional assistance from IC
3. Ensure Siamese is supplied and assist if necessary
4. Obtain post radio from 1st battalion chief and establish com link on command channel at standpipe outlet where 1st line is connected
5. Take elevators to two floors below reported fire ( has line been charged or will it be charged b4 leaving stairway)
6. Support 1st engine with stretch .
Inform IC members are in IDLH with 1 st and also inform IC where additional assistance will be needed


Third line at HRFPMD

3 rd engine responsible for 2nd line with help from 4th
Notify IC if 2nd Line not required
Usually stretch from 2 floors below
Additionally lengths may be necessary from 2nd or 4th
Add lengths between last length of 2nd hose and standpipe outlet
2nd line should be charge at stairway door to fire floor depending on hallway conditions and size of fire area


Who do you inform when you charge the second line at HRFPMD fire

First engine control FF AND 1st engine officer


3rd due engine Contol ff. at HRFPMD fire will

Complete connection at the standpipe outlet
Charge line when ordered
Provide proper water pressure
Remain at standpipe outlet throughout op


2nd line at HRFPMD fire may be used for

1. Back up first
2. Advance with first line
3. Operate into breach wall while first line protecting hallway
4. On floor above for auto exposure via windows or air conditioning sleeves or extension via utility voids or steam risers


4th due engine at HRFPMD

1. Responsible for placing HRN into operation if this alternate strategy needed
2. If not needed help 3 rd due engine
3. Report into ICP with HRN and when orders report to floor below fire
4. Assure 2nd line stretched from attack stair and supply additional lengths
5. If HRN put into op 4 due will do it using there line or 2nd hose line already in place


Who assures that second line in HRFPMD is stretched from attack stair?

4 due engine


If 4th due engine on 10-77 is not equipped with HRN what should they do

Contact dispatcher of identity of unit carrying HRN already on scene

NOTE : fourth due eng responsible for brining HRN to ICP and reporting to floor below and putting into op


If on a 10-77 none of the first four engine companies have the HRN. What shall be done?

The dispatcher shall special call the nearest HRN engine and notify IC of their identity
IC will then determine who puts into operation


Cfr-d engine company at 10-77

Report to IC and stand fast with fast unit
Cfr-d equipment and FE tools
Announce designation of cfr- d engine and ascertain who fast truck is


When using a portable ladder to bride over weekend, burnt out or damaged stairs the preferred ladder is ? A the method of using the ladder is ?

Preferred ladder is extension ladder

The butts shall be supported by the floor at the base of the stair while both upper beams at the tip of the ladder should rest on the upper floor landing for support


Who will inform second due engine in HRFPMD fire the designation of attack stairway

The first engine


First due ovm at HRFPMD fires tools and duties

Haligen hook or axe

1. Outside survey