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Flashcards in Lofts Deck (43):

After initial two lines are stretched up a stairway additional lines should be via

1. Alternate stairways if available
2. Exterior rope stretches
3. Fire escapes
4. Interconnected buildings


High ceilings and large in compartmented areas can mask high heat. Beware of heat and smoke passing overhead and fire breaking out behind the hose line. To monitor this a member

Last member on line monitors area to rear
A member positioned att the interior entrance to fire should monitor conditions


Large fires may need two lines . 2nd line is usually stretched by way of interior stair to the same floor as the first line for augmentation if not. Needed here should be advanced to

Floor above

Officer supervising the second handline should not advanced to floor above until assured the first hose line is making progress and is capable of handling the fire floor
Hose line commitment and coordination must be communicated to all officers in fire sector


Potential for back draft on intermediate floors where vertical ventilation is not possible .. Engine should k

Position the hose line with FF to the side of the entrance to the fire area
Utilize the reach of the hose stream
Begin attack with FFs as low as possible ( may require starting from a few steps down from entrance )
HOSELINE should be immediately discharged into fire area when it is accessed
Coordinated with exterior vent


First engine at cellar/ sub cellar fires in a cast iron and mill loft buildings

1. Stretch the initial hose line via interior to fire area
2. Ensure enough hose to cover fire area before advancing
3. If building protected by sprinkler servicing fire area supply if can
4. If conditions prevent initial hose line advance down interior stairs , notify IC AND REMAIN at position to prevent upward extension


Lofts may have sprinklers that service the upper floors . What must be checked so that system will work ?

Section valves must be checked to ensure in open position


Second engine company at cellar/ sub cellar fire in cast iron and mill loft

Assist first due with first line
Supply sprinkler Siamese if first due hasn't done it


Third engine at a cellar/ sub-cellar fire in mill loft/ cast iron loft

Assisted by fourth engine and stretch 2nd hose line
If first hose line not able to advance into fire area second hose line may need to gain entry via alternate access point


Fire on lower floors in cast iron / mill lofts . First engine will

Stretch first hose line into fire area to protect life and extinguish fire

If sprinkler , supply system if can


2nd due engine at lower flood fire in mill loft / cast iron loft

1. Assist. First due with initial hose line
2. If first due hasn't supplied sprinkler and conditions and manpower permit 2nd due should supply sprinkler


Third due engine at lower floor fire in cast iron/mill loft

Stretch 2nd hose line with 4th dues help and operate as ordered by IC
2. Ensure sprinkler supplied


Where does second line in lower floor fire in cast iron / mill loft stretched

Usually by way of interior stairs to same floor as first hose line
Meant to augment 1st line
If not needed on fire floor then advance to floor above
Officer supervising the second hose line should not advance to floor above until assured the first hose line is making progress and is capable of handling the fire floor


Stretching lines to Upper floor fires in cast iron/ mill lofts are the same as fires on lower floors except

After 2 lines stretched up a stairway additional hose lines should be via alternate stairways , aerial/ portables ladders ropes or FE interconnected buildings

Consider utilization of HRN


Lofts general

Characterized by high ceilings large un-compartmented spaces and prominently located freight elevators close to the front entrance to building
Can be class 1,2,3 or 6


Mill heavy timber type

Least common type
Many gone
Originally built for manufacturing and warehousing typically found adjacent to waterways and rail lines


Fireproof lofts

Newest and most common


Older cast iron lofts

Max 7-8 stories
Front and rear exterior walls of brick , stone or iron Side exterior walls of brick
Frontage usually 25 feet ( indicating no interior columns )
With depths reaching 90 feet and frontage on one street
Height between floor and ceiling min 8 ft
Roof is flat using wood rafters
One enclosed wooden stair often winding around elevator shaft or straight run
Interior cellar stairs may be remote from interior stair and open
Fire escapes can be found on front rear and sides (corner buildings )


Newer cast iron lofts

Exterior walls made of brick stone frames wrought iron/ cast iron steel
Built higher than 8-12 and wider 50 ft than older cast iron lofts by 90 depth
May be P shaped
All exterior walls have min 3 hours fire resistive rating
Windows are operable( but HVAC more common)
Interior structural elements consist of protected cast iron columns or wrought iron girders and beans supporting masonry or Woden floors
Generally there are two interior stairs inside enclosed walls having 2 hr fire resistive rating
May have electrical shafts or utility closets from lowest level of building to top floor penetrate floor construction
Automatic sprinkler and standpipe required by law are connected city water supply leading to roof tank
Various types of fire escapes


Mill lofts

Aka heavy timber lofts
4-6 stories
4 exterior walls load bearing and constructed of brick , concrete block or stone
Exterior walls and interior columns larger at lower level
Stepped walls and CLOUMN system to accommodate additional load on upper floors
Walls have built in sockets to accept floor girders and joists
Dimensions vary from 100-150 front to 200 depth with abundance of large openable window
Provides large continuous floor area
High ceilings with vertical openings
Multiple. Skylights in roofs
Fire tower stairs and elevators placed in perimeter of building


Fireproof lofts

Exterior walls of brick cement block masonry stone or metal and floors constructed of steel reinforced concrete
10-15 stories in height
Rectangular dimensions 50-100 feet wide to 75-200 ft deep
Can be interconnected by automatic fire doors or joined via bridges(skywalks )
Interior stairs enclosed
One or more fire towers may be included if over 75 feet
May have exterior screened stairs
Windows operable but HVAC common
Wall hydrant manifolds outlets may be available for engine use located at sidewalk or top floor
If used for storage often have windows blocked up


Sidewalk vaults in older cast iron lofts

Three wall enclosures under the front sidewalk
Can extend downward to all sub cellars of the building and may extend the full width of the sidewalk
An indicator of a full vault is a large piece of granite stone covering the sidewalk to the curb line
Vaulted sidewalks are generally supported by wrought-iron I beams or cast iron structural members
Ceiling of vault was originally constructed of wrought iron or cast iron from with small segmental glass orbs ( dead lights )
Frame can extend entire width of the building and extend from building wall to street
Glass may be covered partially or wholly by diamond plate , cubed glass granite stone or concrete


Elevator shafts in older cast iron lofts

Passenger and freight elevators normal located within the area of the front wall
On either side or middle of building
Elevator shafts face the street any widows serving the shaft are required to display the "SHAFTWAY" across the outer portion of the window that is clearly visible from street
Avoid placing aerials/portables to these windows or operating streams into the. Unless. Visible, fire is extending up shaft
These windows will look identical to others in front facade ..FFS should be aware of shaft windows accessible from front fire escapes
Many signs will be missing or unreadable


Freight elevators in older cast lofts

If loading dock present may be within 20 feet inward from the front of building
Residential conversion freight elevator may have been removed to accommodate additional living space
Frequently freight elevator shafts are built using Tera cotta tile which can readily be breached
No fireman service
Not initially used at fire ops until evaluation and approval of IC
Will assist with greater movement of members and supplies


In residential conversions of cast iron lofts elevators

Elevators serving apartments above grade can open directly into apts
FE MAY BE REQUIRED to exit from the elevator into the apt
Residential floors may be subdivided
Providing multiple living spaces in these cases elevators may provide access onto hallways serving apt entrance doors
In both above cases elevators should be avoided until, fire has been determined and elevator use has been evaluated


Cast iron or wrought iron columns used for construction of arches and columns

Cast iron columns not properly cast are inherently weak links in overall construction
No way to tell if they were cast properly
Not designed to with stand eccentric load
Properly cast made to withstand a great deal of thermal stress
It is a myth that a cast iron Column exposed to,fire will shatter when cooled
A cast iron column at 1,100 degrees lose 58 % of original strength
Lose is cumulative and never is regained


The vertical fire escape

Most dangerous type of FE at loft
Serve each floor but lack intermediate balconies


Standard fire escapes on lofts

Most prevalent
Width of 3-4 feet
Stairway angles of 45,60 and 75 degrees or steeper


Counter balance fire escapes

Can be horizontal or vertical
Will be located directly below or adjacent to the lowest landing of FE
Portable ladder is preferred method to access counter balance FE


Party wall balconies

These type can get overloaded with occupants quickly and may lead to failure


Exterior screened stairway

Entry through doorway as opposed to,window


Segmental arch floors

Found in newer cast iron lofts as well as some mill construction
Arch floors used to span the gap between cast iron or wrought iron I-beams
All parts of the floor arch system are in compression
Should not be breached for fear of causing general floor collapse spanning wide area


Wrought iron girders beams lintels

Unlike cast iron (which is strong in compression but week in tension) wrought iron is equally strong in compression and tension
May weaken over time
When heated will elongate and lose strength which can lead to collapse


All lines at loft fires should be 2 1/2

False all initial lines


When sprinklers are shut down at lofts

A member should be left at shut off in case it needs to be turned back on


1st Ladder at cellar sub-cellar fires cast iron and mill lofts

Gain access to fire via interior stairs
If cannot gain access to cellar via interior notify IC and second truck
If cannot gain access to fire area via interior stay with first hoseline on the floor above searching for life fire extension. And providing vent


1st LCC at sub cellar/cellar fires in cast iron and mill lofts

Complete laddering duties
After laddering assist in ventilation by opening sidewalk access points
Should be accomplished by staying in front of building immediately available to,position or reposition ladders as needed


1st OVM at cellar/sub-cellar fires in cast iron or mill lofts

1 fires in below grade areas may require alternate means of access for hoseline placement . The 1st ovm will communicate this possibility to the IC along with required manpower and equipment needed
2. 2nd ovm should be aware of necessary tools
3. Ov FF's should communicate their intent and team up if IDLH


Roof FF S at cellar/sub-cellar fires cast iron and mill lofts

1. Access to roof will be via:

a. Adjoining
B. Aerial/TL
C. Fire escape
2. Communicate conditions not visible from street
3.perform vertical vent as required
4. Vertical vent over straight run stairs used for attack shall be coordinated with inside team and engine company OFFICERS
5. 2nd roof will reinforce position of 1st
6 after roof vent is complete VEIS of upper floors conducted if IDLH team up


Who will bring saw to roof on top floor fires in cast iron and mill lofts ?

2nd roof


1st LCC at lower floor fire at cast iron/mill loft

Should remain in front of the building immediately available to position or Esposito. Ladders if needed and to perform necessary coordinated vent


2nd LCC at lower floor fire at cast iron/mill loft

1. Reinforce 1st LCC
2. If not needed in front of building 2nd LCC will contact officer for further instructions
3. Possible assignment may be to assist ovm in rear


1 st ovm at lower floor fire in cast iron/mill loft buildings

Primary position is the rear of building to perform coordinated vent and report fire conditions
Exception assists LCC in front with immediate life hazard
Communicate any rear access for additional hose lines and request necessary tools Coordinate vent with officer


2nd ovm at lower floor fire at cast iron/mill loft

Reinforce 1st LCC in rear to ensure position is covered