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Flashcards in Midterm Vocab Deck (110):
1

empiricism

the idea that what we know comes from experience, and that observation and experimentation enabled scientific knowledge

2

structuralism

early school of though promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind

3

functionalism

early school of though promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function-- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish

4

experimental psychology

the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method

5

behaviorism

the view that psychology 1.) should be an objective science that 2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with 1 but not 2

6

cognitive neuroscience

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition

7

psychology

the science of behavior and mental processes

8

nature nurture issue

The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Todays science see them arising from the interaction of nature and nurture

9

natural selection

the principle that, among the range of inherited trial variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

10

levels of analysis

The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

11

biopsychosocial approach

An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels on analysis

12

behavioral psychology

how we learn observable responses

13

biological

How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences; how genes combine with environment to influence individual differences

14

cognitive

how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information

15

evolutionary

how the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes

16

humanistic

ow we meet our needs for love acceptance and achieve self fulfillment

17

psychodynamic

how behavior spring from unconscious drives and conflicts

18

social culture

how behavior and thinking vary across situation and cultures

19

psychometrics

the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes and traits

20

basic research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

21

developmental psychology

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

22

educational

the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning

23

personality

the study of an individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feelings, and acting

24

social psychology

the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

25

applied research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

26

industrial organizational

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

27

human factors

o And I/O psychology subfield that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use

28

counseling

o A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage_ and in achieving greater well-being

29

clinical psychology

o A branch that studies assesses, and treats people that have psychological disorders

30

psychiatry

o A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy

31

postive

o The scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive

32

community

o A branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environment and how social institutions affect individuals and groups

33

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe you could have predicted and event after seeing it.

34

critical thinking

thinking that does not accept arguements and conclusions blindly but must have evidence through examinations of assumptions, assesess, the source, discerns hidden calues, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions

35

theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events

36

operational definition

o A carefully worded statement of the exact procedures used in a research study

37

replication

o Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

38

case study

o A descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

39

naturalistic observations

o Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
• Does not explain behavior
 It describes it

40

survey

o A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
• Questions have to be asked
 The way we word them can have huge impact on how things go

41

sampling bias

o A flawed sampling process that produces an unrepresentative sample

42

population

o All those in a group being studies, from which samples may be drawn

43

random sample

o A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

44

correlation

o A measure of the extent to which two variables change together, and thus of how well either variable predicts the other

45

correlation coefficient

o A statistical index of the relationship between two variables

46

scatterplot

o A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the value of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strengths of the correlation

47

illusory correlation

o The perception of a relationship where none exists

48

experiment

o A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process

49

experimental group

o In an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

50

control group

o The group not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

51

random assignment

o Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the different groups

52

double blind procedure

o An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.

53

placebo effect

o Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent

54

independent variable

o The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable who’s effect is being studied

55

confounding

o A factor other than the independent variable that may produce an effect in an experiment

56

dependent variable

o The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variables

57

validity

o The extent to which a test or experiment measure or predicts what it is supposed to

58

descriptive statistics

o Numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups. Includes measures of central tendency and measures of variation

59

histogram

o A bar graph depicting a frequency distribution

60

mode

• The most frequently occurring score in a distribution

61

mean

• The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores

62

median

• The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it

63

skewed distribution

o A representation of scores that lack symmetry around their average value

64

variation

o How similar or diverse the scores are

65

range

o The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

66

standard deviation

o A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

67

normal curve

o Symmetrical, bell shaped curve that describes the distributions of many types of data

68

inferential statistics

o Numerical data that allow one to generalize –to infer from sample data the probability of something being true of a population

69

statistical significance

o A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

70

culture

o The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

71

informed consent

o An ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate

72

debriefing

o The post experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants

73

memory

o The persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information

74

encoding

o Get information into our brain

75

storage

o Retain that information

76

retrieval

o Later get the information back out

77

parallel processing

o The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brains natural mode of information processing for many functions

78

sensory memory

 Split second holding tank for ALL sensory information

79

short term memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

80

long term memory

the relativity permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system

81

working memory

• It is a newer understanding of short term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and information retrieved from long-term memory

82

explicit memory

o The facts and experiences we can consciously know and declare

83

effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

84

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meaning

85

implicit memory

retention independent of conscious recollection

86

iconic memory

o a fleeting sensory memory of a visual stimuli

87

echoic memory

o auditory echoes tend to linger for 3 or 4 seconds
• what you hear

88

chunking

o organizing items into familiar, manageable units’ often occurs automatically
• occurs so naturally that we take it for granted

89

Mnemonics

o Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
• Use vivid imagery

90

spacing effect

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

91

testing effect

enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information

92

shallow processing

encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words

93

deep processing

encoding semantically, based on the meaning of thew words; tends to yield the best retention

94

hippocampus

a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage

95

flashbulb memory

o A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
• Where you were for 9/11

96

long term potentiation

• Provides a neural basis for learning and remembering associations

97

recall

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill in the blank test

98

recognition

a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test

99

relearning

a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again

100

priming

• The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

101

mood congruent

 The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current good or bad mood
• Good mood then see things as good
• Bad mood then see things as bad

102

serial position effect

• Our tendency to recall best the last and first item in a list
 Like when learning names you rehearse the names more of those first met then those more recently met
• Also remember last because it is most most recent

103

anterograde amnesia

o An inability to form new memories

104

retrograde amnesia

o An inability to retrieve information from ones past

105

proactive interference

o The disruptive effect of prior learning to new learning
• Like a password to a Facebook account may be confused with your newly learned copy machine code

106

retroactive interference

o The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
• Like if someone sings new lyrics to the tune of an old song, you may have trouble remembering the original words
 Like a second stone tossed in a pond, disrupting the waves rippling out from the first

107

repression

the basic defense mechanism that bashes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

108

misinformation effect

 Incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event

109

source amnesia

 Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined

110

deja vu

 That eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.