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Flashcards in Virology Deck (185):
1

recombination vs reassortment

recombination: exchanging homologous sections of DNA
reassortment: segmented DNA exchange segments, causing high frequency recombination

2

complementation

Think of Hepatitis D. Can't infect with B because mising a protein

3

phenotypic mixing

genome of virus A coated with surface protein of B. occurs with coinfection. However progeny will be normal (Virus A coat with A DNA)

4

Live attenuated vaccines

smallpox
yellowfever
chickenpox
sabin's polio
MMR
Influenza (intranasal)

Also BCG and salmonella typhi

5

immunity induced by live vs killed vaccines

live: cell mediated AND humoral, no booster
killed: ONLY humoral, need booster

6

Killed vaccines

Rabies
influenza
salk polio
HAV
bordetella

7

Recombinant vaccines

HBV, HPV

8

toxoid vaccines

diptheria and tetanus

9

Conjugate vaccine

HiB

10

All DNA viruses except _____ are dsDNA

parvoviridae

11

All DNA viruses are linear except

papilloma, polyoma, hepadnaviruses

12

DNA viruses

Herpes
Hepad
Adeno
Parvo
Papilloma
Polyoma
Pox
(HHAPPPPy)

13

All DNA viruses are icosahedral except

pox

14

all DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus except

pox

15

which viruses are diploid?

ONLY retroviruses

16

RNA viruses repliate in

the cytoplasm. Except: influenza and retroviruses

17

Which viruses are infections by themselves (without cell machinery)

positive strand ssRNA
and dsDNA (except pox and HBV)

18

DNA nonenveloped virus

papilloma
Adeno
parvovirus
polyomavirus
PAPP

19

RNA nonenveloped virus

CPR+H
calcivirus
picornavirus
reovirus
hepevirus

20

dsDNA and enveloped

herpes
hepadna
pox

21

dsDNA enveloped and linear

herpes
pox

22

dsDNA enveloped and circular

hepadna

23

dsDNA nonenveloped and circular

papillomavirus, polyomavirus

24

dsDNA nonenveloped and linear

adenovirus

25

ssDNA and linear (negative sense)

parvovirus

26

HHV-3

chickenpox

27

HHV-4

EBV

28

HHV-5

CMV

29

CMV causes

AIDs retinitis

30

HHV-6

roseola (reticular red rash in kids)

31

HHV-7

less common cause of roseola

32

HHV-8

kaposi's sarcoma

33

viral conjunctivitis

adenovirus

34

virus causing hemorrhagic cystitis in kids

adenovirus

35

viruses in polyoma family

JC virus=PML
BK virus=transplant pts, targets kidney (BK=bad kidney)

36

Viruses in poxvirus family

small pox
vaccinia (cowpox=milkmaid blisters)
molluscum contagiosum

37

most common cause of sporadic encephalitis in US

HSV-1. Causes temporal rode encephalitis

38

VZV latent in

dorsal root or trigeminal ganglia

39

mononucleosis with a negative monospot test

CMV

40

virus latent in mononuclear cells

CMV

41

Roseola

high fevers for days (sz) then a diffuse macular rash

42

How do you get HHV-8?

sexual contact

43

Dx: HSV

PCR
--tzanck test: smear of opened skin vesicle

44

cowdry A inclusions

HSV

45

EBV infects what cells

B cells

46

atypical lymphocytes come from what cell

reactive cytotoxic T cells (not B cells!)

47

heterophile antibodies detected by agglutination of sheep RBC

positive monospot test

48

causes of mononucleosis NOT EBV

CMV
Toxoplasmosis
HHV-6

49

EBV causes what cancers

Burkitt's lymphomas
nasopharyngela carcinoma
Hodgkins

50

Infections acquired during birth

Herpes
Chlamydia
Gonorrhea
GBS

51

enveloped RNA viruses

flavivirus
togavirus
retrovirus
coronavirus

orthomyxovirus
paramyxovirus

rhabdovirus
filovirus

arenavirus
bunyavirus
deltavirus

52

which enveloped RNA viruses are ss+ linear?

flavivirus
togavirus
retrovirus
coronavirus

53

which enveloped RNA viruses are ss- and linear segmented?

orthomyxovirus

54

Which enveloped RNA viruses are ss- and nonsegmented?

paramyxovirus
rhabdovirus
filovirus

55

enveloped RNA viruses ss- and circular

arenavirus
bunyavirus
deltavirus

56

which enveloped RNA virus ss-, circular, and segmented?

arenavirus
bunyavirus

57

enveloped RNA virus ss- circular, NON segmented

delta

58

nonenveloped RNA virus

reo
picorna
hepe
calci

59

nonenveloped RNA virus, linear ss+

picorna
hepe
calci

60

nonenveloped RNA ds Linear with 10-12 segments

reovirus

61

Which RNA viruses are icosahedral?

All the nonenveloped viruses (reo, picorna, hepe, calci) PLUS
flavivurs
togavirus
retrovirus

62

picornaviruses

polio
echovirus-meningitis
rhinovirus
coxsackie-meningitis, mouth blisters, hand foot and mouth
HAV
PERCH on a peak (pico)

63

flaviviruses

HCV
yellow fever
dengue
st louis encephalopathy
west nile

64

toga viruses

rubella
Eastern equine
western equine

65

paramyxoviruses

parainfluenza-croup
RSV-bronchiolitis in babies
Measles/mumps

66

filovirus

Ebola

67

arenavirus

LCMV: lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
Lassa fever encephalitis

68

bunyavirus

Hantavirus--hemorrhagic fever, pneumonia
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever
Sandfly/Rift Valley Fever
California encephalitis

69

negative sense RNA viruses

Always bring polymerase or fail replication
-arenavirus
-bunyavirus
-paramyxovirus
-orthomyxovirus
-filovirus
-rhabdovirus

70

Segmented viruses

ALL RNA
-orthomyxovirus
bunyavirus
arenavirus
reovirus

71

pahtophys rhinovirus

Binds to ICAM-1 to get to epithelial cells. Acid labile, so destroyed by stomach acid

72

sx: yellow fever

flavivirus with monkey reservoir
-fever
BLACK VOMIT
jaundice

73

rotavirus presentation

segmented dsRNA
diarrhea in kids causing loss of Na and K with villous destruction

74

tx: rotavirus?

vaccination

75

hemagglutinin

orthomyxovirus component=viral entry

76

neuraminidase

promotes progeny virion release

77

risky complication of influenza?

bacterial superinfection.

78

what type of flu vaccine do you use in kids?

Live vaccine--nasal.

79

truncal rash that starts at head and moves down with fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias

rubella virus

80

F surface fusion protein causing respiratory epithelial cells to fuse and form multinucleated cells.

paramyxoviruses (RSV and parainfluenza)

81

prophylaxis for RSV in premature infants?

palivizumab (monoclonal antibody against F protein)

82

koplike spots and descending rash including hands and feet

measles

83

3 C's of measles

cough
coryza
conjunctivitis

84

complications years later with measles

subacute sclerosing panencephalopathy

85

parotitis, orchitis, aseptic meningitis

mumps. worry about sterility in pts infected AFTER puberty

86

negri body

rhabies

87

where do you find negri bodies

purkinje cells of the cerebellum

88

bullet shaped virus

rabies

89

transmission rabies

bat, raccoon, skunk bites

90

incubation of HAV

weeks

91

classification HAV

RNA picornavirus

92

classification HBV

DNA hepadnavirus

93

classification HCV

RNA flavivirus

94

classification HDV

RNA delta virus

95

classification HEV

RNA hepevirus

96

inclubation HBV

months

97

incubation HCV

LONG-years?

98

would you rather be superinfected or coinfected with HDV?

coinfected. superinfection has a worse prognosis

99

incubation with HDV superinfection

short. if HDV coinfection, long incubation (matches that of HBV)

100

how do you get HDV/HBV

IV or sex, or maternal fetal

101

how does HBV vs HCV cause HCC?

HBV--activates oncogenes
HCV--causes cirrhosis which causes HCC

102

which hepatitis viruses are naked?

HAV and HEV. These do not have an envelope and therefore are NOT destroyed by the gut

103

describe the replication of Hep B

1. virus enters cell
2. dsDNA repaired in the nucleus
3. transcribed to RNA
4. RT of RNA-->DNA
5. packaged into DNA

104

best test to detect active hep A

antiHAV IgM

105

Anti-HAV IgG

indicates prior infection or vaccination to HAV

106

hbSaG

INDICATES CURRENT HEPATITIS b INFECTION

107

Anti-HBc

antibody to core of HBV.
igM=acute or recent infection
IgG=prior exposure or chronic infection

108

Which serologic hep B marker is positive during the window period?

Anti-HBc

109

Anti-HBe and HBeAg tell you

transmissability. Battle between Anti-HBe and HBe antigen indicating how much the virus is replicating

110

Most people clear HBV and are fine. who is less likely to clear the diseaes?

intrapartum HBV infection. these kids have a 90% progression rate to chronic disease

111

What is the window period

Time between the end of HBsAg and start of Anti-HBs around 6 months after exposure where all serologic markers are negative

112

What order to serology markers peak in Hep B?

SECES
HBsAg
HBeAg

Anti-HBc
Anti-HBe
Anti-HBs

113

Acute HBV serology

HBsAg
HBeAg
anti-HBc IgM

114

window period

Anti-HBe
Anti-HBc IgM

115

chronic HBV (high infectivity)

HBs
HBeAg (would have anti-HBe if low infectivity)
Anti-HGc IgG

116

Recovery HBV

Anti-HBc IgG
Anti-HBe
Anti-HBs

117

HIV attachment to host cell

gp120

118

HIV fushion and entry to host cell

gp41

119

gag p24

capsid protein

120

pol

RT
aspartate protease
integrase

121

env

gp120 and 41

122

Dx of HIV

ELISA
western blot to follow up and rule in

123

AIDS diagnosis

CD4 < 200 or with AIDS defining condition
OR
CD4/CD8 ratio < 1.5

124

which HIV genes are needed for replication?

tat and rev

125

HIV disease if CD <100

systemic histoplasma: fever, cough, tongue ulcer, hepatosplenomegaly

toxoplasma: abscesses in brain causing ring enhancing lesions

esophageal candida

126

HIV illness if CD < 400

oral thrush

127

HIV illness if CD < 200

cryptosporidium: chronic watery diarrhea
JC virus reactivation; PML=progressive focal neuro deficit
PCP pneumonia

128

HIV illness if CD < 50

MAC
CMV=cotton wool spots and esophagitis/pneumonia
cryptococcus meningitis

129

How do you distinguish bacillary angiomatosis (bartonella) from kaposi's sarcoma (HHV-8?)

biopsy
1. kaposi's: lymphocytic inflammation
2. bartonella: neutrophilic inflammation

130

HIV cancers

hairy leukoplakia
non-hodgkin's lymphoma
squamous cell carcinoma of anus
primary CNS lymphoma
--many are associated with EBV

131

Causes of pneumonia in HIV +

CMV
aspergillus
PCP
MAC

132

gerstmann straussler sheinker syndrome

inherited prion disease
CJD is sporadic

133

diarrhea from seafood

vibrio parahemolyticus and vulnificus

134

diarrhea: meat/mayonaise/custard

staph aureus

135

diarrhea: undercooked beef/meat

EHEC

136

reheated meat dishes

clostridium perfringens

137

which bugs mimics appendicitis

yersinia enterocolitica
salmonella
campylobacter

138

causes of bloody diarrhea

campylobacter
salmonella
shigella
EHEC/EIEC
yersinia (think daycare, pseudoappendicitis)
amoeba

139

C diff and C perfringens diarrhea

C diff: bloody or nonbloody
C perf: gas gangrene

140

neonatal pneumonia

GBS
E coli

141

Child pneumonia

RSV
Mycoplasma
chlamycia ( under 3)
C pneumonia (school age)
strep pneumo

142

pneumonia in adults

Mycoplasma
C pneumonia
S pneumonia

143

40-65 yo adult pneumonia

H flu
S pneumo
anaerobes
viruses

144

Elderly pneumonia

S pneumo
Influenza
Anaerobes
H flu
gram - rods

145

hospital and immunocompromised pneumonia

staph or enterics

146

alcoholic pneumonia

klebsiella, staph, strep pneumo

147

postviral pneumonia

staph
H flu
S pneumo

148

child meningitis

strep pneumo
N meningitidis
HiB
enteroviruses

149

Adult meningitis

S pneumo
n meningitidis
HSV
enterovirus

150

Elderly meningitis

S pneumo
listeria
e coli

151

empirical tx meningitis

ceftriaxone/vanco
Add ampicillin if suspect listeria (old or young)

152

sexually active osteomyelitis

neisseria

153

diabetic/IV drug osteomyelitis

pseudomonas, serratia

154

opening pressure in viral meningitis

normal/slight increase

155

CSF tap in fungal/TB meningitis

increase protein, decreased sugars
lymphocytes
increased opening pressure

156

CSF tap in viral meningitis

normal opening pressure
lympcytes
normal protein (maybe slight elevation)
normal sugar

157

difference btw leukocyte esterase test and positive nitrite

nitrite test tells you bacteria are gram negative

158

urine urease test comes back positive

proteus or klebsiella

159

2nd/3rd leading cause of UTI

staph saprophyticus
klebsiella

160

swarming motility and struvite stones UTI

proteus

161

classic causes of reactive arthritis

chlamydia
enterics (salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, yersinia)

162

TORCHES infections

toxoplasma
rubella
CMV
HIV
HSV2
Syphilis

163

In a neonate:
chorioretinitis
hydrocephalus
intracranial calcifications

toxoplasma

164

In a neonate:
PDA
Cataracts
Deafness
blueberry muffin rash

rubella

165

In a neonate:
HEARING LOSS, SEIZURES, BLUEBERRY muffin rash

CMV

166

In a neonate:
recurrent infections and chronic diarrhea

HIV

167

In a neonate:
encephalitis, herpetic lesions

HSV2

168

In a neonate:
hydrops fetalis

syphilis or Parvovirus B19

169

In a neonate:
saddle nose
saddle teath
CNVIII deafness

syphilis

170

Infection of lymphatics and small painless genital ulcers with rectal strictures

lymphogranuloma venereum

171

vaginitis, strawberry mucosa, and motile wet prep

trichomoniasis

172

aortitis

tertiary syphilis

173

creamy purulent discharge and urethritis/cervicitis/epididymitis

gonorrhea

174

chancroid, a painFUL genital ulcer with inguinal adenopathy

haemophilus decreyi. School of fish appearance.

175

Most common STD in the US

Chlamydia

176

Infection of the liver capsule and violin string adhesions of parietal peritoneum to liver. In sexually active person

What is Fitz Hugh Curtis syndrome

177

donovan bodies and a painless ulcer

klebsiella granulomatis

178

Rubella vs measles

rubella: Rash starts at head and moves down with postauricular lymphadenopathy

measles: Rash starts at head and moves down. Preceded by cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and koplic spots

179

largest DNA virus

pox virus

180

All RNA viruses except ____ are ss RNA

Reovirus

181

Reoviruses

Rotavirus
Coltivirus: colorado tick fever

182

Calcivirus

norovirus

183

Retroviruses

HTLV
HIV

184

SARS

coronavirus

185

Rash in measles vs rubella

Measles rash INCLUDES the hands and feet

Rubella rash is limited to the TRUNK