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1

Presentation of kallman

Decreased GnRH
-amenorrhea
-No 2 sex characteristics
-no smell

2

presentation of androgen insensitivity

1. Normal breast development (testosterone-->estriol)
2. No pubic/axillary hair (estradiol/testosterone is the main driver)
3. No wolffian/mullerian structures

3

Complete mole causes vaginal bleeding in:

The first trimester of pregnancy

4

theca lutein cysts

hydatidiform mole

5

Describe the differentiation of a male

SRY chromosome on Y chromosome-->Testes differentiating factor-->Development of testes-->sertoli and leydig cells

Sertoli cells synthesize MIF-->involution of paramesonephric ducts

Leydig cells make testosterone-->Wolffian duct-->epididymis and vas deferens-->DHT-->external genitalia

6

Causes of polyhydramnios

Decreased fetal swallowing (GI atresia)
Increased fetal urination (anemia, twin twin transfusion)

7

Causes of oligohydramnios

renal agenesis
posterior urethral valve

8

What is the problem with cryptorchidism?

Undescended testes atrophy, causing damage to sertoli cells. and infertility.

Low inhibitin, high FSH.

Normal LH and leydig cell function

9

Where does inhibitin/testosterone provide negative feedback?

Inhibin feeds back to pituitary
Testosterone feedsback to hypothalamus AND pituitary

10

Fusion of maxillary prominence with medial nasal prominence failure

cleft lip

11

Cleft palate

failure of palatine shelves to fuse with primary palate or each other

12

Ligation of uterine artery during hysterectomy can damage

The ureter

13

ovary epithelium

simple cuboidal

14

fallopian tube epithelium

simple columnar

15

uterus epithelium

simple columnar

16

cervix epithelium

simple columnar/stratified squamous

17

vagina epithelium

squamous

18

Which portion of the urethra in men is most likely to be injured

membranous segment.

Signs of urethral injury: blood at meatus, boggy prostate. Do NOT put in a foley catheter

19

Pudendal nerve innervates

pelvic floor

20

How do uterine fibroids present?

As menorrhagia

21

Ductus arteriosus is derived from:

The sixth aortic arch

22

Cause of pyelonephritis in a young healthy woman

vesicoureteral reflux causing retrograde urine. Normally if pt gets UTI, urine flow and bladder mucosa and urea prevent colonization

23

Imperforate anus

Problem with anorectal structures (surface ectoderm, below pectinate line)
--inability to pass meconium may come out vagina/urethra if fistulated

24

imperforate anus associated with

urogenital tract abnormalities most common (renal agenesis, bladder extrophy, spadias)
-Vertebral defects
-anal atresia
cardiac/renal/limb anomalies
tracheoesophageal fistula
esophageal atresia

25

Urachus connects

bladder with yolk sac (vitteline duct)

26

Urachus derives from

allantois

27

The bladder derives form the

urogenital sinus

28

vesicourachal diverticulum

outputching of apex of the bladder. Caused by failure to close the urachus adjacent to the bladder

29

Failure to close the distal part of the urachus

urachal sinus. periumbilical tenderness and discharge from umbilicus

30

Failure of central portion of urachus to obliterate

urachal cyst, asymptomatic

31

estrogen secreting primary ovarian tumor

granulosa cell tumor

32

mucin secreting tumor

mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Can cause pseudomyxoma peritonei, where peritoneum fills with mucin.

33

most common germ cell tumor

benign cystic teratoma (dermoid cyst)

34

Breast milk contains everything except

vitamin K and D

35

What vitamin deficiency are premie babies at risk for?

Right away, vitamin K. Vitamin D deficiency shows up at 6 months. newborns have hepatic immaturity and no GI tract necessary to synthesize vitamin K from gut flora. Also, they haven't been eating their leafy green veggies. No teeth!

36

most common fraternal twin presentation

ALWAYS dichorionic, diamniotic but sometimes chorions can fuse

37

most common identical twin presentation

monochorionic, diamniotic

38

early separation of identical twins (0-4 days)

2 amnions, 2 chorions, 2 placentas

39

late separation of identical twins (8-12 days)

1 amnion, 1 chorion.

40

late separation of identical twins (13 days)

monochorionic conjoined twins

41

Testosterone inhibit

BOTH gnRH AND LH

42

inhibin inhibits

ONLY FSH

43

The right ovarian artery drains into the

inferior vena cava

The left drains into the left renal vein

44

Common complication of surgeries of the female reproductive tract

ligation of the ureter

45

vessels supplying the ovary travel through

The suspensory ligament

46

sonic hedgehog protein produced in

zone of polarizing activity (base of limbs)

47

sonic hedghog use:

anterior/posterior axis

48

mutation in sonic hedgehog

holoporsencephaly (failure of two hemispheres to separate)

49

wnt-7 gene produced in

apical ectodermal ridge (at the distal end of limbs)

50

wnt-7 use:

dorsal ventral organization

51

FGF gene produce in

apical ectodermal ridge

52

FGF fxn

mitosis of mesoderm to lengthen limbs

53

homeobox (hox) genes

cranio-caudal organization.

54

mutation in hox

appendages in wrong locations

55

when does hCG secretion begin

1 week

56

when does implantation happen

1 week

57

bilaminar disc formation (epiblast, hypoblast)

2 weeks

58

trilaminar disc

3 weeks

59

notochord, primitive streak, mesoderm, and neural plate form

3 weeks

60

embryonic period

3-8 weeks susceptible to teratogens

61

neural tube closed by

week 4

62

heart begins beating

week 4

63

limbs form

week 4

64

fetal movement, fetus appears

week 8

65

genitalia (can sex the fetus)

weeek 10

66

agenesis

absent organ from absent primordial tissue

67

aplasia

absent organ with primordial tissue present

68

deformation

extrinsic disruption after embryonic period

69

malformation

intrinsic disruption: occurs during embryonic period

70

teratogen: renal damage

ACE inhibitors

71

teratogen: absent digits, other anomalies

alkylating agents

72

teratogen: Neural tube defects, fingernail hypoplasia, and developmental delay with facial defects

carbamazepine

73

teratogen:vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma and congenital mullerian anomalies

Diethylstilbestrol

74

teratogen:neural tube defects

folate antagonist
carbamazepine
valproate

75

teratogen: Ebstein's anomaly (atrialized right ventricl)

lithium

76

teratogen: microcephaly, dysmorphic face, hypoplastic nails and distal phalances with cardiac defects

phenytoin (fetal hydantoin syndrome)

77

teratogen:flipper limbs

thalidomide

78

teratogen: bone deformities, hemorrhage, abortion
opthalmologic abnormalities

warfarin

79

teratogen:placental abruption

cocaine

80

teratogen: preterm labor and placental problems, ADHD

smoking

81

which drugs can cause intrauterine growth retardation?

carbamazepine
phenytoin
smoking

82

maternal diabetes can cause

anal atresia (caudal regression)
congenital heart defects
neural tube defects

83

Vitamin A causes

spontaneous abortions and birth defects

84

X rays cause

microcephaly and mental retardation

85

mental retardation, microcephaly, holoprosencephaly, face abnormalities, limb dislocation, and heart/lung fistulas

fetal alcohol syndrome

86

dizygotic twins always are

dichorionic
diamniotic

87

most monozygotic twins are

monochorionic
diamniotic

88

cleavage: dichorionic diamniotic monozygotic twins

0-4 days

89

cleavage: monochorionic diamniotic twins

4-8 days

90

cleavage: monochorionic monoamniotic twins

8-12 days

91

cleavage: monochorionic monoamniotic onjoined twins

> 13 days

92

fxn cytotrophoblast

cells of inner layer of chorionic villi

93

fxn syncytiotrophoblast

secretes hCG.
stimulates corpus luteum to make progesterone

94

umbilical arteries connect

fetal internal iliac arteries to placenta

95

umbilical arteries and veins derived from

allantois

96

umbilical vein connects

placenta to ductus venosus

97

contents of umbilical cord

2 arteries
1 vein
allantoic duct
wharton's jelly

98

urachal duct

connects bladder and yolksac (umbilical cord)

99

urachal duct comes from

allantois

100

outpouching of bladder

vesicourachal diverticulum. failure of urachus to close

101

urine discharge from umbilicus

patent urachus

102

when does the allantois form

3 week

103

vitelline (omphalomesenteric duct)

connects yolk sac to gut lumen

104

discharge of meconium from umbilicus

vitelline fistula

105

meckel's diverticulum: cause?

failure of vitelline duct to close

106

when does vitelline duct close

week 7

107

branchial cleft (grooves) vs arches vs pouches

cleft: ectoderm
arches: mesoderm and crest cells (bones, cartilage)
pouches: endoderm

108

1st branchial cleft

external auditory meatus

109

2nd-4th branchial clefts

temporary cervical sinuses

110

branchial left cyst in lateral neck caused by

persistent cervical sinus

111

pt with mandibular hypoplasia and facial abnormalities

failure of 1st arch neural crest cell migration (treacher collins)

112

persistence of fistula between tonsillar area and cleft in lateral neck caused by

3rd arch problem
=congenital pharyngocutaneous fistula

113

DiGeorge sx

No thymus
hypocalcemia (no parathyroids)

114

Men2A caused by mutation in

RET

115

RET codes

neural crest cells

116

parafollicular cells come from

neural crest cells
4th and 5th pharyngeal pouches

117

failure of fusion of maxillary and medial nasal processes

cleft lip

118

failure of fusion of lateral palatine processes, nasal septum, median palantine processes

cleft palate

119

paramesonephric duct

female system

120

mesonephric duct

male system

121

wolffian duct becomes

seminal vesicles
epididymis
ejaculatory duct
ductus deferens

122

paramesonephric duct becomes

fallopian tubes
uterus
upper portion of vagina

123

lower vagina from

urogenital sinus

124

fully developed 2ndary sex characteristics in a female indicates

functional ovaries

125

male development summary

1. SRY=testes development-->simulate sertoli and leydig cells to form
2. sertoli-MIF
3. MIF inhibits paramesonephric ducts
4. Leydig=androgen
5. androgen simulates mesonephric duct

126

Both male and female internal genitalia, and male external genitalia

no MIF

127

male internal genitalia, ambigious external genitalia until puberty

5a reductase

128

hypospadias caused by

failure of urethral folds to close

129

epispadias caused by

faulty positioning of genital tubercle

130

epispadias associated with

extrophy of the bladder

131

gubernaculum in male

anchors testes in scrotum

132

gubernaculum in female

ovarian and round ligament of uterus

133

processus vaginalis forms

tunica vaginalis

134

more likely to get a hydrocele on the left or the right?

On the left--gonadal vein drains to left renal vein

135

ovaries/testes drain to what nodes

paraaortic lymph node

136

distal 1/3 or vagina/vulva drains to what nodes

superficial inguinal nodes

137

scrotum drains to

superficial inguinal nodes

138

proximal 2/3 of vagina drain what nodes

external iliac/hypogastric nodes

139

uterus drains to what nodes

external iliac/hypogastric nodes

140

suspensory ligament connects

ovaries to lateral pelvic wall

141

cardinal ligament connects

cervix to pelvis side wall

142

round ligament of the uterus connects

uterine fundus to labia majora

143

broad ligament connects

uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries to pelvic wall

144

ligament of the ovary connects

medial pole of ovary to lateral uterus

145

structures in suspensory ligament

ovarian vessels

146

structures in cardinal ligament

uterine vessels

147

structure in round ligament

artery of sampson

148

mesosalpinx

upper portion of broad ligament

149

mesometrium

lower portion of broad ligament

150

mesovarium

portion of broad ligament over the ovary

151

endocervix hsitology

simple columnar

152

uterus histology

simple columnar

153

fallopian histology

simple columnar

154

ovary histology

simple cuboidal

155

erection mediated by what nerve

pelvic.

156

emission (sperm into posterior urethra) nerve

hypogastric

157

ejaculation nerve

pudendal nerve

158

pathophys of erection

BONER:
1. NO-->cGMP-->smooth muscle relaxation-->vasodilation
BONER KILLER:
2. NE-->Increase in calcium in=vasoconstriction

159

nervous systems for erection, emission, ejaculation:

1. Parasympathetic
2. Sympathetic
3. Somatic

160

sertoli cells secrete

1. inhibitn
2. androgen binding protein (increase local levels of testosterone)
3. MIF

161

what forms the blood testes barrier?

sertoli cells

162

full development of sperm take how long

2 months

163

what does a spermatid do to become a spermatozoa?

loss of cytoplasmic contents
gain of acrosomal cap=mature spermatozoa

164

pirmary spermatocyte nuclear content

doubled chromosomes, 2N

165

secondary spermatocyte nuclear contents

double chromsomes, haploid
(1N, 2C)

166

spermatid nuclear contents

1N, 1C
haploid, one copy of everything

167

inhibin inhibits what?

ONLY anterior pituitary
Not hypothalamus

168

closure of epiphyseal plates

estrogen.
==In male, converted from testosterone by adipose tissue and leydig cells

169

DHT differentiates

penis, scrotum, prostate

170

Ovary produces what form of estrogen

17B-estradiol

171

placenta produces what form of estrogen

estriol

172

adipose estrogen

estrone

173

potency of different estrogens

estradiol>estrone>estriol

174

effect of estrogen on prolactin

Stimulates prolactin secretion but blocks prolactin action at the breast

175

estrogen receptors located where in the cell?

cystoplasm.
After binding, translocates to the nucleus

176

LH stimulates what enzyme

desmolase
--converts cholesterol to androstenedione

177

Effect of estrogen on transport proteins

increased SHBG
Increased HDL
decreased LDL

178

elevation in progesterone in a woman indicates

ovulation

179

effets of progesterone

decreases myometrial excitability
increases body temperature
inhibits FSH, LH
relaxes uterine smooth muscle
decreases estrogen receptors

180

Tanner stage: curly and dark pubic hair

III

181

Tanner stage: penis length and size increase

III

182

Tanner: Enlargement of breast beyond buds

III

183

Tanner: raised areolae

IV

184

which phase of your period is constant

luteal phase

185

normal cycle length

21-35 days

186

metrorrhagia

frequent but irregular menstruation

187

menometrorrhagia

heavy and irregular bleeding

188

what hormones peak at 14 days

FSH
LH
Estrogen

189

mittelschmerz

blood from ruptured follicle causes peritoneal irritation. looks like appendicitis

190

eggs are held in what state until ovulation

prophase I

191

eggs are held in what state until fertilization?

metaphase II

192

what hormones STEADILY increase throughout the pregnancy

prolactin
progesterone
estriol

193

after labor, what causes lactation?

removal of progesterone

194

elevated hCG in which pathological states?

hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinoma

195

menopause occurs earlier in what group?

smokers

196

best test to confirm meenopaus?

Increase in FSH

197

why do women become hirsuit after menopause?

increase in androgens (more LH) with peripheral conversion to estrone. (no negative feedback from estrogen)

198

menopause before age 40

think premature ovarian failure

199

hormonal levels in klinefelter's

decreased inhibin
increased FSH
Increased LH
Increased estrogen

200

barr body

klinefelter's

201

heart defects seen in turner's

bicuspid aortic valve
preductal coractation

202

renal defect in turner's

horseshoe

203

hormone levesl in turner's

low estrogen
high FSH
high LH

204

very fall, sever, acne
antisocial behavior
normal fertility

XYY

205

high testosterone, high LH

defective androgen receptor

206

high testosterone, low LH

testosterone tumor or exogenous use

207

ovaries present, but external genitalia ambiguous

CAH

208

testes present, but external genitalia are ambiguous

androgen insensitivity

209

true hermaphroditism

Both ovary and testicular tissue present

210

normal appearing female with rudimentary vagina and no internal genitalia
--testes in labia majora
--very little hair

androgen insensitivity. remove testes to prevent malignancy!

211

labs in androgen insensitivity

high testosterone
high estrogen
high LH

212

labs in 5a reductase deficiency

testosterone and estrogen levels are hormal. LH is normal.

213

kallman syndrome cause

defective migration of GnRH

214

labs in kallman

low GnRH, FSH, LH
low testosteron and sperm count

215

most common precursor of a choriocarcinoma

hydatidiform mole

216

snowstorm appearance on US

complete mole

217

tx of mole

dilation and curettage and methotrexate

218

follow up after mole removal

monitor b-hCG

219

complete vs partial mole hcG

hcG much higher in complete mole

220

which mole more likely to convert to choriocarcinoma?

complete mole

221

risk of malignant trophoblastic disease higher in which mole?

complete mole

222

cause of pre-eclampsia

impaired vasodilation of spiral arteries
=increased vascular tone

223

sx of preeclampsia

hypertension, proteinuria and edema

224

sx of preeclampsia before 20 weeks

molar pregnancy

225

cause of death in preeclampsia

cerebral hemorrhage and ARDS

226

how to prevent seizures of eclampsia

IV magnesium sulfate

227

risk factors for abruptio placentae

Smoking, HTN, cocaine

228

cause: placenta accreta

defective decidual layer. placenta attaches to myometrium

229

risk factors for placenta accreta

C section
inflammation
placenta previa

230

risk factors: placenta previa

multiparity and prior C section

231

problems with retained placental tissue

postpartum hemorrhage
infection

232

hCG lower than expected on dates

ectopic

233

risk factors for ectopic pregnancy

1. history of infertility
2. salpingitis
3. ruptured appendix
4. prior tubal surgery

234

polyhydramnios assoc'd with

esophageal/duodenal atresia
anencephaly

235

oligohydramnios assoc'd with

bilateral renal agenesis
posterior urethral valves
placental insufficiency

236

potter's syndrome

1. pulmonary hypoplasia
2. clubbed feet
3. cranial abnormalities
4. bilateral renal agenesis

237

HPV 16 gene product

E6. Inhibits p53

238

HPV 18 gene product

E7. Inhibits RB suppresor gene

239

sequelae of invasive carcinoma if growing laterally

block ureters=renal failure

240

endometritis

inflammation of endometrium from retained products of conception

241

tx for endometritis

gentamycin
clindamycin

242

endometriosis sx

menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, pain with a normal sized nucleus

243

adenomyosis sx

menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain with an enlarged uterus

244

tx: endometriosis

contraceptives, NSAIDS
leuprolide, danazol

245

endometrium within the myometrium

adenomyosis

246

tx of adenomyosis

hysterectomy

247

granulosa tumor will show

abnormal endometrial gland proliferation
--excess estrogen

248

risk factors of endometrial carcinoma

lots of estrogen
-obesity
-diabetes
-htn
-nulliparity

249

prognosis endometrial carcinoma

increased myometrial invasion=poorer prognosis

250

leiomyoma type of tumor

benign smooth muscle tumor

251

whorled pattern of smooth muscle bundles; tumor?

leimyoma

252

sx of leiomyoma

abnormal bleeding
miscarriage

253

bulky irregular tumor with necrosis and hmorrhage that may protrude from cervix and bleed. aggressive.

leimyosarcoma

254

leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma have an increased incidence in

blacks

255

incidence by tumor type

endometrial>ovarian>cervical (US)

256

worst prognosis by tumor type

ovarian>cervical>endometrial

257

how does cushing's cause anovulation?

high ACTH
--increased androgen production

258

labs in PCOS

high LH
low FSH
high testosterone
high estrogen (peripheral. aromatization)
NO progesterone

259

PCOS pts at increased risk for what cancer

endometrial cancer.

260

tx PCOS

weight loss medroxyprogesterone, OCPs

261

follicular cyst contents

unruptured graafian follicle

262

corpus luteum cyst

hemorrhage into corpus luteum

263

cause: theca lutein cyst

gnRH stimulation. usually multiple

264

theca/lutein cyst associated with

choriocarcinoma and moles

265

hemorrhagic cyst cause

blood vessel rupture into cyst

266

endometriod cyst

chocolate cyst. varies with menstrual cycle

267

elevated hCG and LDH. sheets of uniform cells

dysgerminoma

268

dysgerminoma associated with

Turner's syndrome

269

choriocarcinoma biopsy shows

trophoblastic tissue with NO chorionic villi

270

schiller duval bodies

yolk sac tumor

271

choriocarcinoma assoc'd with

increased theca lutein cysts

272

choriocarcinoma spreads first to the

lungs

273

yellow friable solid mass= tumor?

yolk sac

274

where do yolk sac tumors present in adults? kids?

adults=ovaries and testes
kids=sacrococcygeal

275

immature vs mature teratoma (dermoid cyst)

immature is aggressive.

276

struma ovarii

teratoma that contains functional thyroid tissue

277

90 percent of ovarian non germ cell tumors are

serous cystadenoma or serous cystadenocarcinoma

278

histology: serous cystadenoma

fallopian tube epithelium

279

histology serous cystadenocarcinoma

psamomma bodies

280

multilocular cyst lined by mucus secreting epithelium. Intestine-like.

mucinsous cystadenoma

281

mucinous cystadenocarcinoma associated with

pseudomyxoma peritonei

282

pseudomyxoma peritonei

intraperitoneal accumulation of mucinous material from ovarian tumor

283

pulling sensation in groin with ovarian fibroma, ascites, and hydrothorax

fibromas

284

histology fibromas

spindle shaped fibroblasts

285

call exner bodies

small follicles with eosinophilic secretions. associated with granulosa cell tumor

286

estrogen secreting tumor

granulosa tumor

287

GI malignancy that metastasizes to ovaries

krukenberg

288

mucin secreting signet cell tumor in ovaries

krukenberg

289

girls under four with spindle shaped tumor cells that are desmin positive

sarcoma botryoides

290

Clear cell adenocarcinoma

women exposed to DES in utero

291

diseases of the nipple

Paget's
abscess

292

diseases of the lactiferous sinus

intraductal papilloma
mastitis

293

diseases of the major duct

fibrocystic change
ductal cancer

294

diseases of the terminal duct

tubular carcinoma

295

diseases of the lobules

sclerosing adenosis
lobular carcinoma

296

diseases of the breast stroma

fibroadenoma
phyllodes tumor

297

small mobile firm mass with sharp edges in the breast

fibroadenoma

298

small tumor that grows in lactiferous ducts. Below areola

intraductal papilloma

299

large bulky mass of CT and cysts in breast.

phyllodes

300

"leaf like" projections in the breast

phyllodes

301

phyllodes age group

60's

302

serous or bloody nipple discharge

intraductal papilloma

303

risk of carcinoma with fibroma, intraductal papilloma, and phyllodes?

fibroma=none
intraductal papilloma=1.5-2x risk
phyllodes can become malignantM

304

Most important prognostic factor with malignant breast tumors

axillary lymph node

305

ductal caseous necrosis

comedocarcinoma

306

rock hard mass with duct like cells

invasive ductal carcinoma

307

stellate morpholoby

invasive ductal carcinoma

308

indian file cells

invasive lobular carcinoma

309

histology of medullary invasive carcinoma

fleshy, cellular, lymphocytic infiltrate

310

peau d'orange skin with neoplastic cells blocking lymphatic ducts

inflammatory invasive breast cancer

311

eczematous patches on nipple

paget's disease

312

which is the worst breast cancer to get

invasive ductal

313

Which breast cancer has a good prognosis

medullary

314

which breast cancer is usually bilateral with multiple lesions?

invasive lobular

315

large cells in epidermis with clear halo in breast biopsy

paget cells

316

Four types of fibrocystic disease

1. fibrosis
2. cystic
3. sclerosing adenosis
4. epithelial hyperplasia

317

most common cause of acute mastitis

S aureus colonizing during breast feeding

318

hyperplasia of the breast stroma---fibrocystic dz

fibrosis

319

fluid filled blue dome with ductal dilation--fibrocystic dz

cystic

320

increased acini and intralobular fibrosis with calcifications--fibrocystic dz

sclerosing adenosis. often confused with cancer

321

Increased number of epithelial cell layers in terminal duct lobule--fibrocystic dz

epithelial hyperplasia

322

which fibrocystic disease is associated with an increased risk of carcinoma?

epithelial hyperplasia

323

benign lump from injury to breast tissue

fat necrosis

324

drugs causing gynecomastia

spironolactone
digitalis
cimetidine
alcohol
ketoconazole

325

dysuria, frequency, urgency, and low back pain in a male

prostatitis

326

cause of acute prostatitis

bacterial

327

cause of chronic prostatitis

usually no bacteria

328

BPH = enlargement of...

lateral and middle lobes

329

sx of BPH

increased frequency of urination
difficulty starting and stopping pee
pain on urination

330

Treatment of BPH

terazosin, tamsulosin (a 1antagonist)
finasteride (5a reductase blocker)

331

prostate cancer arises from which area

posterior lobe, won't cause sx like BPH

332

tumor markers for prostate cancer

1. increased prostatic acid phosphatase
2. increased total PSA
3. decreased free PSA

333

how do you know if prostate cancer has metastasized to the bone?

serum alkaline phosphatase increase

334

cryptorchidism

undescended testes

335

cryptorchidism associated with increased risk of

increased risk of germ cell tumors

336

risk factor for cryptorchidism

prematurity

337

hormone levels in cryptorchidism

less inhibin, increased FSH and LH
--testosterone decreased in bilateral cryptorchidism
--testosterone normal in unilateral cryptorchidism

338

bag of worms

varicocele

339

tx of varicocele

surgery or embolization by radiologist

340

95 percent of testicular tumors are

germ cell tumors

341

homogeneous testicular enlargement. Watery cytoplasm and fried egg appearance: tumor?

seminoma

342

increase in PLAP

seminoma

343

seminoma age group

15-35

344

yellow, mucinous with schillar duval bodies: testicular tumor?

yolk sac

345

man with increased hCG

choriocarcinoma or teratoma or embryonal carcinoma

346

choriocarcinoma in a male metastsizes to

lungs

347

tumors producing gynecomastia

choriocarcinoma from hCG

348

mature teratoma in a adult male vs child prognosis

adult male=malignant
child=benign

349

teratoma labs

increased hCG and/or AFP

350

glandular/papillary morphology with increased hCG

embryonal carcinoma. Often a mixed tumor with increased AFP

351

Reinke crystals

leydig cell tumor

352

most common testicular cancer in older men

lymphoma

353

sertoli cell tumor

androblastoma from sex cord stroma

354

sx of leydig cell tumor

gynecomastia in men, precocious puberty in boys

355

hydrocele cause

incomplete fusion of processus vaginalis

356

cause spermatocele

dilated epididymal duct

357

bent penis from acquired fibrous tissue formation

peyronie's disease

358

causes of priapism

trauma
sickle cell disease
medications
PDE5 inhibitors
antidepressants
alpha blockers
cocaine