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Flashcards in Age of Reason Deck (36):
1

Enlightenment

Intellectual and literary movement; characterized by rationalism (principle or habit of accepting reason as supreme authority in matter of opinion/belief/conduct)

2

Age of Reason

-Enlightenment in England; gave equal place to experience/reason in examining human condition
-Less "rational" than French counterpart

3

John Locke

-Wrote "Essay Concerning Human Understanding" (1690)
-Influenced Enlightenment

4

Age of Reason Time Periods:
-Early Years
-Middle Years
-Late Years

-1660-1700
-1700-1744
-1744-1780

5

King Charles II

-Stewart; 1660-1685
-1660: Restoration--Puritan regime toppled; King Charles II returned to thrown
-Sponsored King's Players, outlawed Puritan religious sects; restored Anglican Church/theater/literature
-Mistress was Nell Gwyne, had child
-Founded Royal Society of London for Promotion of Natural Knowledge
-No legit. heirs/conflict with Parliament, niece betrothed to William of Orange
-Cerebral hemorrhage; turned Catholic on deathbed

6

Samuel Pepys

-English writer who wrote of Restoration in diary; 1660
-Cambridge degree, government service; man of world
-Recorded hanging of Puritan as consequence of killing Charles' father

7

Restoration Effects

-Anglican Church became Established Church
-Puritans ousted from powers of position
-Theaters reopened

8

James I

-Stuart; 1603-1625
-Son of Mary, Queen of Scots
-Good Scottish king, difficulties with Parliament
-Issues united England
-Literary patron, Shakespeare, King James Bible
-Died natural death

9

Charles I

-Stewart; 1625-1649
-Son of James I; married Roman Catholic Spanish princess
-Believed in Divine Right of Kings; taxed without Parliament
-Erupted into Civil War (Parliament Roundheads v. Royalists and Cavaliers)
-Imprisoned and executed

10

Oliver Cromwell

-1649-1660
-"Lord Protector" of the Commonwealth
-Rump Parliament, non-monarch, military genius known as "Old Ironside"
-During Catholic genocide in Ireland/Cromwell devout Puritan
-Invaded Scotland and won
-Parliament offers crown to Cromwell; review Constitution
-Cromwell dies of kidney infection

11

Monk

-Marched to England, restored full Parliament, resumed body of Cromwell and killed him as a traitor

12

2 Events During Charles II Reign

-1665: Bubonic Plage; 65,000 die in one year
-1666: Great fire of London; 13,200 homes burn

13

Succession of Rulers and Family

-1603-1625: James I; Stewart
-1625-1649: Charles I; Stewart
-1649-1660: Oliver Cromwell, unaffiliated
-1660-1685: Charles II; Stewart
-1685-1688: James II; Stewart
-1689-1702: Mary/William of Orange; Stewart
-1702-1714: Anne; Stewart
-1714-1727: George I; Hanover
-1727-1760: George II; Hanover
-1760-1820: George III; Hanover

14

James II

-1685-1688; Stewart
-Catholic; had child, Parliament called on William of Orange (led invasion)
-Flees
-One unsuccessful attempt to regain crown

15

Mary and William of Orange

-1688-1702
-Netherlands, Protestant
-Transition to Parliament based gov't.
-Miscarried; no more children
-English Bill of Rights 1689

16

English Bill of Rights

-1689: Restrictions on monarchy re-instated; no Catholics can have thrown

17

Anne

-1702-1714; Stewart
-Favors House of Tories; moderate Anglican
-1710: Dismissed Whigs
-17 pregnancies; no heirs
-Act of Settlement: Crown of England goes to Princess Sophia (died 2 months before Crown)

18

George I

-1714-1727
-Son of Sophia; great grandson of James I; Protestant
-56 Catholic heirs bypassed (not happy)
-Only spoke German
-Tories sided with Jacobites
0Anne's brother on throne; Whigs grew to power
-Prime Minister: Robert Wapoel; limited House of Lords; Prime Minister has more control

19

George II

-1727-1760
-7 year war with France
-Built up Navy
-Prime Minister wanted to get rid of competition with France

20

George III

-1760-1820
-Supports Tories; happy marriage with 9 sons and 6 daughters
-Buckingham Palace, National libraries, money to charities
-Conflict with America/Revolutionary war
-George III mentally ill

21

Duke of Monmouth

-

22

James Boswell

-Heir of wealthy judge and born in Edinburgh
-London at 19; met Johnson
-Law in Holland; island, Scotland/Hebrides
-Journey to...Western (1775)
-Journal of a Tour to...Hebrides (1785)
-Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (1791) first modern biography

23

Samuel Johnson

-Active in literary forms
-Dictionary, Lives of Poets, "Literary Club"
-Son of poor bookseller
-Wrote translations
-The Vanity of Human Wishes
-Rambler

24

Sir Christopher Wren

-Leading architect after fire of 1666 (rebuilding)

25

Literary Changes/Shifts of Early Period

-Ben Johnson use of classical models
-Sonnets replaced by satirical verses
-Closed couplet led to satire
-Introduction of literary periodicals for middle class

26

John Dryden

-Use of closed couplet for satire
-Alexander Pope later perfected it

27

Restoration Comedies

-Development of comedy of the manners
-William Wycherley: Country Wife (1675)
-William Congreve: Way of the World (1700)

28

Middle Years Politics
(Anne, then Hanovers)

-Two political parties:
-Tories: Favored royal power and established Church of England; opposed change
-Whigs: Favored reforms, progres, parliamentary over royal power
-Whigs wielded most power during Anne/George I and II

29

Whigs

-Favored new mercantile middle class
-Fostered trade, contributed to growth of cities/international commerce

30

Growing Middle Class

-Occurred during Middle Years
-Began to move into position of social dominance
-Samuel Richardson: Pamela (1740)
-Henry Fielding: Tome Jone's (1749)
-Lesser barely affected; women still no rights
-Growth of coffeehouses

31

Periodicals

-Richard Steele: The Tatler; coffeehouse gossip mag (1709-1711)
-Steele/Joseph Addison: The Spectator; morals/manners (1711-1712)

32

Richard Steele

-Dramatist/partner at Drury Lane Theater
-Popularized moral comedy (sentimental comedy) that helped make theater respectable again

33

Jonathan Swift

-Greatest moralist; satirical for social evils
-"A Modest Proposal," "Gulliver's Travels"

34

Alexander Pope

-Closed couplet reached perfection
-"The Rape of the Lock," "Essay on Criticism"
-"Homer" translation
-First to support self by pen

35

Patronage System

-Puritan regime weakened patronage
-Restoration/Hanoverian: Changes, few nobility patrons
-Playwriting produced income (Dryden)
-Payment from publisher (Dryden and Virgil)

36

Thomas Gray

Use verse forms other than heroic couplet; forerunner of Romantic Age