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Flashcards in Mnemonics Deck (116):
1

Causes of Bell's Palsy
"ALexander Bell with STD"

AIDs
Lyme Disease
Sarcoid
Tumor
Diabetes

2

Horner's Syndrome Sx
"PAM is horny"

Ptosis
Anhidrosis
Miosis
*Pancoast tumor

3

Modifiable Stroke RF
"live the way a COACH SHoulDD"

CAD
Obesity
AFib
Carotid stenosis
Hypercholesterolemia
Smoking
HTN
Diabetes
Drug use (cocaine, IV drugs)

4

Non-modifiable Stroke RF
"FAME"

Family hx of stroke or MI
Age >60
Male
Ethnicity (AA, Hispanic, Asian)

5

4 Deadly D's of Posterior Circulation Strokes

Diplopia
Dizziness
Dysphagia
Dysarthria

6

MCA stroke can cause CHANGes

Contralateral paresis & sensory loss in face & arm
Homonymous hemiopsia
Aphasia (dominant)
Neglect (dominant)
Gaze preference toward side of lesion

7

Contraindications to tPA therapy
"SAMPLE STAGES"

Stroke or head trauma w/in 3mo
Antigcoagulation w/ INR >1.7 or prolonged PTT
MI (recent)
Prior intracranial hemorrhage
Low platelet count
Elevated BP (>185/>110)
Surgery in past 14 days
TIA
Age 400 or <50 glucose
Seizures present at onset of stroke

8

Conditions associated with berry aneurysms that can MAKE an SAH more likely

Marfan's synd
Aortic coarctation
Kidney dz (ADPKD)
Ehlers-Danlos synd
Sickle Cell anemia
Athersclerosis
History (familial)

9

BPPV

Benign- otolith
Paroxysmal- sudden, temporary epidsodes <1 min
Positional- triggered by turning in a bed or reaching overhead
Vertigo- dizziness

10

Charcot's Triad for MS

Scanning speech
Intranuclear ophthalmoplegia
Nystagmus

11

5 A's of GBS

Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy
Ascending paralysis
Autonomic neuropathy
Arrhythmia
Albuminocytologic dissociation

12

3 W's of NPH

Wet (incontinence)
Wobbly (apraxia)
Wacky (Dementia)

13

There are 4 PaRTS to Parkinson's

Postural instability (stooped)
Rigidity (cogwheel)
Tremor (pill rolling)
Slowed movements (Bradykinesia/festinating gait)

14

Mets to Brain
"Lung and Skin Go to the BRain"

Lung
Skin
GI
Breast
Renal

15

Adult Brain Tumors
"MGM Studios"

Metastasis
Glioblastoma multiform
Meningioma
Schwannoma

16

Pediatric Brain Tumors
"Animal kingdom, Magic Kingdom, Epicot"

Astrocytoma
Medulloblastoma
Eppendymoma

17

Dx criteria for NF Type 1
"COFFINS"

Cafe-au-lait spots
Optic glioma
Freckling
Familial history
Iris hamartomas
Neurofibromas
Skeletal lesions

18

Thyroid neoplasms: the most Popular is Pappilary

Papillae (branching)
Palpable LN
Pupil nuclei (Orphan Annie nuclei)
Psammoma bodies
Positive Prognosis

19

Pheochromocytoma rule of 10's

10% extra-adrenal
10% bilateral
10% malignant
10% occur in children
10% familial

20

6 P's of Pheochromocytoma

Paroxysmal HTN
Pounding HA
Profuse perspiration
Palpitations
Pallor
Panic

21

Triad of Hyperaldosteronism (Conn Synd)

Hypokalemia
Metabolic Alkalosis
HTN

22

Causes of Eosinophlia
"DNAAACP"

Drugs
Neoplasm
Allergic (Allergies, Asthma, Churg Strauss)
Addisons dz
AIN
Collagen vascular dz
Parasitic infection

23

3 P's of MEN 1

Pituitary
Parathyroid adenoma
Pancreas

24

1 M & 2 P's of MEN 2a

Medullary thyroid cancer
Peochromocytoma
Parathyroid hyperplasia

25

2M's & 1 P of MEN 2b

Medularry thyroid cancer
Mucosal neuromas
Peochromocytoma

26

4 A's of Dementia

Amnesia
Aphasia
Apraxia
Agnosia

27

SIG E CAPS

Sleep
Interest
Guilt
Energy decreased
Concentration
Appetite
Psychomotor agitation/retardation
Suicidal ideation

28

TCA toxicity
"Tri-C's"

Convulsions
Coma
Cardiac arrhymthmias

29

Symptoms of Mania
"DIG FAST"

Distractablity
Insomnia
Grandiosity
Flight of ideas
Sexual activity increased
Talkativeness/pressured speech

30

Evolution of EPS
"4 and A"

4 hours: Acute dystonia
4 Days: Akinesia
4 Weeks: Akathisia
4 Months: Tardive dyskinesia

31

Suicide Risks
"SAD PERSONS"

Sex (male)
Age (older)
Depression
Previous attempt
Ethanol/substance abuse
Rational thought
Sickness
Organized plan/access to weapons
No spouse
Social support lacking

32

Glasgow Coma Scale
"4 eyes, Jackson 5, V6 engine"

Eyes: None, to pain, to command, spontaneous
Verbal: None, incomprehensible, inappropriate words, confused speech, oriented
Motor: none, extension, flexion, w/d to pain, localizes to pain, follows commands

33

What GSC score do you intubate?

GSC <8= Intubate!

34

Causes of PEA
"5 H's & 5 T's"

Hypovolemia
Hypoxia
H+ ions (acidosis)
Hyper/hypo K+
Hypothermia
Tablets
Tamponade: Cardiac
Tension pneumothorax
Thrombosis: Coronary
Thrombosis: Pulmonary embolism

35

Rule of 9's for % BSA

Head and each arm= 9%
Back and chest each= 18%
each leg= 18%
Perineum= 1%

36

7 W's of Postop fever

Wind: Atelectastis, pneumonia
Water: UTI
Wounds: infections, abscess
Walking: DVT
Wonder drugs: reaction
Womb: endometritis
Wein: Thrombophlebitits

37

Afib management
"ABCD"

Anticoagulate
BBlocker
Cardiovert/CCB
Digoxin

38

Causes of acute Afib
"PIRATES"

Pulmonary dz
Ischemia
Rheumatic heart dz
Anemia/Atrial myxoma
Thyrotoxicosis
Ethanol
Sepsis

39

Acute CHF management
"LMNOP"

Lasix
Morphine
Nitrates
Oxygen
Position (upright & legs hanging over bed)

40

SE of Thiazide diuretics
"hyperGLUC"

hyperGlycemia
hyperLipidemia
hyperUricemia
hyperCalcemia

Hypokalemic meta alkalosis & hyponatremia

41

Treatment for STEMI
"MONA"

Morphine
Oxygen
Nitrates
ASA

42

Indications for CABG are UnLimiTeD

Unable to perform PCI (diffuse dz)
Left main coronary artery dz
Triple-vessel dz
Depressed ventricular function

43

Causes of secondary HTN
"CHAPS"

Cushing synd
Hyperaldosteronism (Conn's synd)
Aortic coarctation
Peochromocytoma
Stenosis of renal artery

44

Beck's Triad of Cardiac Tamponade

Muffled heart sounds
JVD
HOTN

45

Virchow's Triad

Endothelial damage
Hypercoagable states
Venous stasis

46

6 P's of acute ischemia

Pain
Pallor
Paralysis
Pulseless
Parathesias
Poikilothermia

47

Chest pain ddx
"CHEST PAIN"

Cocaine/costochondritis
Hyperventilation/herpes zoster
Esophagitis/esophageal spasm
Stenosis of aorta
Trauma
PE/Peumonia/Pericarditis/Pancreatitis
Angina/Aortic dissection/Aortic aneurysm
Infarction
Neuropschiartric dz

48

Chagas = Mega Dz

Cardiomegaly
Megaesophagus
Megacolon

49

Major criteria for Rheumatic heart dz
"JONES"

Joints (polyarthritis, hot/swollen)
Heart (pancarditis, valve damage)
Nodules (subcutaneous, extensor surfaces)
Erythema marginatum (painless rash)
Sydenham chorea

50

Minor criteria for Rheumatic heart dz
"PEACE"

Previous rheumatic fever
EKG with PR prolongation
Arthralgias
CRP & ESR elevated
Elevated temp

51

Neg-culture endocarditis result from HACEK bacteria

Haemophilus
Actinobacillus
Cardiobacterium
Eikenella
Kingella

52

Signs of bacterial endocarditis
"FROM JANE"

Fever
Roth spots
Oslers nodes
Murmur
Janeway lesions
Anemia
Nail bed hemorrhages (splinter)
Emboli

53

"Hypertensive Mothers Love Nifedipine"

Hydralazine
Methyldopa
Labetalol
Nifedipine

54

Cyanotic heart Dz 5T's

Truncus arteriosus
Transposition of great vessels
Tricuspid atresia
Tetralogy of Fallot
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

55

Tetralogy of Fallot characteristics
"PROVe"

Pulmonary stenosis
RVH
Overriding aorta
VSD

56

Obstructive pulmonary disease
"ABCT"

Asthma
Brochiectasis
Cystic fibrosis/COPD
Tracheal or bronchial obstruction

57

Meds for asthma exacerbations
"ASTHMA"

Albuterol
Steroids
Theophylline (rare)
Humidified O2
Magneisum (severe)
Anticholingerics

58

Treatment for COPD
"COPD"

Corticosteroids
Oxygen
Prevention (smoking cessation, pneumococcal & flu vaccine)
Dilators (B2-agonists, anticholinergics)

59

Features of sarcoid can be "GRUELING"

Granulomas (noncaseating)
aRthritis
Uveitis
Erythema nodosum
Lymphadenopathy
Interstitial fibrosis
Negative TB test
Gammaglobulienmia

60

"ARDS"

Acute onset
Ratio (Pao2/Fio2) 18mmHg

61

Anterior mediastinal mass ddx
"4 T's"

Thymoma
Teratoma
Thyroid neoplasm
Terrible lymphoma

62

Multidrug treatment for TB
"RIPE"

Rifampin
Isoniazid
Pyrazinamide
Ethambutol

63

Common Causes of Pneumothorax
"A CHEST IN"

Asthma
Cystic fibrosis
HIV
Emphysema
Spontaneous Trauma
Iatrogenic
Neoplasm

64

4 S's of croup

Seal-bark cough
Subglottic swelling
Stridor
Steeple sign

65

Plummer-Vinson synd

Esophageal webs
Glossitis
Iron def anemia

66

4 D's of Pellegra (Niacin def)

Diarrhea
Dermatitis
Dementia
Death

67

Charcot's triad for Acute cholangitis

RUQ pain
Jaundice
Fever/chills

68

Reynolds' pentad for Acute cholangitis

RUQ pain
Jaundice
Fever/chills
Shock
AMS

69

HLA-B2 Seronegative Arthropathies
"PAIR"

Psoariatic arthritis
Ankylosing spondylitis
IBD
Reiter synd (Reactive arthritis)

70

RLQ ABD pain
"APPENDICITIS"

Appendicitis
PID
Pancreatitis
Endometriosis or ectopic pregnancy
Neoplasm
Diverticulitis
Intusseception
Crohn's dz
IBS
Torsion
IBD
Stones

71

Causes of Acute Pancreatitis
"BAD HITS"

Biliary obstruction
Alcohol
Drugs
Hypercalcemia/Hypertrigyleridemia
Idipathic
Trauma
Scorpion stings

72

Ranson Critera for increased mortality from acute pancreatitis on admission
"GA LAW"

Glcuose >200
AST >250
LDH>350
Age >55
WBC >16,000

73

Ranson Critera for increased mortality from acute pancreatitis 48hr after admission
"Calvin & HOBBeS"

Calcium 10%
Pao2 5
Base deficit >4
Fluid sequestration >6L

74

Causes of increased Erythropietin
"Potentially Really High Hct"

Pheochromocytoma
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Hemangioblastoma

75

Meckel diverticulum rule of 2's

2x MC in males
2ft from ileocecal valve
2 inches long
2 types of ectopic tissue (gastric, pancreatic)
2% of pop
<2 years of age

76

Hypernatremia causes
6 D's

Diuresis
Dehydration
Diabetes insipidus
Docs
Diarrhea
Disease (sickle cell, kidney)

77

Treatment of hyperkalemia
"C BIG K"

Calcium gluconate/chloride
Bicarbonate
Insulin
Glucose
Kayexalate

*BBlockers, Loops & dialysis help

78

Causes of hypercalcemia
"CHIMPANZEES"

Calcium supplmentation
Hyperparathyroidism/Hyperthyroidism
Iatrogenic (thiazides, TPN)/Immobility (esp ICU)
Milk-alkali synd
Paget's dz
Adrenal inusfficeny/Acromegaly
Neoplasm
Zollinger-Ellison synd (MEN 1)
Excess vit A
Excess vit C
Sarcoidosis & other granulomatous dz

79

Anion-gap causes of RTA
"MUDPILES"

Methanol: Fomepizole
Uremia: dialysis
Paraldehyde, Phenformin
Iron, INH: GI lavage, charcoal (INH)
Lactic acidosis
Ethelyne glycol : Fomepizole
Salicylates: alkalinize urine

80

Indications for urgent dialysis
"AEIOU"

Acidosis
Electrolyte abn (hyperkalemia)
Ingestions (salicylates, theophylline, methanol, barbituates, lithium, ethylene glycol)
Overload (fluid)
Uremic sx (pericardits, encephalopathy, bleeding, nausea, pruritis, myoclonus)

81

Nephritic synd findings
"PHAROH"

Proteinuria <1.5g/day
Hematuria (tea or cola-colored)
Azotemia
RBC casts
Oliguira
HTN

82

Ddx for Hematuria
"I PEE RBCS"

Infection (UTI)
Polycystic kidney dz
Exercise
External trauma
Renal glomerular dz
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Cancer
Stones

83

"Eradicate Ball Cancer"

Etopiside
Bleomycin
Cisplatin

84

Causes of DIC
"STOP Making Thrombi"

Sepsis
Trauma
OB complications
Pancreatitis
Malignancy
Transfustions

85

Symptoms of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Pupura (TTP)
"Nasty Fever Torched His Kidneys"

Neuro deficits (delirium, seizure, stroke)
Fever
Thrombocytopenia
Hemolytic anemia
Kidney failure

86

DDx of Thrombocytopenia
"HIT SHOC"

HIT or HUS
ITP
TTP or treatment
Splenomegaly
Hereditary (Wiskott-Aldrich synd)
Other (malignacy, HIV, HCV, SLE)
Chemotherapy

87

Causes of Microcytic anemia
"TICS"

Thalassemia
Iron def
Chronic dz
Sideroblastic anemia

88

Symptoms of Multiple Myeloma
"CRAB"

Calcium high
Renal impairment
Anemia
Bones (pain, lytic lesions, fractures)

89

Felty's Syndrome Triad

RA
Neutropenia
Splenomegaly

90

CREST Syndrome

Calcinosis
Raynaud's phenomenon
Esophageal dysmotility
Sclerodactyly
Telangiectasias

91

Criteria for SLE
"DOPAMINE RASH"

Discoid rash
Oral ulcers
Photosensitivity
Arthritis
Malar rash
Immunologic criteria
Neuro sx (lupus cerebrits, seizures)
Elevated ESR
Renal dz
ANA+, Anti-dsDNA, anti-Sm Ab
Serositis (pleural or pericardial effusion)
Hematologic ABN

92

Anti-histone Ab's in Drug induced lupus
"SHIPP"

Sulfonamides
Hydralazine
Phenytoin
Procainamide

93

Lichen Planus P Disease

Planar
Purple
Pruritic
Persistent
Polygonal
Penile
Perioral
Puzzling
Koebner's Phenomenon

94

Causes of Erythema Nodosum
"SPUD BITS"

Strep infection
Pregnancy
Unknown
Drugs
Behchets dz
IBD
TB
Sarcoidosis

95

TORCHeS pathogens

Toxoplasmosis
Other (Parvovirus, varicella, Listeria, TB, malaria, fungi)
Rubella
CMV
HSV
HIV
Syphillis

96

Hutchinson's triad for congenital syphillis

Peg-shaped central incisors
Deafness
Interstitial keratitis

97

Intrapartum fetal heart rate monitor
"VEAL CHOP"

Variable Compression of cord/oligohydraminos
Early Head compression
Accelerations Okay (normal O2)
Late Placental insufficiency

98

When performing a BPP, remember to
"Test the Baby, MAN"

Fetal Tone
Fetal Breathing
Fetal Movements
Amniotic fluid volume
Nonstress test

99

Triad of preclampsia
"It's not just HyPE"

HTN
Proteinuria
Edema

100

HELLP synd

Hemolysis
Elevated LFT's
Low Platelets

101

Characterization of genital ulcers
"Some Girls Love Licorice but Fellows Hate Candy"

Syphillis
Granuloma inginale
Lymphogranuloma venereum
painLess
PainFul:
Herpes simplex
Chancroid

102

DiGeorge Synd
"CATCH 22'

Cardiac ABN (transposition)
ABN facies
Thymic aplasia
Cleft palate
Hypocalceia
22q11 deletion

103

Triad of Intussusception

ABD pain
Vomiting
Blood mucus in stool (currant jelly stool)

104

Wiskott-Aldrich synd
"WIPE"

Wiskott-Aldrich
Infections w/ encapsulated org
Pupura (thrombocytopenic)
Eczema

105

Job's synd
"FATED"

coarse Facies
Abscesses (S aureus)
tetained primary Teeth
hyper-IgE (eosinophilia)
Dermatoligic (severe eczema)

106

Kawasaki dz sx
"CRASH and BURN"

Conjuctivitis
Rash
Adenopathy (unilateral)
Strawberry tongue
Hands and feet (red, swollen, flaky skin)
BURN (fever >40C [104F] for >5 days)

107

Measles (Robeola Pararmyxovirus)
"3 C's"

Cough
Coryza
Conjuctivitis
*Koplik spots

108

APGAR

Appearance (blue/pale, pink trunk, all pink)
Pulse (0, 100)
Grimace with stim (0, grimace, grimace & cough)
Activity (limp, some, active)
Respiratory effort (0, irregular, regular)

109

VACTERL Anomalies

Vertebral
Anal
Cardiac
Tracheal
Esophageal
Renal
Limb

110

Beckwith-Wiedemann synd

Hemihypertrophy
Macroglossia
Viseromegaly
Wilm's tumor
Chr11p15

111

WAGR synd

Wilm's tumor
Aniridia
Genitourinary ABN
mental Retardation

112

Parder-Willi vs Angelmann synd
"POP and MAMA"

Prader-Willi
Overeating
Paternal allele

Maternal allele
Angelmann
Mood (happy)
Animated puppet-like movements

113

Lemierre's synd

Thrombophlenitis of the jugular vein d/t Fusobacterium, an oral anerobe

114

Lady Windermere synd

Primary pulmonary form of Mycobacterium avium complex in apparently healthy nonsmokers

115

"VDRL" false +

Viruses (EBv, HSV, HIV, hepatitis)
Drugs/IV drug use
Rheumatic fever/Rheumatoid arthritis
Leprosy/SLE

116

Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction

Treatment of syphillis can result in an acute flu-like illness