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Flashcards in The Renaissance/Hamlet Deck (53):
1

Henry VII

-(1485-1509) Peaceful time period; challenged by Lancasters
-Married Elizabeth, begets Arthur (betrothed to Catherine of Aragon, Spanish)

2

Henry VIII

-Born 1491; reign 1509-1547
-Tall and athletic
-Infatuated with Katherine; Queen Isabella encouraged Pope to grant dispensation
-Church Inquisition proves no consummation of marriage; marriage allowed
-Begets daughter Mary

3

Katherine as Regent

-Henry gave regency to Katherine while was in France
-Katherine defends against Scotts; wins
-Cannot produce

4

Anne Boleyn

-1533; Henry VIII falls in love (lady in waiting)
-Henry wants to prove his marriage illegal; locks Katherine in prison until death
-Marries Anne; Elizabeth born; Anne executed for "affairs"

5

Jane Seymour

-Has baby son, Edward (one true wife)
-Jane dies; Cromwell wants him to marry Ann of Cleaves; sends painter to paint German

6

German Princess

-Painter paints German princess; marriage by proxy
-3 years later, finds woman unattractive; divorce and best friends

7

Catherine Howard

-1540; Henry finds guilty of adultery and places her in tower (escapes, killed)

8

Catholic Properties

-1542: Henry calls for all Catholic properties to be returned to Crown
-Gives to noblemen, claims for Protestants

9

Catherine Parr

-1543: Marries; acts as nursemaid and urges for 3rd Succession Act

10

Henry's Death

-1547: Dies as fat/sick
-Edward named as full successor, daughters moved back into line of succession

11

Edward VI

-Reign: 1547-1553; Protestant
-Obtains thrown at 9 years old; Lord Protector (Duke of Sumerset) controls him
-Dies at 15 from tuberculosis; excluded Mary and Elizabeth from line of succession
-Lady Jane Grey as successor

12

Edward VI's Lord Protectors

-First was Duke of Summerset
-Next was John Dudley; tried for marriage between Edward and Jane
-Marriage arranged between Jane and Dudley's son (exclude Mary/Elizabeth)
-Lady Jane wants to change Anglican Church

13

Lady Jane Grey

-1553; fell in love with John Dudley's son
-True Christian; wanted to unite Churches

14

Queen Mary

-(1553-1558); Catholic
-Executes Jane and Dudley; takes over and forces all to convert to Catholicism
-Arranges for marriage to Prince Philip of Spain
-Has uterine tumor and dies without heir

15

Queen Elizabeth I

-1558-1603; Elizabethan Age and English Renaissance
-5th/last ruler
-Re-establishes Protestants, tolerant
-Virgin queen (never married)
-Excommunicated by Pope in 1570
-Armada of '88; great victory
-Time period well-known for flourishing arts
-Executed Mary Queen of Scotts (1587)
-Established free grammar schools

16

Ghosts

-Could trick humans (represent Hell)
-Can take on shape of another
-Vanish after first rooster crows

17

Revenge Tragedies

1. Madness caused by power, etc. (numerous deaths)
2. Poison

18

Population Growth During Renaissance

-35% population growth; move to urban center (but still close to natural world)
-Worked soil; acclimated to death
-Organic material accepted (experimentation with urine and excretions)

19

Animals

-Believed animals could invade body; create illness
-Witches kept familiars
-Cats were evil; suck life out of babies

20

Odor

-Believed odor caused disease; created hygiene laws
-Sick from sewage
-Mattress stuffings carried disease

21

Diseases

-Sweating sickness
-Aerial disease
-Syphilis large problem
-Poison fixation

22

Affluent=Wet Nurse

-Began to associate duties of child care with lower classes
-Wet nurse industry grew; lower class women had opportunity to become wealthy
-Had nannies, tutors, there was separation rom child-rearing

23

Renaissance in England

-Rise: Under Tudor monarchs; 1500-1558
-Height: Under Elizabeth I; 1558-1603
-Fall: Stuart monarchs; 1603-1649
-Largely in 15th century, brought from Italy

24

War of Roses

-Ended in 1485; allowed for Henry to unify country

25

Population of London/Enclosure Laws:
-1563
-1605

-1563: 93,000
-1605: 224,000
-Laws forced farmers to move to cities

26

Invention of Printing Press

-1476: William Caxton set up first printing press at Westminster (London)
-1530: Half of England literate

27

New Learning at Oxford

-During 1490s and 1500s; led by William Grocyn, Thomas Linacre, and John Colet
-Dutch Humanist (Erasmus) taught Greek at Cambridge

28

St. Paul's (1510)

-First (private) Prep school devoted to new learning; established by John Colet

29

Anglicization of the Sonnet

-Wyatt and Surry introduced Italian verse form
-Surrey created English blank verse
-Love poetry also includd

30

Dramatic Forms

-Miracle/morality popular
-Interlude developed; short play designed to be presented between courses

31

95 Theses

-Martin Luther posted on church door in Wittenberg, Germany in 1517 (Reformation)

32

Church and State

-Henry VIII declared as head of Church of England; established Anglican church (England was Protestant)

33

Order of Wives

1. Catherine of Aragon (birthed Mary)
2. Anne (birthed Elizabeth)
3. Seymour (birthed Edward)
4. Anne of Cleves (none)
5. Catherine Howard (none)
6. Catherine Parr (none)

34

Gresham College

-Established in 1570; founded in London for middle class
-Curriculum included law, medicine, practical courses

35

England in Height of Renaissance

-Supreme on seas; riches from Sir Francis Drake (1577-1580)

36

Armada

Invasion fleet sent by Philip of Spain; Elizabeth net navy to destroy
-Defeated in 1588; dominant sea power

37

Age of Courtiers

-Court entertainments; court lived up to Renaissance ideal of courtier, soldier, and scholar
-

38

Courtier Poets

-Sir Walter Raleigh and Sir Philip Sidney
-Edmund Spenser wrote "The Faerie Queen"

39

Songwriters

-Thomas Campion; five collections of songs with lute accompaniment

40

Drama

-Popular source of music; integral part of comedies and tragedies
-Blank verse main vehicle for tragedy and comedy

41

Dramatists

-Christopher Marlowe, William Shakespeare, and Ben Jonson

42

Theater Development

-Native English drama wellspring of Elizabethan drama
-Classical drama came in 1560s (translation of Latin dram/revenge tragedies)
-Contained entire spectrum

43

Crime

-Pickpockets/criminals drawn to theater
-Theater considered place of sin; hated by Puritans

44

Puritan Influence in 1590s

-Began to become powerful again, closed theaters
-Elizabeth named successor King James of Scotland in 1603; turn of century signified decline

45

James I

-(1603-); Anglican
-Helped found Plymouth in New England (1620)
-Growing religious/political unrest

46

Gunpowder Plot

-1605: Robert Catesby and Guy Fawkes (Catholics) conceived idea of blowing up Parliament building

47

House of Commons

-During Stuarts reign, obtained more power and questioned Divine Right of Kings (predominantly Puritan)

48

Civil War

-1642: Civil War: King and supporters (Royalists/Cavaliers) vs. Parliament and led by Oliver Cromwell (Puritans/Roundheads)
-Under Charles' reign
-Declared commonwealth by Parliament

49

Poetry in Stuart Era:
-Metaphysical Poets

-More cynical; introspective
-Led by John Donne; used strong lines, overriding regular meter; employed conceits; intellectual
-Young Cavaliers: Wrote about love/loyalty (Richard Lovelace and Robert Herrick)

50

King James

-1611: Commissioned new English translation of Bible

51

Shakespeare

-Tragedies written under reign of King James
-Acting company became known as King's Men
-Popular until closed in 1649

52

Puritan Poets

-John Milton (Latin Secretary to Puritan Commonwealth); wrote "Paradise Lost" on fall of man

53

Monarchy in 1660

-Restored, Charles II on throne
-Reopened theaters