Flashcards in Micro IV Deck (68):
What are the two major coagulase negative staph?
What is the second most common cause of UTIs in young women?
What are the components of the cell capsule?
Teichoic acid and peptidoglycan
True or false: the thicker the cell wall, the more effective the PCN
What is the drug that is used to prevent loss of PCN through the urine?
What is the mnemonic for the hemolytic patterns?
What happens to C3 with strep infections?
recent h/o tooth extraction = ?
h/o IV drug use = ?
h/o prosthesis placement = ?
What is the treatment for staph epidermidis?
Which heart valve is most commonly involved
in viridan endocarditis?
What are the erythematous painless lesions
seen on the palms and soles of patients with
Janeway lesions--septic valvular embolism or immune complexes
What are the raised painful lesions on the
fingers and toes called?
A male dental patient with a childhood history
of mitral regurgitation is scheduled for extraction of two decayed teeth. The most commonly used prophylactic measure in this patient would be administration of what?
What are the fingernail findings of strep viridans heart infx?
Which are painful: osler nodes or janeway lesions?
What are the Roth's spots found with bacterial endocarditis? What causes them?
retinal hemorrhage with white or place centers composed of coagulat fibrin.
They are usually caused by immune complexes medicated vasculitis
What is the most common cause of Otitis externa?
What are the classic s/sx of endocarditis? (5)
-Osler nodes / Janeway lesions
What is the treatment for endocarditis?
Empiric treatment with broad spectrum abx and obtain blood cultures
What is the only CAMP positive strep?
What is the classic shape of N. Meningitidis?
Gram negative kidney bean diplococci
Is Neisseria Meningitidis oxidase positive or negative?
What is the agar that is used to culture Neisseria meningitidis?
Chocolate agar with CO2
What are the two major virulence factors associated with Neisseria meningitidis?
-CHO anti-phagocytic capsule
What is the treatment for Neisseria meningitidis?
PCN G or ceftriaxone
How do you differentiate between Neisseria meningitidis and other Neisseria species?
Meningitidis ferments maltose
Gonococcus only glucose
Is N. Meningitidis aerobic?
What are the bugs that have an antiphagocytic capsule?
-E. Coli K1
("some nasty killers have a carb Kapsule")
What type of rash is caused by Neisseria
Only two must-know bugs flip on a DIC reaction in
the body, Neisseria meningitidis and
What are the major predisposing factors in N.
deficiencies (Complements 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8). Complement 3 deficiency is by far
the most common association.
What are the complements that are associated with anaphylaxis?
What are the complement that are used to kill virus infected cells?
C5-C9 deficiency = ?
What is the tick that transmits Rickettsia rickettsii?
What is the progression of the rash with Rickettsia rickettsii?
What are the two major obligate intracellular bugs?
("go inside when it's Really Cold")
The spleen plays an important role in antibody
synthesis and clearing of bacteria from the blood
stream. Asplenic patients are at risk for life threatening
infections. The top 5 such infections are:
The top 5 causes of infection in asplenic patients are:
-Klebsiella (First 6 months of
-E coli (First 6 months of life);
-Strep pneumo (After 6 months of age);
-H. Flu b
(After 6 months of age); and
-Neisseria meningitidis that is less common than Strep
pneumo and H flu (After 6 months of age)
What is the most common complement deficiency?
What is the agar used to culture gonorrhea?
Chocolate (thayer martin)
What are the major virulence factors of gonorrhea?
Pili for adherence
What is the treatment for gonorrhea?
What is the prophylactic treatment for gonorrhea neonatal conjunctivitis?
Erythromycin in newborns eyes
What are the s/sx of gonorrhea infx?
milky Urethral d/c
What is the reservoir for trichomoniasis in males?
What is the MOA of Cephalosporins?
inhibits peptidoglycan cross linking
Which gender is symptomatic with gonorrhea? Which is the reservoir?
Symptoms = men
Reservoir - women
Which gender is symptomatic with trichomonas? Which is the reservoir?
Symptoms = women
Reservoir = men
Which bug has lipid A as a virulence factor?
Which bug has hemin and NAD as a virulence factor?
What is the virulence mechanism of N gonorrhea
Fimbria for attachment of the urogenital epithelium
What is the name of the bacterial agent that also uses fibria as it virulence mechanism in the respiratory tract?
What is the agar that is used to culture Bordetella?
What bug causes Waterhouse friderichsen syndrome?
What are the spores of Bacillus anthracis?
What are the morphological characteristics of Bacillus anthracis
Gram positive rods (boxcar stain)
What are the virulence factors of bacillus anthracis?
What are the skin infection s/sx of anthrax?
What is the DOC for anthrax?
PCN G and cipro
Is anthrax pneumonia contagious?
Anthrax pneumonia is fatal. Also the disease is acquired from inhalation of spores.
A 45 year old Russian farm worker developed a
non-tender swelling of the upper lip followed by
blistering (pustules) and necrosis of the overlying
skin. Lab data confirmed presence of gram-positive rods. Diagnosis was made that the patient has acquired cutaneous anthrax. The patient was treated with a particular antimicrobial medication and showed a positive response. What was the
The farmer in the above case scenario must have received penicillin therapy
What is Wool-sorter’s disease?
Wool sorters disease is the term for pulmonary anthrax
Bacillus anthracis is unique among all bugs
because its virulence mechanism is due to what
The uniqueness of anthrax is that it has a protein capsule. However, exotoxin is by
far the most important virulence factor of anthrax
The only other major bacillus to know for the exam is Bacillus cereus. In this bug, germination of heat stable spores leads to production of toxin and food toxicity. Given the short incubation period, this poisoning quite often is very similar to the food
poisoning of staph aureus. Penicillin is a good medication for Bacillus anthracis. Would you expect it to also work on B.
cereus food poisoning?
Penicillin can also act on B. cereus, however, likewise Staph aureus food poisoning the disease is due to pre-formed toxin. As such it is to a large extent refractory to penicillin therapy. Hence supportive treatment is the mainstay of treatment.
What is the MOA of ciprofloxacin?
Inhibits DNA gyrase (topoisomerase)