Flashcards in Medical Terminology Chapter 3 Deck (188):
primary structures in the integumentary system
skin, hair, nails, subaceous glands, sweat glands
other, different from usual
that which produces
the skin's accessory organs
sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair and nails
alternate terms for skin
integument and cutaneous membrane
what do sensory receptors do?
detect temperature, pain, touch and pressure
Layers of skin
superficial epidermis and deeper dermis and subcutaneous layer
Dermis layers of the skin
hypodermis or subcutaneous layer (not truly a layer, but assists in the functions of the skin)
What type of tissue is in the epidermis?
stratified squamous epithelium. It consists of flat scale-like cells arranged in overlapping layers of strata.It does not have a blood supply or any connective tissue, so it is dependent for nourishment on the deeper layers of skin.
Deepest layer of epidermis
Cells continually grow and multiply in this layer. New cells push old cells to surface.
also called corium
middle layer of skin, located between the epidermis and the subcutaneous layer
What is dermis made of?
connective tissue and collagen fibers
are made from a strong, fibrous protein, present in connective tissue, forming a flexible "glue" that gives connective tissue its strength.
What is the subcutaneous layer made of?
a layer that separates the dermis from the deeper tissues
How is hair formed?
the deeper cells in the hair root force older keratinized cells to move upward, forming the hair shaft. The hair shaft grows toward the skin surface within the hair follicle.
What gives hair color?
each hair has a small slip of smooth muscle attached to it.
When this muscle contracts the hair shaft stands up, resulting in "goose bumps".
a flat plate of keratin that covers the ends of fingers and toes
the nail body is connected to the tissue underneath by the nail bed
base of the nail and is covered and protected by the soft tissue cuticle.
free edge of nail
is the exposed edge that is trimmed when nails become too long.
lunula of nail
the light-colored half-moon area at the base of the nail.
sebaceous glands, found in the dermis, secrete the oil sebum, which lubricates the hair and skin, thereby helping to prevent drying and cracking.
about 2 million in the body
sweat travels to the surface of the skin in a sweat duct
the surface opening of a sweat duct
It contains a small amount of waste product but is normally colorless and odorless
are sweat glands in the pubic and underarm areas that secrete a thicker sweat, which can produce an odor when it comes into contact with bacteria on the skin. Recognized as body odor
The only living layer of the epidermis
instrument to cut
pertaining to the skin
pertaining to the skin
pertaining to upon the skin
pertaining to under the skin
pertaining to within the skin
pertaining to under the skin
pertaining to the nails
surgical specialty involved in repair, reconstruction or improvement of the body structures
a scraping away of the skin surface by friction
collection of hardened sebum in hair follicle. Also, called a blackhead
abnormal condition of no sweat
injury caused by a blow to the body; causes swelling, pain and bruising. The skin is not broken.
fluid-filled sac under the skin
loss of normal skin color or pigment
skin discoloration caused by blood collecting under the skin following blunt trauma to the skin. A bruise.
redness or flushing of the skin
the condition of having reddened or flushed skin
a thick layer of dead tissue and tissue fluid that develops over a deep burn area
crack-like lesion or groove on the skin
excessive hair growth over the body
redness of the skin due to increased blood flow
abnormal condition of excessive sweat
abnormal amount of pigmentation in the skin
the condition of having scaly and dry skin
general term for a wound, injury or abnormality
having skin that appears white because the normal skin pigment is absent. May be all of the skin or just some
flat, discolored area that is flush with the skin surface. An example would be a freckle or birthmark
abnormal condition of death
pigmented skin blemish, birthmark or mole. Usually benign but may become cancerous
firm, solid mass of cells in the skin larger than .5 cm in diameter
softening of the nails
abnormal paleness of the skin
small, solid, circular raised spot on the surface of the skin less than .5 cm in diameter
pinpoint purple or red spots from minute hemorrhages under the skin
condition in which the skin reacts abnormally when exposed to light, such as the ultraviolet rays of the sun
hemorrhages into the skin due to fragile blood vessels that appear dark brown/purplish. Commonly seen in older adults
containing pur or an infection that is producing pus. Pus consists of dead bacteria, white blood cells and tissue debris
raised spot on the skin containing pus
presence of pus on or in the layers of skin. A sign of a bacterial infection.
a condition in which the skin has lost its elasticity and become hardened.
containing or producing pus
open sore or lesion in skin or mucous membrane
also called hives; a skin eruption of pale reddish wheals with severe itching. Usually associated with food allergy, stress, or drug reactions
a blister; small, fluid-filled raised spot on the skin
small, round, swollen area on the skin; typically seen in allergic skin reactions such as hives and usually accompanied by urticaria
condition in which the skin is abnormally dry
a collection of pus in the skin
inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles resulting in papules and pustules
chronic form of acne seen in adults involving redness, tiny pimples, and broken blood vessels, primarily on the nose and cheeks
common form of acne seen in teenagers. Characterized by comedos, papules, and pustules
a genetic condition in which the body is unable to make melanin. Characterized by white hair and skin and red pupils due to the lack of pigment. The person with albinism is called an albino
basal cell carcinoma
cancerous tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis. A frequent type of skin cancer that rarely metastasizes or spreads. These cancers can arise on sun-exposed skin.
damage to the skin that can result from exposure to open fire, electricity, UV light from the sun, or caustic chemicals. Seriousness depends on the amount of body surface involved and the depth of the burn as determined by the amount of damage to each layer. Skin and burns are categorized as first degree, second degree or third degree.
a diffuse, acute infection and inflammation of the connective tissue found in the skin
open sore caused by pressure over bony prominences cutting off the blood flow to the overlying skin.
ex-bedridden patients (bedsore or pressure sore)
inflammation of the skin
general term indicating the presence of an abnormal skin condition
late stages of gangrene characterized by the affected area becoming dried, blackened, and shriveled; referred to as mummified
superficial dermatitis of unknown cause accompanied by redness, vesicles, itching and crusting
tissue necrosis usually due to deficient blood supply
condition in which the skin becomes dry, scaly and keratinized.
a highly infectious bacterial infection of the skin with pustules that rupture and become crusted over.
form of skin cancer frequently seen in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Consists of brownish-purple papules that spread from the skin and metastasize to internal organs.
formation of a raised and thickened hypertrophic scar after an injury or surgery
term for any skin condition involving an overgrowth and thickening of the epidermis layer
a torn or jagged wound; incorrectly used to describe a cut
dangerous form of skin cancer caused by an uncontrolled growth of melanocytes. May quickly metastasize or spread to internal organs
infestation with lice. The eggs laid by the lice are called nits and cling tightly to the hair
chronic inflammatory condition consisting of papules forming "silvery scale" patches with circular borders
contagious viral skin infection. Commonly called German Measles
contagious skin disease caused by an egg-laying mite that burrows through the skin and causes redness and intense itching, often seen in children
sac under the skin filled with sebum or oil from a sebaceous gland. This can grow to a large size and may need to be excised.
squamous cell carcinoma
cancer of the epidermis layer of skin that may invade deeper tissue and metastasize. Often begins a s a sore that does not heal.
congenital collection of dilated blood vessels causing a red birthmark that fades a few months after birth
systemic lupus erythematosus
chronic disease of the connective tissue that injures the skin, joints, kidneys, nervous system and mucous membranes. This is an autoimmune condition meaning that the body's own immune system attacks normal tissue of the body. May produce a characteristic red, scaly butterfly rash across the cheeks and nose.
fungal skin disease resulting in itching, scaling lesions.
fungal infection of the scalp. Commonly called ringworm
fungal infection of the foot. Commonly called athlete's foot
contagious viral skin infection. Commonly called chickenpox
commonly called warts; a benign growth caused by a virus. Has a rough surface that is removed by chemicals and/or laser therapy
disappearance of pigment from the skin in patches, causing a milk-white appearance. Also called leukoderma
an area of gangrene that becomes secondarily infected by pus-producing bacteria
absence or loss of hair, especially of the head
furuncle involving several hair follicles
bacterial infection of a hair follicle. Characterized by redness, pain and swelling. Also called a boil
abnormal condition of hair fungus
infected nail bed
abnormal condition of nail fungus
nail eating (nail biting)
infection of the skin fold around a nail
skin graft from one person to another; donor is usually a cadaver. Also called homograft (homo-same)
skin graft from a person's own body
tome-instrument to cut
instrument for cutting the skin or thin transplants of skin
skin grafting; transplantation of skin
transfer of skin from a normal area to cover another site. Used to teat burn victims and after some surgical procedures. Also called dermatoplasty.