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Flashcards in Medieval Literature Deck (53):
1

October 14, 1066

-Norman Conquest of England, led by Duke of Normandy (later became English norman king, William I called the Conqueror)
-Met forces of last Saxon king, Harold
-Battle of Hastings

2

Last Saxon King

King Harold

3

Norman

-Means "northman," people were another branch of Scandinavian peoples (dated back to 787)
-Collectively, (Danes, Vikings, Swedes, Normans) controlled northern regions

4

Norman Regions

-Southern Italy and Sicily
-Contended for control of Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem during Crusades

5

911

Normans acquire Normandy and begin to intermingle with French

6

Nobility and Language

-10% of English affected by new owners, William evicted English nobility
-Norman French became official court tongue,
Latin remained spoken/written of church, English remained for people

7

French Words

-King John lost continental lands (including Normandy) in battle with French king in 1204
-English began to be spoken by all

8

Normans "Anglified"

-William improved government
-Domesday Book

9

Domesday Book of 1086

-First census throughout medieval Europe
-Purpose was to tax

10

"Little Twelfth-Century Renaissance"

-Increasing prosperity in England during eleventh century
-Bologna founded (Europe's first university)

11

Geoffrey of Monmouth

-Welsh clergyman educated at Oxford
-Wrote legend of King Arthur, tragic hero

12

Celts vs. English

-English continued to fight Celtic until eleventh century

13

Tragic Heroism

-Triumphs over insurmountable odds (differs with Old English acceptance of death)

14

Le Morte Darthur

-Written by Sir Thomas Malory, developed entire English drama

15

Chivalry

-From "cheval," horse (knights)
-"Courtly love," attached to Arthurian romance
-Introduced by Eleanor of Aquitaine
-Concedes that marriage is political matter, grants that women have right to love and be loved (contained strict guiding rules)

16

Eleanor of Aquitaine

-Married by French King and then English King
-With daughter, wrote book called "The Art of Courtly Love" (Andreas Capellanus helped)
-Challenged English husband (Henry II) to seize crown

17

Troubadours

-Traveling singers that took up chivalry theme

18

Great Plague of 1348

-1/3 dead, Renaissance stopped in its tracks

19

Hundred Years War

-England tried and failed to reclaim French possessions

20

War of the Roses

-Quarrel about royal succession, resulted in English civil war

21

Peasants

-During medieval period, began to gain self-awareness
-Sang ballads and lyrics

22

Magna Carta of 1215

-Forced King to grant barons more privileges, first parliament formation in 1265

23

Lollard Movement

-Radical religious doctrine founded by John Wyclif
-Surfaced in Puritan revolution of 17th century

24

Peasant Revolutions:
-1381
-1450

-1381: Led by Wat Tyler, revolutions
-1450: Jack Cade

25

Cycle of Plays/Morality Plays

-Performed annually on Corpus Christi day, focused on common life, familiar religious stories
-Made up of a short play with few characters (based on different elements of Christian story
-Secular instruction, characters are vices/virtues

26

Wakefield Master

-Wrote "The Second Shepherd's Play," secular mischief and comedy

27

"The Canterbury Tales"

-Geoffrey Chaucer
-Sacred and secular, pilgrims reflect wide span of society, details function symbolically

28

Sir Thomas Malory

-Embodiment of Middle English sensibility
-Combines universality with populist qualities
-Imprisoned, sided with York, and wrote "Le Morte Darthur"

29

Stratford (big cities)

-Fairs, entertainment, touring companies

30

William Caxton

-England's first printer

31

William I

-(1) The Conqueror
-Died 1087, took over Normandy in 1066

32

William II

-(2) 1087-1100
-Ruthless, unpopular, killed by arrow while hunting

33

Henry I (1100-1135)

- (3) Fourth son of William I
-Took throne, strengthened bonds between Normandy and English
-20 illegitimate children, rule to daughter (Matilda)

34

1154

-Plantagenets

35

Henry II (1154-1189)
Plantagenet

-(4) Matilda's son, marries Eleanor of Aquitaine
-Fights French king
-Has Thomas of Beckett murdered (Henry wanted reform)
-Probs with King Philip (French)
-Divides kingdom for sons (Richard and John)

36

John (1199-1216)
Plantagenet

-(5) Richard's legitimate son
-Wrote Magna Carta under duress of Barons

37

Henry III (1216-1272)
Plantagenet

-(6) John's son
-Participated in Crusades, fought barons against Magna Carta

38

Edward I (1272-1307)
Plantagenet

-(7) Crusader, known for legal reforms
-Raised taxes, conquered Wales, implemented government
-Tried to conquer Scotland
-Married Eleanor, no illegitimate kiddos
-Established temporary peace with France (married French princess in 1299)

39

Edward II (1307-1327)
Plantagenet

-(8) Known for sexual liaisons
-Married Isabella (French), Isabella overthrew Edward with Roger and acted as regent

40

Edward III (1327-1377)
Plantagenet

-(9) Led coo against mother, declared to French throne
-Start of "Hundred Years War"
-Developed Parliament, House of Lords/Commons, added title of Duke and Duchess
-Bilingual, French and Anglo

41

Richard II (1377-1399)
Plantagenet

-(10) Edward II's grandson, king at age 10
-Kingdom led by John of Gaunt (uncle, acting as regent)
-Suppresses peasant revolt started by poll tax
-Uprising against lords, disinherits John's son (Henry)

42

1399-1461

Lancasters

43

Henry IV (1399-1461)
Lancaster

-(11) Defended self from Plantagenets

44

Henry V (1413-1422)
Lancaster

-(12) Battle of Agencourt (1415) is victory
-Introduced longbow, establishes treaty with France by marrying French princess
-Sea-commanding skills

45

Henry VI (1422-1461)
Lancaster

-(13) King as child, uncle regent until 1423
-Only king to rule England twice (1422-1461, 1470-1471)
-Pious, wanted peace with France
-War of Roses began (breakdown, Margaret/Henry exiled by Yorks)

46

1461-1485

Yorks

47

Edward IV
Yorks

-(14) Rules in peace (not France)
-Main supporter of Caxton, invented printing press
-Revolution in literacy, facilitates cheaper material, requires spelling systemization

48

Edward V (1483)
Yorks

-(15) Takes throne at 12 in 1483, imprisoned by Richard III

49

Richard III (1483-1485)
Yorks

-(16) Civil War
-Led by Edward's supporters, Henry Tudor
-Richard killed in war (last king to be killed like that)

50

1485-1509

Tudors

51

Henry VII

-(17) Distant relative of Yorks, exiled and returned to take throne
-Marries sister of Edward II
-Amasses large fortune
-Rules England until end of Middle Ages

52

Crusades (1096-1270)

-Christian knights died for religious beliefs and captured Jerusalem

53

7 Deadly Sins

1. Lechery (lust)
2. Pride
3. Gluttony
4. Sloth
5. Envy
6. Wrath
7. Greed