Medical Terminology Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

Fall Semester 2017 > Medical Terminology Chapter 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical Terminology Chapter 2 Deck (128):
1

Body organization levels

cells, tissues, organs, systems, body

2

abdomin/o

abdomen

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adip/o

fat

4

anter/o

front

5

brachi/o

arm

6

cardi/o

heart

7

caud/o

tail

8

cephal/o

head

9

cervic/o

neck

10

chondr/o

cartilage

11

crani/o

skull

12

crin/o

to secrete

13

crur/o

leg

14

cyt/o

cell

15

dermat/o

skin

16

dist/o

away from

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dors/o

back

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enter/o

small intestine

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epitheli/o

epithelium

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gastr/o

stomach

21

glute/o

buttock

22

gynec/o

woman

23

hemat/o

blood

24

hist/o

tissue

25

immun/o

protection

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infer/o

below

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inguin/o

groin

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larng/o

larynx

29

later/o

side

30

lumb/o

loin (low back)

31

lymph/o

lymph

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medi/o

middle

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muscul/o

muscle

34

nephr/o

kidney

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neur/o

nerve

36

opthalm/o

eye

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orth/o

straight, upright

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ot/o

ear

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pariet/o

caviety wall

40

ped/o

foot

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pelv/o

pelvis

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peritone/o

peritoneum

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pleur/o

pleura

44

poster/o

back

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proct/o

rectum and anus

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proxim/o

near to

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pub/o

genital region

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pulmon/o

lung

49

rhin/o

nose

50

spin/o

spine

51

super/o

above

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thorac/o

chest

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ur/o

urine

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urin/o

urine

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vascul/o

blood vessel

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ventr/o

belly

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vertebr/o

vertebra

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viscer/o

internal organ

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cytology

study of cells and their functions

60

Cells will all have what during their life cycle?

nucleus, cytoplasm, and a cell membrane

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histology

study of tissue

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How is a tissue formed?

a tissue is formed when like cells are grouped together and function together to perform a specific activity.

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What are the types of tissues in the body?

muscular tissue, epithelial tissue, connective tissue and nervous tissue

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what are muscle fibers?

individual muscle cells

65

What is muscular tissue?

it produces movement in the body through contraction, or shortening in length and is composed of individual muscle cells called muscle fibers

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What are the basic types of muscles that are formed from muscle tissue?

skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, or cardiac muscle

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Skeletal muscle

attached to bone

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smooth muscle

found in internal organs such as the intestine, uterus, and blood vessels

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cardiac muscle

found only in the heart

70

epithelial tissue

or epithelium is found throughout the body and is composed of close-packed cells that form the covering for and lining of body structures. It may form a protective barrier, epithelial tissue may be specialized to absorb substances, secrete substances or excrete wastes.

71

connective tissue

the supporting and protecting tissue in body structures. It performs many different functions depending on its location, it appears in many different forms so that each is able to perform the task required at the location.

72

nervous tissue

is composed of cells called neurons. This tissue forms the brain, spinal cord, and a network of nerves throughout the entire body, allowing for the conduction of electrical impulses to send information between the brain and the rest of the body.

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Explain organs

organs are composed of several different types of tissue that work as a unit to perform special functions

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explain system

a system is composed of several organs working in a coordinated manner to perform a complex function or functions.

75

Integumentary system

specialty-dermatology
word parts= -ary (pertaining to); dermat/o (skin); -logy (study of)
structures-skin; hair; nails; sweat glands; sebaceous glands
functions- forms protective two-way barrier and aids in temperature regulation

76

Musculoskeletal system

specialty- orthopedics; orthopedic surgery
word parts= muscol/o (muscle); -al (pertaining to); orth/o (straight); ped/o (foot); -ic (pertaining to)
structures-bones, joints, muscles
functions-skeleton supports and protects the body, forms blood cells and stores minerals. Muscles produce movement

77

cardiovascular system

specialty- cardiology
word parts = cardi/o (heart); vascul/o (blood vessel); -ar (pertaining to); -logy (study of)
structures-heart, arteries, veins
functions-pumps blood throughout the entire body to transport nutrients, oxygen and wastes

78

blood (hematic system)

specialty-hematology
word parts= hemat/o (blood); -ic (pertaining to); -logy (study of)
structures-plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes; platelets
functions-transports oxygen, protects against pathogens and controls bleeding

79

lymphatic system

S-immunology
WP-lymph/o (lymph; -atic (pertaining to); immun/o (protection); -logy (study of)
ST-lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, spleen, thymus gland, tonsils
F-protects the body from disease and invasion from pathogens

80

respiratory system

S-otorhinolaryngology; pulmonology; thoracic surgery
WP--ory (pertaining to); ot/o (ear); rhin/o (nose); laryn/o (larynx); pulmon/o (lung); thorac/o (chest); -ic (pertaining to); logy (study of)
ST-nasal cavity; pharynx; larynx; trachea; bronchial tubes; lungs
F-obtains oxygen and removes carbon dioxide from the body.

81

digestive or gastrointestinal system (GI)

S- gastroenterology; proctology
WP-gastr/o (stomach); enter/o (small intestine); proct/o (rectum and anus); -al (pertaining to); logy (study of)
ST-oral cavity, pharnyx, esophagus; stomach, small intestine; colon; liver; gallbladder; pancreas; salivary glands
F-ingests, digests and absorbs nutrients for the body

82

urinary system

S-nephrology; urology
WP- urin/o (urine); -ary (pertaining to); nephr/o (kidney); ur/o (urine); logy (study of)
ST-kidney, ureters; urinary bladder, urethra
F-filters waste products out of the blood and removes them from the body

83

Female reproductive system

S-gynecology; obstetrics
WP-gynec/o (female); logy (study of)
ST-ovary; fallopian tubes; uterus; vagina; vulva; breasts
F-produces eggs for reproduction and provides place for growing baby

84

Male reproductive system

S-urology
WP- urin/o (urine); logy (study of)
ST-testes; epididymis; vas deferens; penis; seminal vesicles; prostate gland; bulbourethral gland
F-produces sperm for reproduction

85

endocrine system

S-endocrinology
WP- endo (within); crin/o (to secrete); -ine (pertaining to); -logy (study of)
ST- pituitary gland; pineal gland, thyroid gland; parathyroid gland; thymus gland; adrenal glands; pancreas; ovaries; testes
F-regulates metabolic activities of the body

86

nervous system

S-neurology; neurodurgery
WP- -ous (pertaining to); neur/o (nerve); -logy (study of)
ST-brain, spinal cord, nerves
F-receives sensory information and coordinates the body's response

87

special senses-eye

S-ophthalmology
WP- ophthmal/o (eye); -logy (study of)
ST-eye
F-vision

88

special senses - ear

S-otorhinolaryngology
WP- ot/o (ear); rhin/o (nose); laryn/o (larynx); -logy (study of)
ST-ear
F-hearing and balance

89

abdominal region

WP-abdomin/o (abdomen); -al (pertaining to)
D-abdomen; on anterior side of trunk

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brachial region

WP- brachi/o (arm); -al (pertaining to)
D-upper extremities or arms

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cephalic region

WP- cephal/o (head); -ic (pertaining to)
D-head

92

cervical region

WP - cervic/o (neck); -al (pertaining to)
D-neck, connects head to trunk

93

crural region

WP - crur/o (leg); -al (pertaining to)
D-lower extremities or legs

94

dorsum

WP- dors/o (back of body)
D-back; on posterior side of trunk

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gluteal region

WP - glute/o (buttock); -al (pertaining to)
D-buttocks; on posterior side of trunk

96

pelvic region

WP- pelv/o (pelvis); -ic (pertaining to)
D- pelvis; on anterior side of trunk

97

pubic region

WP - pub/o (genital); -ic (pertaining to)
D-region containing external genitals; on anterior side of trunk

98

thoracic region

WP - thorac/o (chest); - ic (pertaining to)
D- chest; on anterior side of trunk; also called thorax

99

trunk

contains all body regions other than head, neck and extremities; also called torso

100

vertebral region

WP-vertebr/o (vertebra); -al (pertaining to)
D-overlies spinal column or vertebrae; on posterior side of trunk

101

body cavities

abdominal cavity, abdominopelvic cavity; cranial cavity, diaphragm; mediastinum, parietal layer, parietal peritoneum, parietal pleura, pelvic cavity, pericardial cavity, peritoneum, pleura, pleural cavity, spinal cavity, thoracic cavity, viscera, visceral layer, visceral peritoneum, visceral pleura

102

What are the four major cavity groups

two dorsal cavities and two ventral cavities

103

Dorsal cavities include what?

cranial cavity, containing the brain, and the spinal cavity, containing the spinal cord

104

Ventral cavities include what?

the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity

105

diaphragm

is an actual physical wall between the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity

106

mediastinum

is a central region between the two lungs in the thoracic cavity

107

diaphragm is used for what?

breathing

108

abdominopelvic cavity is subdivided how?

into a superior abdominal cavity and an inferior pelvic cavity

109

viscera

the organs within the ventral cavities are referred to as a group as the internal organs or viscera

110

parietal layers

the outer layer that lines the cavities in the ventral cavity
ex: parietal pleura and parietal peritoneum

111

visceral layer

the inner layer that encases the viscera
ex: visceral pleura and visceral peritoneum

112

How is the thoracic cavity subdivided?

pleura subdivides it forming the pleural cavity (containing the lungs) and the pericardial cavity (containing the heart)

113

anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic cavity

right hypochondriac region; epigastric region, left hypochondriac region; right lumbar region, umbilical region; left lumbar region; right inguinal region, hypogastric region; left inguinal region

114

right hypochondriac region includes:

right lateral region of upper row beneath the ribs

115

epigastric region

middle area of upper row above the stomach

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left hypochondriac region

left lateral region of the upper row beneath the lower ribs

117

right lumbar region

right lateral region of the middle row at the waist

118

umbilical region

central area over the navel

119

left lumbar

left lateral region of the middle row at the waist

120

right inguinal region

right lateral region of the lower row at the groin

121

hypogastric region

middle region of the lower row beneath the navel

122

left inguinal

left lateral region of the lower row at the groin

123

clinical divisions of the abdominopelvic cavity

right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant; left lower quadrant

124

right upper quadrant

contains majority of liver, gallbladder, small portion of pancreas, right kidney, small intestines and colon

125

right lower quadrant

contains small intestine and colon, right ovary, and fallopian tube, appendix and right ureter

126

left upper quadrant

contains small portion of liver, spleen, stomach, majority of pancreas, left kidney, small intestines, and colon

127

left lower quadrant

contains small intestine and colon, left ovary and fallopian tube and left ureter

128

middle organs

uterus, bladder, prostate gland