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Flashcards in Romantic Period Deck (35):

Robbie Burns

-Cusp of romantic age; symbol of Scottish literature
-Farmer, honored heritage with Scottish dialect
-Collected 300 folk-songs and rewrote, added music
-How people "really are," common human experiences
-Wrote "Poems: Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect"


William Blake

-Poet and artist; mystic with spiritual world connections
-Born into poverty/no formal education, engraver at 14 and became professional (created new method)
-Married and stayed that way
-Rejected organized religion
-"Songs of Innocence" and "Songs of Experience"


William Wordsworth--Personal Life

-Lake District: Romantic poets gathered and wrote poems
-Went to school in NW England, father died 2 uncles guardians
-Degree from Cambridge; traveled in 1781 to France and has affair/child/figures out wants to be poet
-1793: Returns to England and reunites with Dorothy and leaves family


William Wordsworth--Career

-Collaborates with Samuel Coleridge
-Known for nature poetry/simple delight; spontaneous overflow of poetry; people should be immersed in nature
-Best poet of age; Poet Laureate in 1843; believes poets of value must be thought over long and deeply


Percy Shelley--Career

-Religious, political rebel born into upper class
-Byronic hero; went to Oxford and got expelled for atheist pamphlet


Percy Shelley--Personal Life

-Estranged from father, eloped with sister's best friend Harriet Westbrook to live in Europe
-Meets political radicals William Godwin and Mary Woolenstonecraft; falls in love with Godwin's daughter
-Elopes with Mary to Switzerland and brings Jane; denied custody of children
-Percy dies after storm on Mediterranean (refused to be rescued), washes up with Sophocles and Keats


Percy Shelley-Career

-Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein
-Did most famous work in Italy; wrote critical commentaries and "Adonis" and "Promethueus"


George Gordon Byron--Personal Life

-Born in House of Lords with strict Calvinistic parents (father was a sea captain with two wives at same time)
-Byron had club foot, diabetes, prone to obesity; however athletic and determined to prove himself
-Title at age 10; romantic private life, went to Cambridge and had live bear as pet
-Traveled through Europe, Middle East; celebrity in 1812
-Numerous sexual affairs, relationship with 1/2 sister Augusta
-Pro-French Rev., however left England in 1816 because of views and affair
-Moves to Switzerland with Shellleys
-Died fighting with Greek nationalists against the Italians


George Gordon Byron--Career

-Wrote mostly satire, "Don Juan" (satirical epic)
-Considered Neo-Classics
-Took on Wordsworth and Coleridge


John Keats--Personal Life

-Life plagued with trouble: Father died when 8, mother of TB, family finances unavailable, apprenticed to apothecary and in 1816, decided against it
-Fell in love with Fanny Brawn after death of brother; too sick to marry
-Went for hike in Lake, came back with TB


John Keats--Career

-Finished apothecary studies in 1816 and quit
-1817: First book of poetry, not received well
Brother Thomas died of TB in 1818
-Determined to become poet, however was hack writer
-Found appt. with artist and died of TB


Samuel Coleridge

-Humble origin; father died and Coleridge sent to boarding school
-1792: Cambridge, disliked it, wanted utopian community i US
-1793: Army, discharged
-1794: Back at Cambridge, no degree
-Supported French Rev.; radical lectures, collaborated with Wordsworth
-Rheumatoid arthritis, marriage collapses, addicted to laudanum and life spirals out of control
-Expert on Shakespeare; Biographia Literaria
-"Rime of Ancient Mariner"


Romantic Age

-Monumental upheaval in political, economic, social, and philosophical systems creating new literature


Political Background

-1800s: French situation dominated England's foreign policy; French Rev. as protest against royal despotism
-1760-1820: George III King of England
-1793-1794: Reign of Terror (rev. gov't. Robespierre)
-1793-1815: Napoleonic Wars (England v. France)
-1804: Napoleon emperor of England, defeated 1805 at Trafalgar
-Duke Wellington beat in Spain; Battle of Waterloo
-Absolute monarchies restored


England Politics/Government

-Severe domestic political problems
-1760-1820: George III, insane
-1820-1830: George IV; political repression and Tories
-1830: William IV; first Reform Bill (allowed well-to-do to vote)


Industrial Rev.

-Began in 1760s, new machines replaced hand tools, became urbanized and industrialized
-Working class developed



-Time of extravagance and social display; rich
-Men's styles were influenced with dark clothing (Brummel)
-Women wore high-waisted, flowing gowns


Liberals and Changes

-Lord Byron and William Godwin; members of Church of England
-Growing humanitarian feeling
-Slave trade in British colonies illegal in 1807; abolished 1833


Scientific Achievements

-Geology, chemistry, physics, astronomy
-Reduction of death rate
-Hygiene still not understood


Romantic Writings

-Emphasize human adventure, passion, delight, love of splendor, extravagance, and of supernatural
-Classicism or neoclassicism



-Largely rational, logical, intellectual



-Experimental, individualistic, imaginative, and nature


"The" 3 Romantics of 1700s

-Thomas Gray
-William Blake
-Robert Burns


Shapers of Romanticism

-French Rev.
-Industrial rev.
-Jean Jacques Roussea (1712-1778); rebelled against cold logic and championed freedom and experimentation


Lyrical Ballads

-1798; began Romantic Age with collaboration with William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge
-Revolutionized poetry
-Wordsworth claimed poetry should reflect spontaneity and emotions; depicted commonplace situations
-Coleridge focused on supernatural


Romantic Interests with Culture

-Ancient Greece over Ancient Rome
-Renewed interest with Middle Ages
-Paid attention to Shakespeare, Spenser, Milton


1st Gen. Poets

Wordsworth and Coleridge


2nd Gen. Poets

Percy Shelley, Byron, John Keats



Charles Lamb and William Hazlitt



-Not popular
-Drury Lane and Covent Garden licensed; main type was simplistic, extreme melodrama


Closet Drama

Poetic drama written to be read rather than produced; Shelley's tragedy The Cenci, Byron's Manfred, Coleridge's Remorse


Gothic Novel

-Involved supernatural and was set against foreboding backgrounds
-Frankenstein by Mary Shelley


Scottish Sir Walter Scott

-Wrote novels of adventure; father of historical novel
-Set many novels in England Scotland of old


Jane Austen

-Plots concerned domestic literary influences; manners
-Pride and prejudice
-More of a neoclassicist
-Helped develop modern novel


Novel of Manners

-Realistic intone, graceful, and deliberately decorous in fashion