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Flashcards in Menopause Deck (30):
1

menopause signifies the depletion of _____ and manifest as what?

oocytes; absence of menses

2

what are the gonadotropin levels in pts in menopause?

elevated due to decreased estrogen levels

3

at what time is menopause officially diagnosed?

after 6-12 months of amenorrhea

4

menopause is preceded by what period?

climacteric or periomenopausal period

5

what is the average age of menopause in the United States?

51 y/o

6

t or f: cigarette smoking is a factor known to significantly increase the age of menopause

FALSE - it reduces the age of menopause (by 3 years)

7

t or f: genetics plays a role in the age of onset for menopause

TRUE

8

what is the physiology behind the perimenopausal period that invovles the oocytes dying?

the oocytes begin to die precipitously (via apoptosis) and become resistant to FSH (which is responsible for their maturity)

9

what happens to inhibin levels during menopause?

they are decreased because b/c it is produced in smaller amounts by fewer oocytes; (remember, inhibin inhibits FSH)

10

what happens with the requirement of FSH with resistant oocytes?

FSH requirements go up which triggers greater FSH release

11

do perimenopaual women ovulate more or less frequently? why?

less - due to shortened follicular phase (because again, fewer eggs!!) - this oligo/anovulation leads to abnormal bleeding in perimenopausal women

12

pain during intercourse, vaginal itching and few epithelial cells on wet mount prep is consistent with what diagnosis?

atrophic vaginitis

13

what is the cause of atrophic vaginitis?

decline estrogen

14

at what age is considered late menopause?

menopause after age 55

15

premature ovarian failure is defined as menopause occurring before what age?

40

16

what is the major estrogen circulating in menopausal women?

estrone (less potent than estradiol)

17

what happens to androstenedione and testosterone levels during menopause?

they fall (b/c remember these are made by the ovary)

18

what is the mainstay of treatment for the physiologic effects of menopause?

HRT/ER

19

what does decreased estradiol do to cholesterol levels? (x2)

increases LDL and decreases HDL

20

what effect does decreased estradiol have on the bones?

causes osteoporosis

21

what effect does decreased estradiol have on the vaginal mucous membranes?

atrophy and dryness

22

what effect does decreased estradiol have on the urethra?

loss of tone

23

what effect does decreased estradiol have on the psyche?

lability and depression

24

what effect does decreased estradiol have on the hair and skin?

skin less elastic, more wrinkled and hair reflecting more male growth patterns

25

when is ERT indicated?

in women post hysterectomy

26

what is the relationship between estrogen and blood clotting?

estrogen creates a hypercoagulble state bu increased production of hepatic coagulation factors

27

t or f: HRT/ERT may worsen HTN and migraines

TRUE

28

before HRT is initiated what test(s) should be done?

mammography

29

for how long is it safe for women to be placed on HRT?

5 years

30

t or f: HRT increases the risk of breast CA

TRUE