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Flashcards in Micro V Deck (68)
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1

What is the morphology of clostridium tetani?

Gram positive rods

2

Is clostridium tetani an aerobe or an anaerobe?

Anaerobic

3

What is the reservoir for clostridium?

Soil

4

What is the MOA of tetanus toxin?

Toxin blocks release of inhibitory neurotransmitters (Glycine and GABA)  Spastic
paralysis

Cleavage of synaptobrevin

5

What is the tetanus vaccine?

Toxoid

6

What is the most common scenario for acquiring
tetanus?

Rusty nail stick

7

What virus ascends in a retrograde manner to the
CNS?

Rabies

8

What is the treatment for tetanus?

Hyperimmune IVIG + benzos for spasms

9

What are the s/sx of tetanus? (3)

Trismus
Sardonic smile
Arched back

10

What are the top three cases requiring passive and active immunization?

1. Tetanus
2. Rabies
3. HBV (needle stick or mothers)

11

What are the EM findings of Rabies?

Negri bodies

12

What is opisthotonus?

arched back 2/2 tetanus

13

Why are benzos useful for treating tetanus?

Potentiates GABA (which is blocked by tetanus)

14

What is another common scenarios for getting tetanus in developing countries?

Umbilical stump of newborn infants

15

What is the morphology of clostridium botulinum?

Gram positive rods

16

Is clostridium botulinum aerobic or anaerobic?

Anaerobic

17

What is the reservoir for clostridium botulinum?

Spores in the soil =

18

What is the treatment for clostridium botulinum?

antitoxin

19

What is the pathogenesis of clostridium botulinum?

Botulinum toxin inhibits neurotransmitter release from
presynaptic nerve endings by selectively proteolysing
(inhibiting) the synaptic protein synaptobrevin, which
plays a role in calcium-dependent exocytosis of
acetylcholine.

20

What are the foods associated with infant botulism?

Canned food or honey

21

Do adults get infected with clostridium botulinum through spores?

No--only infants whose immune system is not mature

22

What are the s/sx of botulinum?

1. Fixed, dilated pupils
2. Diplopia
3. Dysphagia

23

What is the most common source of botulism in
adults?

The most common source of botulism in adults is canned beans; and in
particular yellow beans

24

What is the most common source of botulism in
babies?

• The common source of botulism in babies is honey.

25

Botulinum toxin is transferred by blood. Tetanus is
transmitted by what?

Botulinum toxin is transferred by blood. Tetanus is transmitted by nerves.

26

What is the morphology of clostridium perfringens? Aerobic?

Gram positive rod
Anaerobic

27

What is the virulence factor for clostridium perfringens?

Lectinthiase

28

What is the pathogenesis of clostridium perfringens?

Lecithinase and sphingomyelinase released from vegetative bacteria, degrade components in cell membranes

29

What is the management strategey of clostridium perfringens?

Debridement of the wound

30

Palpation of the wound infected with clostridium perfringens reveals what?

Crepitus