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Flashcards in Collapse Deck (51):

At a collapse who insures that the dispatcher is notified to call utility emergency crews

2nd arriving ladder


Who is responsible for reconnaissance of the collapse area

First due truck


Responsibilities of 1st arriving truck at a collapse

1. Scene survey
2. Perform hazard assessment


Structural collapse is defined as

Any incident where the building or portion of a building including walls, floors ceilings partitions , or structures such as bridges ,scaffolds ,signs ,construction sites banners or other items have collapse or are in danger of collapsing

FDNY Single command event
search and rescues is core competency


The scene becomes the jurisdiction of the department of buildings after

Rescue and removal of all persons involved in incident and the stabilization of all threats to public safety have been accomplished


At least one TL Should be special called for

Every major collapse if not on initial alarm


What is the single most important consideration at the scene of a collapse

Safety at the scene


Initial rescue efforts

Initial rescue actions should concentrate on removing able-bodied (ambulatory ) and surface or lightly buried victims


First and second engine should strive to take positions where at collapse

Separate hydrants outside the block on different mains and prepare to supplya Handlines and large caliber streams (TL)

First engine may have to take position on block


Third and fourth engine should take positions where

On separate hydrants on separate mains at the rear of the structure


Seconds alarm engine companies

Two of the second alarm engine companies should be used for site control


All explosions should be immediately monitored for

The presence of radiological or chemical attack by SOC UNIITS


Who ensures that a 3 1/2 " line is stretched to feed a TL

Second engine officer


Initial rescue operations should concentrate on removing

Able bodied ( ambulatory) and surface or lightly buried persons from immediate danger


Before entering Voids and below grade areas they should be

Monitored for accumulations of flammable gases carbon monoxide and o2 content


Only apparatus authorized by IC should be positioned on the street. Later arriving units shall be used for their personnel and apparatus placed at secondary staging area. First alarm engine companies shall be placed to

Protect the occupants and rescuers again is t the threat of fire

If possible 1st and 2nd engine take separate hydrants outside the block on separate mains and prepare to supply hand lines and LCS
(Exception 1st engine may have to take position within block for use of master stream for fire control and exposure protection)
3rd and 4th should hake similar positions as 1 and 2 except at rear of structure

2 second alarm engine companies should seal off ends of street (ECC remain with rig)


First arriving TL should be

Placed In front of building out of collapse danger area ( initially only apparatus in front of building )Additional TL, to reach and protect different exposures


Aerials ladders should kept away from building where

Secondary staging


Normal aerial is not needed in front of collapse but there situations where it may be necessary they are?

Incidents involving tall/long buildings if needed

Also consider placing several units around building


Ambulances placed

Visible from scene but out of way of rescue and firefighting ops


A company officer can be assigned the staging area manger

Yes but but will be relieved as a chief


Engine company responsibilities at collapse in order of priority are?

1. Extinguish active fire in affected building
2. Protect exposures
3. Extinguish burning vehicles in vicinity of collapse
4. At scenes where no active fire stretch and charge precautionary lines
A. 2 1/2 lines to cover entire operation
B . 3 1/2 to stretched and charged to supply 1st TL (2nd engine boss ensures)
NOTE if terrorist event is suspected than hoselines should be located between two apparatus or other substantial shielding


First engine responsibilities at collapse op

1.officer supervise water supply and apparatus placement (may have to take position in block(
2. Coordinate with 1st due truck officer
3. Stretch 2 1/2 hand lines do sufficient length to cover entire site
4. **Consider **stretching 3 1/2 to TL

Members will remain together as unit unless otherwise ordered by IC


Second engine at collapse op

1. Obtain briefing from IC or first engine officer
2. Supervise apparatus placement
3. Ensure 3 1/2 for 1st TL stretched

1. Assist first with line and TL supply
2. Remain together as unit unless otherwise ordered by IC
3. If necessary perform CFR-d


Third and subsequent engines under direction of IC may do the following

1. Fire control
2. Stretching additional lines
3. Augmenting the water supply to first alarm units
4. Perform CFR-d duties
5. Assisting the removal of lightly buried victims


First arriving ladder at collapse op

Obtain briefing from IC
Supervise apparatus placement
Has option of splitting up company

1. Perform scene survey
2. Perform hazard assessment and control
A. Protect members from secondary collapse mark with hazard tape, tie back and crib
B. Keep nOn essential members from entering collapse zone
3. Remove surface victims
A. Remove lightly buried victims and deliver to Ccp
B. If possible question survivors regarding
Number ,ID and location of other occupants prior to collapse
4. Perform preliminary void search
Do not cut , lift or remove load bearing members
Track survivors and send to CCP


Second Ladder company at collapse op

Immediately begin the process of controlling gas , electric and water services

Obtaining briefing from IC
Supervise apparatus placement
Ensure the dispatcher notified the utility company emergency crews

Members :utilities
Assist with life saving
Major priority is controlling utilities


Third and subsequent ladders at collapse op

Search additional line of sight void spaces or exposure
Assist with utilities
Perform debris removal as directed
Cut timbers for shoring as directed
Assist with victim. Removal


What units may help with victim Removal at collapse

Third and subsequent engines
1st truck
2nd truck
3rd and subsequent trucks


TL may be used

1. Provide large caliber streams to protect victims and rescuers from fire
2. Aid in rescuing victims
3. Transport heavy tools
4. Allow rescuers to transverse unstable debris .survey the collapse access remote areas act as a working platform for shoring
5 provide observation for secondary collapses


When it comes to safety at a collapse incident the acronym LCES stand for

Escape routes
Safe havens


If at a collapse and hear 1 long blast (3 seconds)from an air horn this means

Cease operations


If at a collapse and you hear 3 short blasts (1sec each) this means

Evacuate the area


If at a collapse and you near 2 blasts ( one long and one short ) this means

Resume ops


Personnel at a collapse should be rotated every

30 min or less if possible


A collapse POD can only be requested by

Command chief


The 5 stages of collapse rescue operation are

3. Search of the voids
5. General debris removal


Reconnaissance stage of collapse op

Occurs during size up
Helps to determine where to start to look


Phase 2 of the collapse rescue op is accounting for and removal of surface victims

May be done simultaneously with recon if conditions and personnel permit
Immediately designate officer to keep track of all person s removed ( victim account manager)
Use fire Marshall's for interview
Canvas video cameras
Victim account t manger should ascertain this info from victims :
1. Persons name
2. Where located when collapse occurred
3. If time permits :
Point out escape route
Also make note of any injuries and if transport was involved and what hospital and by whom


Searching voids is the 3 rd part of collapse plan

4 common type
Lean-to voids
Individual voids


Lean- to void

Results in failure of the support at one end of floor or roof
Excellent chance of survival for those under floor below remaining wall
Smallest chance for survival anyone on Lower floor in vicinity of the failed wall
Unsupported lean- to very extremely dangerous and should be secured early


V-shaped void

Result when floor fails in middle
Victims directly below collapse will have least chance of survival
Those around the perimeters will have the greatest
Create large voids along the remaining voids ,these voids are likely locations of survivors


Pancake voids

Floors of structure collapse in layers resembling stack of pancakes
Locating victims is often simpler than other those of collapses


Individual voids

May be found at any type of collapse
Voids are difficult to locate for they occur random
Searching voids should be done immediately after the surface victims have been removed or simultaneously if sufficient personnel are available
If fire is a issue the fire will be trying to fill these voids spaces survival of victims depends on reaching them first preferably with hand line .
Trapped victims can be given an spare SCBA or FAST-PAK (not FAST UNITS)
Attach search rope to victim to lead rescuers there


Locating victims may be accomplished by any of these methods

Verbal contact
Pass alarm or feed back assist (FAR)
Emergency alert tone assisted rescue
Interview witness (LUNAR)
Explore voids
Electronic listening devices
Search dogs


What does LUNAR stand for

Location (last seen or reference point)
Unit ( member working in)
Resources needed


If information is obtained about possible locations of missing victims these should be relayed to

Victim accounting manager


Shoring is something that that first arriving g units may be coerced to do in an emergency . This first alarm units however should not perform cutting of load bearing elements . The following are shoring guidelines for FDNY

FDNY will only install shoring in the following instances :
1. Whenever human Life is in danger
2. When shoring will permit building to remain safe to occupy
3. Buildings in which there is no civilian hazard will only be shored if there is minimal risk to members and where here is substantial property risk that can be safeguarded
4. A vacant or unoccupied structure will not be shored if there is substantial risk to members installing the shoring or the use of shoring is unlikely to substantially improve the outcome
5. If building is going to be demolished even after shoring it will not be shored
6.once installed shoring will only be removed when load is otherwise stabilized or the situation permits the shores to be removed from safe area


Selected debris removal is the 4 part of the collapse op

Begins when all voids have been searched and all people have not been accounted for
Used to reach specific locations where victims are located or suspected to be
Not useful tactic if have no idea where victims are
More dangerous than void search


Crush syndrome

Involves compromised local circulation
Involvement of muscle mass
Prolonged compression (4-6 hours possibly less than an hour
Prevention is providing an intravenous line before release of pressure


General debris removal

Final aspect of the collapse op
After all other methods are employed and people still missing and their location is unknown without regard or preference for any particular area
Under direction of FDNY