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Flashcards in Micro Deck (351):
1

Causes of non-gonococcal urethritis

Chlamydia and ureaplasma. These lack peptidoglycan within their cell wall.

2

how do u treat NGU

azithromycin

3

how do u treat gonococcal urethritis

ceftriaxone

4

Diarrhea with PAS-positive granules and foamy macrophages

tropheryma whippelii
--will also have greasy stools and joint pain

5

LPS induces:

TNF and IL-1

6

antigen in LPS

O polysaccharide

7

capsules are made of polysaccharide except in

bacillus anthrax--glutamate

8

glycocalyx

mediates adhesion to foreign surfaces

9

dipicolinic acid

like keratin and peptidoglycan, can form outside of spore

10

listeria morphology

gram positive rod

11

gardnerella morphology

gram variable rod (but technically gram positive, no outer membrane

12

legionella morphology

gram negative rod

13

yerseinia morphology

gram negative rod

14

legionella morphology

gram negative rod

15

bordetella morphology

gram negative rods

16

all the "-ellas" except garnerella morphology

gram negative rods

17

branching filamentous gram positive bacteria

actinomyces, nocardia

18

pleomorphic gram negative

rickettsia
chlamydia

19

spiral gram negative

leptospira
borrelia
treponema

20

mycoplasma cell membrane contains

sterols

21

mycobacteria cell wall contains

mycolic acid and high lipid content

22

silver stain

legionella
H pylori
fungi

23

giemsa stain

chlamydia
borrelia
rickettsiae
trypanosomes
plasmodium

24

ziehl neelsen stain

nocardia, mycobacterium

25

PAS stains for

glycogen

26

thayer martin media

neisseria. contains vanco, polymyxin, and nystatin

27

bordet gengou agar for

bordetella

28

tellurit, loffler's media for

diptheria

29

lowenstein jensen agar

TB

30

eaton's agar

mycoplasma pneumonia

31

charcoat yeast extract buffered with cystein and iron

legionella

32

sabouraud's agar

fungi

33

obligate aerobes

nocardia
pseudomonas
mycobacterium TB
bacillus

34

obligate anaerobes

clostridium
bacterioides
actinomyces

35

obligate intracellular

rickettsia, chlamydia

36

facultative intracellular

salmonella neisseria mycobacterium
brucella, legionella, francisella, listeria, yersinia pestis

37

quellung rxn

if encapsulated bug is present, capsule swells

38

encapsulated bacteria

strep pneumo
haemophilus
neisseria
e coli
salmonella
klebsiella
group B strep

39

catalase positive

pseudomonas listeria aspergillus candida e coli, s aureus, serratia

40

conjugated vaccines

meningococcal
HiB
Prevnar is conjugated, Pneumovax is not

41

urease positive bugs

cryptococcus
H pylori
Proteus
Ureaplasma
Nocardia
Klebsiella
S epidermidis
S saprophyticus

42

red pigment bacteria

serratia marcescens

43

protein A

binds Fc region of Ig
S aureus
prevents opsonization and phagocytosis

44

M protein

prevents phagocytosis

45

exotoxin vs endotoxin in heat

exotoxin destroyed rapidly at 60C (except staphy HS toxin)

Endotoxin stable at 100 degerees for 1 hr

46

exotoxin are made of

proteins.

47

diptheria toxin causes

pharyngitis with pseudomembranes and severe lymphadenopathy

48

pseudomonas aeruginosa releases

exotoxin A kills host cells

49

mechanism of diptheria/pseudomonas toxin

inactivates EF2

50

shiga toxin causes

GI mucosal damage and dysentery. HUS

51

EHEC releases

Shiga like toxin. Causes HUS.

52

Difference btw shigella and EHEC?

EHEC does NOT invade host cells

53

mechanism shigella toxin

inactivates 60S ribosome

54

ETEC heat labile toxin

activates adenylate cyclase to increase chloride secretion in gut "labile in the air"

55

ETEC heat stable toxin

activates cGMP to decrease Cl absorbtion in gut "stable on th eground"

56

bacillus anthrax releases

edema factor: mimics cAMP

57

vibrio cholera mechanism

overactivates adenylate cyclase by activating Gs

58

pertussis toxin mechanism

disables Gi to impair phagocytosis

59

tetanus toxin blocks

inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA and glycine

60

perfringens toxin

alpha toxin: degrades phospholipid C

61

double zone of hemolysis

perfringens

62

strep pyogenes (GAS) tox

streptolysin O: degrades cell membrane

63

ASO titer

strep pyogenes against toxin

64

S aureus toxin

toxic shock syndrome toxin

65

Mechanism TSST-1

bring MHC II and TCR in close proximity causing overwhelming release of IFN-y and IL-2

66

Mechanism exotoxin A of strep pyogenes

bring MHC II and TCR in close proximity causing overwhelming release of IFN-y and IL-2

67

what does streptolysin O do?

lyses RBCs

68

Strep pyogenes

releases exotoxin A

69

LPS activates

IL-1
TNF
Nitric Oxide
C3a
C5a
DIC

70

Which bacteria can transform?

SHiN species

71

F+x F- conjugation transfers

Only plasmids

72

Hfr x F transfers

F plasmid incorporated into DNA. Can transfer both plasmid and chromosomeal genes

73

generalized transduction

phage picks up parts of bacterial DNA

74

specialized transduction

occurs during lysogenic phase. Viral DNA is incorporated into bacterial chromosome and when excised, takes flanking DNA with it.

75

Which fiver toxins are found in the lysogenic phage?

ShigA like
botulinum
cholera
diptheria
erythrogenic

76

gram positive, branching anaerobe

actinomyces

77

gram positive, aerobe, acid fast

nocardia

78

gram positive rods

clostidrium
listeria
bacillus
mycobacterium
corynebac

79

gm + cocci, catalase positive, coagulase -
novobiocin sensitive

S. epidermidis

80

gm + cocci, catalase positive, coagulase -
novobiocin resistant

S saprophyticus

81

gm + cocci, catalase neg,
partial hemolysis
optichin sensitive?
optochin resistant?

Optochin sen: S pneumo
optochin res: viridans strep

82

catalase - gram positive cocci
beta hemolysis
-Bacitracin sensitive? resistant?

sensitive: GAS
resistant: GBS

83

catalase - gram positive cocci
no hemolysis
-growth in bile and 6.5 NaCL?
growth only in bile?

bile and salt: Enterococcus
Growth in only bile: S bovis

84

TSS what happens at cell level

activation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in a polyclonal fashion

85

strep pneumo loses virulence if

It has no capsule

86

lancet shaped, gram positive diplococci

strep pneumo
--secretes igA protease

87

sepsis in sickle cell anemia and splenectomy

strep pneumo

88

rusty sputum

strep pneumo

89

strep sanguis

sticks to damaged valves of heart by making glycocalyx

90

scarlet fever: sx? cause?

GAS
scarlet rash sparing face, strawberry tongue, scarlet throat

91

two types of GAS

pyogenic: pharyngitis, cellulitis, impetico
toxigenic: scarlet fever, toxic shock, necrotizing fas.

92

Group B strep causes

pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis in babies

93

Group B strep produces

CAMP factor. This enlargeds ares of hemolysis formed by S aureus. Streak these two bugs in a cross and will find an "arrow" of fresh hemolysis

94

hippurate test positive

Group B strep

95

Tx for pregnant women with group B strep

penicillin INTRA partum

96

enterococci cause

UTI
biliary infection
subacute endocarditis

97

lancefield grouping of strep based on

differences in C carbohydrate

98

Group D strep causes

subacute endocarditis in colon cancer

99

diptheria toxtin works by

ADP ribosylates EF-2

100

pseudomembranous pharyngitis, a gray white membrane

diptheria

101

other sx of diptheria

myocarditis and arrhythmias

102

gram positive rods with blue and red metachromatic granules

c. diptheria

103

elek's test for toxin positive

diptheria

104

diptheria toxin encoded by

beta-prophage

105

how do you kill spores

autoclave: steam at 121 for 15 minutes

106

other spore formers (less obvious)

B cereus
Coxiella burnetii

107

you suspect a can of food is infected with C. botulinum. However, it's really tasty and you don't want to throw it away. what do you do?

heat it up! Should inactivate the toxin

108

How does C perfringens toxin work?

The alpha toxin is a lecithinase, which breaks down phospholipase

109

C difficile toxins

Toxin A: binds brush border of gut
Toxin B: destroys the cytoskeleton of enterocytes causing pseudomembranous colitis

110

Dx: c difficile

detect toxins in the stool

111

you meet a wool sorter with flu like sx

pulmonary anthrax. worry about pulmonary hemorrhage, mediastinitis, and shock

112

cause of sx in reheated rice disease

B cereus: makes cereulide, a toxin causing emesis within 1-5 hours. If diarrhea, watery nonbloody diarrhea in 8-18 hrs

113

actin rockets which shoot around, causing tumbling motiliy

listeria monocytogenes.

114

how do you get listeria

milk/cheese
or vaginal transmission during birth

115

treat actinomyces

penicillin

116

treat nocardia

sulfonamides

117

branching bacteria causing oral/facial abscess draining through sinus tracts

actinomyces

118

branching bacteria causing pulmonary infections in immunocompromised and cutaneous infections after trauma

nocardia

119

what tells you if TB is virulent?

cord factor: inhibits macrophage maturation and induces release of TNF-a

120

sulfatides in TB

inhibit phagolysosomal fusion

121

prophylaxis for MAC

azithromycin

122

m leprae infects

The skin and superficial nerves: causes loss of sensation. Cannot be grown in vitro

123

lepromatous leprosy

diffuse, communicable, mostly Th2 response

124

Tuberculoid leprosy:

Only a few plaques. Th1 response

125

Tx: leproxy

dapsone and rifampin for 6 months if tuberculoid

If lepromatous form, add clofazimin and treat for 2-5 years

126

gram negative oxidase positive, comma shaped, and grows in 42 C

campylobacter

127

gram negative oxidase positive, comma shaped, and grows in alkaline media

vibrio cholera

128

gram negative rod, fast lactose fermenter

kelbsiella and E coli

129

gram negative rod, slow fermenter

citrobacter, serratia, and family

130

gram negative, not lac fermenter, oxidase negative

shigella salmonella proteus

131

gram negative, not lac fermenter, oxidase positive

pseudomonas
H pylori

132

gram negative diplococci maltose fermenter

N meningitis

133

gram negative diplococci maltose nonfermenter

N gonorrhea

134

gram negative pleomorphic rods

HiB
Bordetella
pasteurella
brucella

135

why is there no vaccine for gonorrhea?

rapid antigenic variation of pilus proteins

136

which neisseria is encapsulated?

meningococci

137

long term complication of gonorrhea

fitz-hugh-curtis syndrome

138

long term complication of meningococci

waterhouse friderichsen

139

tx for gonorrhea

ceftriaxone PLUS azithromycin/coxy for chlamydia coinfection

140

tx for meningitis (in general)

ceftriaxone/penicillin G

141

prophylaxis of meningitis (In general)

rifampin, cipro, ceftriaxone

142

cherry red epiglottis

haemophilus

143

what are factors V and X on chocolate agar?

V: NAD+
X: hematin

144

what can be used instead of factors V and X?

Cogrow with staph aureus which provides factor V

145

dx: legionella

antigen in urine

146

how do you get legionella?

environmental source. NO person to person transmission!

147

Tx: legionella

macrolide or quinolone

148

sx of legionnaire

severe pneumonia, fever, Gi, and CNS sx

149

diabetic osteomyelitis

pseudomonas

150

malignant otitis externa in diabetic

pseudomonas

151

Produces a blue green pigment, and has a grape like odor

pseudomonas

152

Tx: pseudomonas

aminoglycosides plus piperacillin/ticarcilin

153

Two toxins released by pseudomonas

endotoxin: fever/shock
exotoxin A: inactivates EF-2

154

virulence factor for E coli UTI

P pili/fimbrae

155

virulence factor for E coli neonatal meningitis/pneumonia

K1 capsule

156

EIEC pathogenicity

invasion of intestinal mucosa: necrosis/inflammation. No toxins

157

E coli with dysentery

EIEC

158

E coli in children causing diarrhea

EPEC

159

E coli causing dysentery but does not ferment sorbitol

EHEC

160

ETEC pathogenicity

Labile and heat stable toxin produce diarrhea. no inflammation

161

EPEC pathogenicity:

No toxin. just adheres and sits on surface, preventing absorption.

162

EHEC pathogenicity:

Shiga like toxin=HUS (anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure)

Also invasive causing endothelium swelling and mechanical hemolysis

163

E coli causing: Stacked brick intestinal lesions

EAEC

164

E coli from ground beef

EHEC

165

susceptible to kleb

alcoholics
diabetics

166

mucoid colonies with abundant polysaccharide

klebsiella

167

most common cause of osteomyelitis in SCD

salmonella

168

Shig vs Salm: disseminates hematogenously

salmonella

169

Shig vs Salm: antibiotics prolong symptoms

salmonella

170

Shig vs Salm: antibiotics prolong excretion of org in feces

shigella

171

Shig vs Salm: causes a monocytic response

salmonella

172

Shig vs Salm: causes a PMN infiltration

Shigella

173

Shig vs Salm: produces hydrogen sulfide

salmonella

174

fecal leukocyte test in vibrio cholera

NEGATIVE: no invasion

175

How do you get campylobacter

fecal oral

176

how do you get yersinia enterocolitica?

pet feces (puppies), contaminated milk or pork

177

how does yersinia enterocolitis present?

Looks like crohns or appendicitis. But actually a "mesenteric adenitis"

178

Which bugs activate cGMP?

ETEC, yersinia

179

Which bugs activate cAMP?

pertussis
ETEC
vibrio cholera
campylobacter
bacillus cereus
bacillus anthrax

180

Tx: H pylori

triple therapy: clarithromycin, amoxacillin, metronidazole

181

Spirochetes

Borrelia
Leptospira
Tremponema

BLT, Bacon is BIG (size)

182

spirochete visualized with aniline dyes (wright or giemsa)

borrelia

183

surfers in hawaii getting flu like symptoms and jaundice with photophobia

leptospira interrogans. Get this from water contaminated with animal urine

184

weil's disease

severe form of leptospira causing jaundize and azotemia from liver and kidney dysfunction with hemorrhage and anemia

185

Tx for lyme

doxycycline, ceftriaxone

186

natural reservoir of lyme

MOUSE (although transmited by ixodes)

187

Stage 2 of lyme

cardiac block and facial nerve palsy

188

stage 3 of lyme

arthritis
encephalopathy
polyneuropathy

189

Dx: syphilis

Screen with VDRL
Confirm with FTA-ABS
--Can visualize by scraping chancre or conylomata lata

190

2ndary syphilis

palms and soles rash
condylomata lata

191

tertiary syphilis

gummas
aortitis (may have stroke)
tabes dorsalis (positive romberg)
argyll robertson (accommodate but don't react)

192

baby with saber shins, saddle nose, and deafness, with hutchinson's teeth (gaped, peg shaped) and mulberry molars

congenital syphilis

193

causes of false positive VDRL

reacts with beef cardiolipin.
--viral infection (hepatitis, mono)
--drugs
--SLE, rheumatic fever
--leprosy

194

flu like syndrome immediatedly after antibiotics are started

Jarisch Herxheimer rxn

195

borrelia recurrentis transmission

louse. recurs b/c of variable surface antigen

196

brucella transmission

unpasteurized dairy

197

campylobacter transmission

PUPPIES and livestock

198

coxiella transmission

aerosols of cattle amniotic fluid

199

ehrlichiosis

lone star tick

200

francisella tularemia

ticks, rabbits, deer fly

201

which form of leprosy is transmissible?

lepromatous

202

bacillary angiomatosis

BAD catscratch in pts with HIV

203

rickettsia prowazekii transmission

louse

204

rickettsia rickettsii transmission

dermacentor tick bite

205

rickettsia typhi transmission

fleas

206

yersinia transmission

fleas.

207

yersinia reservoir

rats and prairie dogs

208

pleomorphic gram variable rod causing gray vaginal discharge with a fishy smell

gardnerella vaginalis

209

CLUE cells (vaginal epithelial cells covered with bacteria)

gardnerella vaginalis

210

Tx: gardnerella

metro

211

Tx for all rickettsial dz

doxy!

212

rash starting at wrists and ankles spreading to trunks, palms, and soles

rickettsia rickettsii, RMS

213

what cofactors is rickettsia missing that make it obligate intracellular?

CoA and NAD+

214

endemic typhus

R typhi

215

epidemic typhus

R prowazekii

216

Rash starts in the trunk

Epidemic typhus. R prowazekii

217

Which diseases cause a palm and sole rash?

COX A
RMS fever
secondary syphillis

218

monocytes with morula (berry like inclusions) in cytoplasm

ehrlichiosis

219

granulocytes with morula in cytoplasm

anaplasmosis

220

pneumonia in a vet or person who takes care of livestock. No rash.

Q fever.

221

What's special about Q fever

It has an endospore form

222

chlamydia elementary body

infectious, enters cells through endocytosis

223

chlamydia reticulate body

replicates in cell by fission

224

Chlamydia pneumonia and psittaci cause

atypical pneumonia

225

Tx for chlamydia

azithromycin (one time use) doxy works too but longer treatment

226

Dx chlamydia

cytoplasmic inclusions on giemsa or fluorescent antibody smear

227

special about chlamydia cell wall

No muramic acid

228

which chlamydia serotypes cause blindness and conjucntivitis in africa?

A,B,C

229

Which chlamydia serotypes cause urethritis/PID?

D-K

230

chlamydia L1-L3?

lymphogranuloma venereum

231

neonate with staccato cough

think neonatal chlamydial pnemonia

232

Pneumonia where X ray looks worse than pt

mycoplasma pneumonia

233

pneumonia with a high titer of agglutinins

mycoplasma pneumonia

234

Tx mycoplasma pneumonia

macrolide or fluoroquinolone

235

typical demographic for mycoplasma pneumonia

miliary recruits/prisons

236

From bird or bat droppings in mississippi/ohio river valleys. Pneumonia, cough, fever. self limited

histoplasmosis.

237

East of mississippi river and central america. Granulomatous nodules. inflammatory lung disease disseminating to skin and bone

blastomycoses

238

Histology of blasto

broad based buds (look like fisheyes) same size as RBC

239

Histology of histo

macrophage FILLED with small hisoplasma like a bag of jelly beans smaller than RBC

240

Southwest. pneumonia and meningitis that can disseminate to bone and skin.

coccidioides

241

Histology coccidioides

endospore filled with spherules (looks like a hat/helmet) much larger than RBC

242

budding yeast with captain's wheel formation in traveller to latin america

paracoccidioides

243

All fungi we need to know are dimorphic and yeast form at body temperature except

coccidioidomycosis, a spherule in tissue

244

Treatment for mycoses

Local: fluconazole or itraconazole
Systemic: Ampho B

245

tinea versicolor pathophysiology

degradation of lipids makes acid which damage melanocytes

246

tx: tinea versicolor

topical miconazole or selenium sulfide

247

spaghetti and meatballs on KOH

tinea versicolor

248

which mycoses ONLY have hyphae (mold form)

rhizopus and aspergillus

249

Tx: candida

azole if vaginal
fluconazole/caspo if oral
ampho B/caspofungin if systemic

250

who gets allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis?

Asthma
CF pts.

Treat with steroids

251

Who else is susceptible to aspergillus?

Pts with TB. aspergillus can colonize the lung cavities

252

where do you find cryptococcus?

soil or pidgeon dropping

253

culture crypto on

sabouraud's agar

254

dx: crypto

latex agglutination test.

255

soap bubble lesions in brain, on histology but no change on CT

crypto

256

tx: crypto

ampho B and flucytosine

257

mucro and rhizopus

cause frontal lobe abscess with headache. May have black necrotic eschar on face or cranial nerve involvement

258

disc shaped yeast on methenamine silver stain of lung tissue

PCP

259

Tx for PCP

TMP-SMX

260

prophylaxis for PCP?

CD4 <200

261

dimorphic cigar shaped budding yeast

sporothrix xhenckii

262

rose gardener's disease with ulcer and draining lymphatics.

sporotrichosis

263

Tx: sporotrichosis

itraconazole or POTASSIUM iodide

264

transmission giardia

cysts in water

265

dz giardia

trophozoites or cysts in stool

266

what does giardia look like trophozoite form?

A scary kite

267

bloody diarrhea with liver abscess and anchovy paste exudate

amoeba

268

histology of amoeba

flask shaped ulcer

269

dx stage amoeba

trophozoites in cytoplasm or cyst in the stool (with multiple nuclei)

270

Tx: amoeba

metro

271

Tx: asymptomatic amoeba

idoquinol

272

cryptosporidium sx

severe diarrhe ain AIDS, mild diarrhea otherwise

273

Dx: cryptosporidium

cysts on acid fast stain

274

Tx; cryptosporidium

nitazoxanide if immunocompetent

275

classic triad of toxo

chorioretinitis
hydrocephalus
intracranial calcifications
-- can be mono like illness if u r healthy

276

when is toxo transmitted?

across the placenta

277

Dx of toxo

serology or biopsy

278

Tx for toxo

sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine

279

person swam in a freshwater lake and got rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis

naegleria

280

tx: naegleria

not much! occasionally ampho but most people die

281

dx: naegleria

amoebas in spinal fluid

282

african sleeping sickness (enlarged lymph nodes, bouts of fever, coma, somnolence) caused by:

trypanosomes

283

transmission trypanosomes

tsetse fly, painful bite

284

Dx: trypanosomes

blood smear

285

tx: trypanosomes

suramin for blood borne disease
melarsoprol for DNS penetration

286

malaria with 48 hr cycle and dormant form in liver

P vivax

287

malaria with severe, irregular fevers and banana shaped diagnostic form

falciprum

288

malaria with a 72 hour cycle

P malariae

289

First line tx for plasmodium

chloroquine, blocks plasmodium heme polymerase. If resistant, use mefloquine

290

Tx: life threatening plasmodium

intravenous quinidine (test for G6PD deficiency first)

291

Tx: dormant hypnozoite plasmodium vivax

primaquine

292

Sx: babesia

fever and hemolytic anemia

293

Dx: babesia

maltese cross on blood smear along with ring form.
PCR

294

Who is at increased risk of babesia?

asplenic

295

tx: babesia

atovaquone + azithromycin

296

pathogen in chagas

trypanosoma cruzi

297

sx: chagas

cardiomyopathy
megacolon
megesophagus

298

tx: chagas

nifurtimox

299

Sx: Leishmaniasis

spiking fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia

300

Transmission: leishmaniasis

sand fly

301

Dx: leishmaniasis

macrophages with amastigotes

302

Tx: leishmaniasis

sodium stibogluconate

303

foul green discharge with itching and burning

trichomonas vaginalis

304

transmission trichomonas (vs gardenella)

trichomonas=STD
gardenella= NOT an STD!

305

Tx and Dx for trichomonas

trophozoites on wet mount
--metronidazole

306

Tx for pinworm

mebendazole/pyrantel pamoate

307

Tx for ascaris

bendazoles

308

how do you get ascaris?

fecal oral. worry about intestinal obstruction

309

tx stronyloides

ivermectin/albendazole

310

tx for ancylostoma duodenale, necator americanus (hookworm)

bendazole

311

transmission: strongyloides

soil penetrate skin

312

Sx strongyloides

vomiting, diarrhea, anemia

313

Sx hookworms

anemia

314

Dracunulus medinensis

skin inflammation and ulceration from a nematode. get it from drinking water

315

Tx: dracunculus

slow extraction of worm

316

Onchocerca volvulus

nematode causing hyperpigmented skin and river blindness (black flies, black skin, black sight)

317

Tx of onchocerca

ivermectin

318

trans: onchocerca

female black fly

319

loa loa

nematode causing skin swelling and worm in conjunctiva

320

Tx: loa loa

diethylcarbamazine

321

trans: loa loa

deer fly, horse fly, mango fly

322

wuchereria bancrofti

nematode that causes elephantiasis. sx after 1 year

323

Wucheria tx

diethylcarbamazine

324

toxocara canis transmission

food contaminated with eggs

325

toxocara canis sx

nematode causing visceral larva migrans

326

tx toxocara

albendazole or mebendazole

327

ingesting larvae in undercooked pork

taenia solium

328

sx: taenia solium

cysticercosis . seizures or brain cysts

329

tx taenia solium

praziquantel

330

diphyllobothrium latum transmission

larvae from raw freshwater fish

331

sx: diphyllobothrium

B12 deficiency=anemia

332

tx: diphyllo

praziqunatel

333

echinococcus transmission

ingestion of eggs from dog feces

334

sx: echinococcus

cysts in liver. causing anaphylaxis if antigens are released.

335

how to prevent echinococcus anaphylaxis?

pre-inject cyst with ethanol

336

Tx echinococcus

bendazoles

337

schistosoma host

snail

338

schistosoma infectious state

cercariae. a fluke.

339

tx: schistosoma

praziquantel

340

Schistosoma disease

liver and spleen granulomas causing portal hypertension

341

clonorchis sinensis transmission

undercooked fish

342

Sx: clonorchis sinensis

fluke causing biliary tract infection with pigmented (brown) gallstones
assoc'd with cholangiocarcinoma

343

tx: clonorchis

praziquantel

344

paragonimus westermani transmission

fluke from undercooked crab meat

345

sx paragonimus westermani

lung inflammation and secondary bacterial infection with hemoptysis

346

hemoptysis parasite

paragonimus

347

microcytic anemia with a parasite

ancylostoma, necator (hook worm

348

liver cyst, parasite

echinococcus granulosus

349

vitamin B 12 deficiency parasite

diphylloborhtrium

350

biliary tract disease parasite

clonorchis sinensis

351

subacute sclerosing encephalitis sx

ataxia
myoclonus
visual problems