Flashcards in Medical Terminology Chapter 2 Deck (128):
Body organization levels
cells, tissues, organs, systems, body
loin (low back)
rectum and anus
study of cells and their functions
Cells will all have what during their life cycle?
nucleus, cytoplasm, and a cell membrane
study of tissue
How is a tissue formed?
a tissue is formed when like cells are grouped together and function together to perform a specific activity.
What are the types of tissues in the body?
muscular tissue, epithelial tissue, connective tissue and nervous tissue
what are muscle fibers?
individual muscle cells
What is muscular tissue?
it produces movement in the body through contraction, or shortening in length and is composed of individual muscle cells called muscle fibers
What are the basic types of muscles that are formed from muscle tissue?
skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, or cardiac muscle
attached to bone
found in internal organs such as the intestine, uterus, and blood vessels
found only in the heart
or epithelium is found throughout the body and is composed of close-packed cells that form the covering for and lining of body structures. It may form a protective barrier, epithelial tissue may be specialized to absorb substances, secrete substances or excrete wastes.
the supporting and protecting tissue in body structures. It performs many different functions depending on its location, it appears in many different forms so that each is able to perform the task required at the location.
is composed of cells called neurons. This tissue forms the brain, spinal cord, and a network of nerves throughout the entire body, allowing for the conduction of electrical impulses to send information between the brain and the rest of the body.
organs are composed of several different types of tissue that work as a unit to perform special functions
a system is composed of several organs working in a coordinated manner to perform a complex function or functions.
word parts= -ary (pertaining to); dermat/o (skin); -logy (study of)
structures-skin; hair; nails; sweat glands; sebaceous glands
functions- forms protective two-way barrier and aids in temperature regulation
specialty- orthopedics; orthopedic surgery
word parts= muscol/o (muscle); -al (pertaining to); orth/o (straight); ped/o (foot); -ic (pertaining to)
structures-bones, joints, muscles
functions-skeleton supports and protects the body, forms blood cells and stores minerals. Muscles produce movement
word parts = cardi/o (heart); vascul/o (blood vessel); -ar (pertaining to); -logy (study of)
structures-heart, arteries, veins
functions-pumps blood throughout the entire body to transport nutrients, oxygen and wastes
blood (hematic system)
word parts= hemat/o (blood); -ic (pertaining to); -logy (study of)
structures-plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes; platelets
functions-transports oxygen, protects against pathogens and controls bleeding
WP-lymph/o (lymph; -atic (pertaining to); immun/o (protection); -logy (study of)
ST-lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, spleen, thymus gland, tonsils
F-protects the body from disease and invasion from pathogens
S-otorhinolaryngology; pulmonology; thoracic surgery
WP--ory (pertaining to); ot/o (ear); rhin/o (nose); laryn/o (larynx); pulmon/o (lung); thorac/o (chest); -ic (pertaining to); logy (study of)
ST-nasal cavity; pharynx; larynx; trachea; bronchial tubes; lungs
F-obtains oxygen and removes carbon dioxide from the body.
digestive or gastrointestinal system (GI)
S- gastroenterology; proctology
WP-gastr/o (stomach); enter/o (small intestine); proct/o (rectum and anus); -al (pertaining to); logy (study of)
ST-oral cavity, pharnyx, esophagus; stomach, small intestine; colon; liver; gallbladder; pancreas; salivary glands
F-ingests, digests and absorbs nutrients for the body
WP- urin/o (urine); -ary (pertaining to); nephr/o (kidney); ur/o (urine); logy (study of)
ST-kidney, ureters; urinary bladder, urethra
F-filters waste products out of the blood and removes them from the body
Female reproductive system
WP-gynec/o (female); logy (study of)
ST-ovary; fallopian tubes; uterus; vagina; vulva; breasts
F-produces eggs for reproduction and provides place for growing baby
Male reproductive system
WP- urin/o (urine); logy (study of)
ST-testes; epididymis; vas deferens; penis; seminal vesicles; prostate gland; bulbourethral gland
F-produces sperm for reproduction
WP- endo (within); crin/o (to secrete); -ine (pertaining to); -logy (study of)
ST- pituitary gland; pineal gland, thyroid gland; parathyroid gland; thymus gland; adrenal glands; pancreas; ovaries; testes
F-regulates metabolic activities of the body
WP- -ous (pertaining to); neur/o (nerve); -logy (study of)
ST-brain, spinal cord, nerves
F-receives sensory information and coordinates the body's response
WP- ophthmal/o (eye); -logy (study of)
special senses - ear
WP- ot/o (ear); rhin/o (nose); laryn/o (larynx); -logy (study of)
F-hearing and balance
WP-abdomin/o (abdomen); -al (pertaining to)
D-abdomen; on anterior side of trunk
WP- brachi/o (arm); -al (pertaining to)
D-upper extremities or arms
WP- cephal/o (head); -ic (pertaining to)
WP - cervic/o (neck); -al (pertaining to)
D-neck, connects head to trunk
WP - crur/o (leg); -al (pertaining to)
D-lower extremities or legs
WP- dors/o (back of body)
D-back; on posterior side of trunk
WP - glute/o (buttock); -al (pertaining to)
D-buttocks; on posterior side of trunk
WP- pelv/o (pelvis); -ic (pertaining to)
D- pelvis; on anterior side of trunk
WP - pub/o (genital); -ic (pertaining to)
D-region containing external genitals; on anterior side of trunk
WP - thorac/o (chest); - ic (pertaining to)
D- chest; on anterior side of trunk; also called thorax
contains all body regions other than head, neck and extremities; also called torso
WP-vertebr/o (vertebra); -al (pertaining to)
D-overlies spinal column or vertebrae; on posterior side of trunk
abdominal cavity, abdominopelvic cavity; cranial cavity, diaphragm; mediastinum, parietal layer, parietal peritoneum, parietal pleura, pelvic cavity, pericardial cavity, peritoneum, pleura, pleural cavity, spinal cavity, thoracic cavity, viscera, visceral layer, visceral peritoneum, visceral pleura
What are the four major cavity groups
two dorsal cavities and two ventral cavities
Dorsal cavities include what?
cranial cavity, containing the brain, and the spinal cavity, containing the spinal cord
Ventral cavities include what?
the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity
is an actual physical wall between the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity
is a central region between the two lungs in the thoracic cavity
diaphragm is used for what?
abdominopelvic cavity is subdivided how?
into a superior abdominal cavity and an inferior pelvic cavity
the organs within the ventral cavities are referred to as a group as the internal organs or viscera
the outer layer that lines the cavities in the ventral cavity
ex: parietal pleura and parietal peritoneum
the inner layer that encases the viscera
ex: visceral pleura and visceral peritoneum
How is the thoracic cavity subdivided?
pleura subdivides it forming the pleural cavity (containing the lungs) and the pericardial cavity (containing the heart)
anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic cavity
right hypochondriac region; epigastric region, left hypochondriac region; right lumbar region, umbilical region; left lumbar region; right inguinal region, hypogastric region; left inguinal region
right hypochondriac region includes:
right lateral region of upper row beneath the ribs
middle area of upper row above the stomach
left hypochondriac region
left lateral region of the upper row beneath the lower ribs
right lumbar region
right lateral region of the middle row at the waist
central area over the navel
left lateral region of the middle row at the waist
right inguinal region
right lateral region of the lower row at the groin
middle region of the lower row beneath the navel
left lateral region of the lower row at the groin
clinical divisions of the abdominopelvic cavity
right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant; left lower quadrant
right upper quadrant
contains majority of liver, gallbladder, small portion of pancreas, right kidney, small intestines and colon
right lower quadrant
contains small intestine and colon, right ovary, and fallopian tube, appendix and right ureter
left upper quadrant
contains small portion of liver, spleen, stomach, majority of pancreas, left kidney, small intestines, and colon
left lower quadrant
contains small intestine and colon, left ovary and fallopian tube and left ureter