Medical Terminology Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

Fall Semester 2017 > Medical Terminology Chapter 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical Terminology Chapter 3 Deck (188):
1

primary structures in the integumentary system

skin, hair, nails, subaceous glands, sweat glands

2

albin/o

white

3

cauter/o

to burn

4

cry/o

cold

5

cutane/o

skin

6

derm/o

skin

7

dermat/o

skin

8

diaphor/o

profuse sweating

9

electr/o

electricity

10

erythr/o

red

11

hidr/o

sweat

12

ichthy/o

scaly, dry

13

kerat/o

hard, horny

14

leuk/o

white

15

lip/o

fat

16

melan/o

black

17

myc/o

fungus

18

necr/o

death

19

onych/o

nail

20

pedicul/o

lice

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phot/o

light

22

py/o

pus

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rhytid/o

wrinkle

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sarc/o

flesh

25

scler/o

hard

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seb/o

oil

27

system/o

system

28

trich/o

hair

29

ungu/o

nail

30

vesic/o

sac, bladder

31

xer/o

dry

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-derma

skin condition

33

allo-

other, different from usual

34

xeno-

foreign

35

-gen

that which produces

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the skin's accessory organs

sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair and nails

37

alternate terms for skin

integument and cutaneous membrane

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what do sensory receptors do?

detect temperature, pain, touch and pressure

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Layers of skin

superficial epidermis and deeper dermis and subcutaneous layer

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Dermis layers of the skin

hypodermis or subcutaneous layer (not truly a layer, but assists in the functions of the skin)

41

What type of tissue is in the epidermis?

stratified squamous epithelium. It consists of flat scale-like cells arranged in overlapping layers of strata.It does not have a blood supply or any connective tissue, so it is dependent for nourishment on the deeper layers of skin.

42

Deepest layer of epidermis

basal layer
Cells continually grow and multiply in this layer. New cells push old cells to surface.

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keratin

hard protein

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dermis

also called corium
middle layer of skin, located between the epidermis and the subcutaneous layer

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What is dermis made of?

connective tissue and collagen fibers

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collagen fibers

are made from a strong, fibrous protein, present in connective tissue, forming a flexible "glue" that gives connective tissue its strength.

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lipocytes

fat cells

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What is the subcutaneous layer made of?

lipocytes
a layer that separates the dermis from the deeper tissues

49

How is hair formed?

the deeper cells in the hair root force older keratinized cells to move upward, forming the hair shaft. The hair shaft grows toward the skin surface within the hair follicle.

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What gives hair color?

melanin

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arrector pili

each hair has a small slip of smooth muscle attached to it.
When this muscle contracts the hair shaft stands up, resulting in "goose bumps".

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nail body

a flat plate of keratin that covers the ends of fingers and toes

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nail bed

the nail body is connected to the tissue underneath by the nail bed

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nail root

base of the nail and is covered and protected by the soft tissue cuticle.

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free edge of nail

is the exposed edge that is trimmed when nails become too long.

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lunula of nail

the light-colored half-moon area at the base of the nail.

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sebum

sebaceous glands, found in the dermis, secrete the oil sebum, which lubricates the hair and skin, thereby helping to prevent drying and cracking.

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sudoriferous glands

sweat glands
about 2 million in the body

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sweat duct

sweat travels to the surface of the skin in a sweat duct

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sweat pore

the surface opening of a sweat duct

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perspiration

sweat
It contains a small amount of waste product but is normally colorless and odorless

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apocrine glands

are sweat glands in the pubic and underarm areas that secrete a thicker sweat, which can produce an odor when it comes into contact with bacteria on the skin. Recognized as body odor

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The only living layer of the epidermis

dermis

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angi/o

vessel

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bas/o

base

66

cortic/o

outer layer

67

cyt/o

cell

68

esthesi/o

feeling

69

septic/o

infection

70

-ectomy

surgical removal

71

-emia

blood condition

72

-ia

state, condition

73

-iasis

abnormal condition

74

-itis

inflammation

75

-malacia

abnormal softening

76

-opsy

view of

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-osis

abnormal condition

78

-phagia

eat, swallow

79

-plasty

surgical repair

80

-tome

instrument to cut

81

-ule

small

82

anti-

against

83

auto-

self

84

de-

without

85

epi-

above

86

para-

beside

87

sub-

under

88

cutaneous

cutane/o-skin
-ous-pertaining to
pertaining to the skin

89

dermal

derm/o
pertaining to the skin

90

epidermal

epi-above
derm/o-skin
pertaining to upon the skin

91

hypodermic

hypo-below
derm/o-skin
pertaining to under the skin

92

intradermal

intra-within
derm/o-skin
pertaining to within the skin

93

subcutaneous

sub-under
pertaining to under the skin

94

ungual

ungu/o-nail
pertaining to the nails

95

plastic surgery

surgical specialty involved in repair, reconstruction or improvement of the body structures

96

abrasion

a scraping away of the skin surface by friction

97

comedo

collection of hardened sebum in hair follicle. Also, called a blackhead

98

anhidrosis

an-without
hidr/o-sweat
osis-abnormal condition
abnormal condition of no sweat

99

contusion

injury caused by a blow to the body; causes swelling, pain and bruising. The skin is not broken.

100

cyst

fluid-filled sac under the skin

101

depigmentation

de-without
loss of normal skin color or pigment

102

diaphoresis

diaphor/o-profuse sweating
profuse sweating

103

ecchymosis

-osis-abnormal condition
skin discoloration caused by blood collecting under the skin following blunt trauma to the skin. A bruise.

104

erythema

erythr/o-red
hem/o-blood
redness or flushing of the skin

105

erythroderma

erythr/o-red
the condition of having reddened or flushed skin

106

eschar

a thick layer of dead tissue and tissue fluid that develops over a deep burn area

107

fissure

crack-like lesion or groove on the skin

108

hirsutism

excessive hair growth over the body

109

hyperemia

hyper-excessive
emia-blood condition
redness of the skin due to increased blood flow

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hyperhidrosis

hyper-excessive
hidr/o-sweat
-osis-abnormal condition
abnormal condition of excessive sweat

111

hyperpigmentation

abnormal amount of pigmentation in the skin

112

ichthyoderma

ichthy/o-scaly, dry
the condition of having scaly and dry skin

113

lesion

general term for a wound, injury or abnormality

114

leukoderma

leuk/o-white
having skin that appears white because the normal skin pigment is absent. May be all of the skin or just some

115

lipoma

fatty mass

116

macule

flat, discolored area that is flush with the skin surface. An example would be a freckle or birthmark

117

necrosis

necr/o-death
abnormal condition of death

118

nevus

pigmented skin blemish, birthmark or mole. Usually benign but may become cancerous

119

nodule

-ule-small
firm, solid mass of cells in the skin larger than .5 cm in diameter

120

onychomalacia

onchy/o-nail
malacia-abnormal softening
softening of the nails

121

pallor

abnormal paleness of the skin

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papule

small, solid, circular raised spot on the surface of the skin less than .5 cm in diameter

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petechiae

pinpoint purple or red spots from minute hemorrhages under the skin

124

photosensitivity

condition in which the skin reacts abnormally when exposed to light, such as the ultraviolet rays of the sun

125

pruritus

severe itching

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purpura

hemorrhages into the skin due to fragile blood vessels that appear dark brown/purplish. Commonly seen in older adults

127

purulent

containing pur or an infection that is producing pus. Pus consists of dead bacteria, white blood cells and tissue debris

128

pustule

raised spot on the skin containing pus

129

pyoderma

py-pus
presence of pus on or in the layers of skin. A sign of a bacterial infection.

130

scleroderma

scler/o-hard
a condition in which the skin has lost its elasticity and become hardened.

131

seborrhea

oily discharge

132

suppurative

containing or producing pus

133

ulcer

open sore or lesion in skin or mucous membrane

134

urticaria

also called hives; a skin eruption of pale reddish wheals with severe itching. Usually associated with food allergy, stress, or drug reactions

135

vesicle

vesic/o-sac
a blister; small, fluid-filled raised spot on the skin

136

wheal

small, round, swollen area on the skin; typically seen in allergic skin reactions such as hives and usually accompanied by urticaria

137

xeroderma

xer/o-dry
condition in which the skin is abnormally dry

138

abscess

a collection of pus in the skin

139

acne

inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles resulting in papules and pustules

140

acne rosacea

chronic form of acne seen in adults involving redness, tiny pimples, and broken blood vessels, primarily on the nose and cheeks

141

acne vulgaris

common form of acne seen in teenagers. Characterized by comedos, papules, and pustules

142

albinism

a genetic condition in which the body is unable to make melanin. Characterized by white hair and skin and red pupils due to the lack of pigment. The person with albinism is called an albino

143

basal cell carcinoma

bas/o-base
-al-pertaining to
carcin/o-cancer
-oma-tumor
cancerous tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis. A frequent type of skin cancer that rarely metastasizes or spreads. These cancers can arise on sun-exposed skin.

144

burn

damage to the skin that can result from exposure to open fire, electricity, UV light from the sun, or caustic chemicals. Seriousness depends on the amount of body surface involved and the depth of the burn as determined by the amount of damage to each layer. Skin and burns are categorized as first degree, second degree or third degree.

145

cellulitis

a diffuse, acute infection and inflammation of the connective tissue found in the skin

146

cicatrix

scar

147

decubitus ulcer

open sore caused by pressure over bony prominences cutting off the blood flow to the overlying skin.
ex-bedridden patients (bedsore or pressure sore)

148

dermatitis

inflammation of the skin

149

dermatosis

general term indicating the presence of an abnormal skin condition

150

dry gangrene

late stages of gangrene characterized by the affected area becoming dried, blackened, and shriveled; referred to as mummified

151

eczema

superficial dermatitis of unknown cause accompanied by redness, vesicles, itching and crusting

152

gangrene

tissue necrosis usually due to deficient blood supply

153

ichthyosis

condition in which the skin becomes dry, scaly and keratinized.

154

impetigo

a highly infectious bacterial infection of the skin with pustules that rupture and become crusted over.

155

kaposi's sarcoma

form of skin cancer frequently seen in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Consists of brownish-purple papules that spread from the skin and metastasize to internal organs.

156

keloid

formation of a raised and thickened hypertrophic scar after an injury or surgery

157

keratosis

kerat/o-hard, horny
term for any skin condition involving an overgrowth and thickening of the epidermis layer

158

laceration

a torn or jagged wound; incorrectly used to describe a cut

159

malignant melanoma

melan/o-black
dangerous form of skin cancer caused by an uncontrolled growth of melanocytes. May quickly metastasize or spread to internal organs

160

pediculosis

pedicul/o-lice
infestation with lice. The eggs laid by the lice are called nits and cling tightly to the hair

161

psoriasis

chronic inflammatory condition consisting of papules forming "silvery scale" patches with circular borders

162

rubella

contagious viral skin infection. Commonly called German Measles

163

scabies

contagious skin disease caused by an egg-laying mite that burrows through the skin and causes redness and intense itching, often seen in children

164

sebaceous crust

sac under the skin filled with sebum or oil from a sebaceous gland. This can grow to a large size and may need to be excised.

165

squamous cell carcinoma

cancer of the epidermis layer of skin that may invade deeper tissue and metastasize. Often begins a s a sore that does not heal.

166

strawberry hemangioma

hem/o-blood
angi/o-vessel
-oma-mass
congenital collection of dilated blood vessels causing a red birthmark that fades a few months after birth

167

systemic lupus erythematosus

chronic disease of the connective tissue that injures the skin, joints, kidneys, nervous system and mucous membranes. This is an autoimmune condition meaning that the body's own immune system attacks normal tissue of the body. May produce a characteristic red, scaly butterfly rash across the cheeks and nose.

168

tinea

fungal skin disease resulting in itching, scaling lesions.

169

tinea capitis

fungal infection of the scalp. Commonly called ringworm

170

tinea pedis

fungal infection of the foot. Commonly called athlete's foot

171

varicella

contagious viral skin infection. Commonly called chickenpox

172

verruca

commonly called warts; a benign growth caused by a virus. Has a rough surface that is removed by chemicals and/or laser therapy

173

vitiligo

disappearance of pigment from the skin in patches, causing a milk-white appearance. Also called leukoderma

174

wet gangrene

an area of gangrene that becomes secondarily infected by pus-producing bacteria

175

alopecia

absence or loss of hair, especially of the head

176

carbuncle

furuncle involving several hair follicles

177

furuncle

bacterial infection of a hair follicle. Characterized by redness, pain and swelling. Also called a boil

178

trichomycosis

trich/o-hair
myc/o-fungus
abnormal condition of hair fungus

179

onychia

infected nail bed

180

onychomycosis

onych/o-nail
myc/o-fungus
abnormal condition of nail fungus

181

onychophagia

onych/o-nail
-phagia-eat, swallow
nail eating (nail biting)

182

paronychia

para-beside
onych/o-nail
infection of the skin fold around a nail

183

allograft

allo-other
skin graft from one person to another; donor is usually a cadaver. Also called homograft (homo-same)

184

autograft

skin graft from a person's own body

185

dermatome

derm/o-skin
tome-instrument to cut
instrument for cutting the skin or thin transplants of skin

186

dermatoplasty

dermat/o-skin
plasty-surgical repair
skin grafting; transplantation of skin

187

skin graft

transfer of skin from a normal area to cover another site. Used to teat burn victims and after some surgical procedures. Also called dermatoplasty.

188

xenograft

xeno-foreign
skin graft from an animal of another species