Methodological Issues Flashcards Preview

OCR A-Level Psychology > Methodological Issues > Flashcards

Flashcards in Methodological Issues Deck (32):
1

Representativeness

The extent to which a sample is typical of the key features of the target population so is likely to produce findings that can be generalised

2

Generalisability

The extent to which findings from one sample or situation can be applied to another sample or situation

3

Reliability

The consistency of a measure

4

Internal Reliability

The consistory of results of a test across items within the test

5

External Reliability

The extent to which a test produces the same results in the same situation with the same people or the extent to which a test score varies from one time to another

6

Inter-Rater Reliability

The extent to which two researchers consistently rate, score or observe the same behaviour and the sets of ratings.

7

Test-Retest Reliability

A way to test reliability by using the same test twice

8

Split-Half Reliability

A way to test internal reliability by comparing two halves of a test

9

Validity

How accurate a piece of research is at at measuring what it aims to measure

10

Internal Validity

The extent to which the procedures within a study achieve the intended manipulations and measures. High internal validity means researchers can be sure that changes in the dependent variable are caused by the independent variable.

11

Face Validity

The extent to which a measure has ‘face value’ and appears to test what it claims to.

12

Construct Validity

The extent to which the phenomenon being measured actually exists

13

Concurrent Validity

The extent to which different measures of the same phenomenon produce similar results in the same circumstances, at the same time.

14

Criterion Validity

The extent to which one measure of a phenomenon predicts the value of another measure of the same phenomenon.

15

Population Validity

The extent to which the findings from one sample can be generalised to the whole of the target population

16

Ecological Validity

The extend to which findings from one situation generalise to other situations; the extent to which a piece of research is accurately measuring real life

17

Demand Characterists

Cures of features of an experiment or situation that indicate to participants the aim of the study and so influence their behaviour

18

Social Desirability

The tendency of participants to respond or behave in ways they think reflect what is acceptable in society rather that how they actually want to respond or behave.

19

Researcher Bias

Tendency for a researcher to act in ways that influence the results due to such things as their own beliefs, culture or gender

20

Observer Bias

The tendency for an observer to ‘see what they want to see’ and so record behaviours that they believe should or will occur rather that recording behaviours that actually occur.

21

Researcher effects

Negative Influences researchers can have on a study by such things as their presence, beliefs, culture and gender

22

Observer Effects

Influences that observers can have on a study by such things as their presence, beliefs, culture, gender, when the observer is overt or when their role becomes apparent to participants.

23

Ethical Issues covered by RESPECT

Informed Consent, Right to Withdraw, Confidentiality

24

The ethical area of COMPETENCE

The need for psychologists to work within their own capabilities, not giving advice to participants if not qualified to do so, and to check their research with peers. It clarifies the end for psychologists to monitor their own work and with other’s competence in carrying out research appropriately.

25

Ethical Guidelines under RESPONSIBILITY

Protection of Participants, debrief

26

Ethical Guidelines under INTEGRITY

Deception

27

Informed consent

Participants should have sufficient knowledge about a study to decide whether or not they want to agree to take part

28

Right to Withdraw

Participants should be aware that they can remove themselves and their data from the study at any time

29

Confidentiality

Participants’ results and personal information should be kept safely and not released to anyone outside the study

30

Protection of Participants

Participants should not be put at any greater physical or psychological risk than they would expect in their everyday lives

31

Debrief

A full explanation of the aims and potential consequences of a study should be given to participants after they have taken part to ensure they leave in at least as positive a condition as their arrival.

32

Deception

Participants should not be deliberately misinformed about the aim or the procedure of the study.