MO Book 21 - Words 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MO Book 21 - Words 1 Deck (206):
1

legionnaires’ disease noun
BrE ; NAmE [uncountable]

legionnaire noun
BrE /ˌliːdʒəˈneə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˌliːdʒəˈner/

a serious lung disease caused by bacteria, especially spread by air conditioning and similar systems

ex) We have new developments tonight in the deadly outbreak of Legionnaires' disease, another fatal case now.

2

word noun
BrE /wɜːd/ ; NAmE /wɜːrd/

4) [singular] a piece of information or news

ex) Now we have word that one of those infected is planning to sue the city amid the warning from authorities that this bacteria can actually travel through the air up to 7 miles.

There's been no word from them since before Christmas.
She sent word that she would be late.

If word gets out about the affair, he will have to resign.

Word has it that she's leaving.

The word is they've split up.

He likes to spread the word about the importance of healthy eating.

3

yet adverb, conjunction
/jet/

7) used for emphasizing that someone or something is even bigger, better, worse, more etc than someone or something else

ex) Tonight, yet another case of Legionnaires' disease in New York City, like the others, he contracted bacteria within miles of the five cooling towers where the bacteria has been discovered, bringing the total number up to 101.

Try not to overcook the beans, or better yet eat them raw.

The house is more expensive yet than any of the others we’ve looked at.

We woke to yet another grey rainy day.

4

disinfect verb
BrE /ˌdɪsɪnˈfekt/ ; NAmE /ˌdɪsɪnˈfekt/

1) disinfect something to clean something using a substance that kills bacteria

ex) A new requirement is going into effect today, saying all building owners in New York City must test and disinfect cooling towers within 14 days.

to disinfect a surface/room/wound

5

cooling tower noun

a large high round building used in industry for cooling water before it is used again

ex) A new requirement is going into effect today, saying all building owners in New York City must test and disinfect cooling towers within 14 days.

6

quite a/the something
(informal quite some something)

used to show that a person or thing is particularly impressive or unusual in some way

ex) It's gonna be quite a task, because it could be thousands of these cooling towers all over the city.

She's quite a beauty.

We found it quite a change when we moved to London.

He's quite the little gentleman, isn't he?

It must be quite some car.

7

wind something↔down

1) to bring a business, an activity, etc. to an end gradually over a period of time; draw or bring gradually to a close

ex) But they're confident that the number of incidents is now winding down.

The government is winding down its nuclear programme.

The department is being wound down after the election.

The party started to wind down around 2.00 am.

The UN has decided to wind down the peacekeeping mission.

8

epicentre noun
(especially US English epicenter)
BrE /ˈepɪsentə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈepɪsentər/

2) (formal) the central point of something

ex) We're just a few miles from the epicenter of that outbreak.

9

underscore verb
BrE /ˌʌndəˈskɔː(r)/ ; NAmE /ˌʌndərˈskɔːr/ (especially North American English)

(=underline) verb
BrE /ˌʌndəˈlaɪn/ ; NAmE /ˌʌndərˈlaɪn/

2) to emphasize or show that something is important or true

ex) But we cannot underscore that enough.

The report underlines the importance of pre-school education.

Her question underlined how little she understood him.

The report underlined that the project enjoyed considerable support in both countries.

It should be underlined that these are only preliminary findings.

His speech underscored the need for a clear policy.

10

sticker shock noun
BrE ; NAmE [uncountable](North American English)

the unpleasant feeling that people experience when they find that something is much more expensive than they expected

ex) Tonight, our team is getting answers after growing outrage over that life-saving drug and the sticker shock we reported on last night here.

11

outcry noun
BrE /ˈaʊtkraɪ/ ; NAmE /ˈaʊtkraɪ/ [countable, uncountable](pl. outcries)

outcry (at/over/against something) a reaction of anger or strong protest shown by people in public

ex) But tonight, this 32-year-old CEO telling ABC News exclusively, he's heard the public outcry.

an outcry over the proposed change

The new tax provoked a public outcry.

There was outcry at the judge's statement.

A massive public outcry followed the revelations of ballot-rigging.

The cuts provoked an outcry against the government.

12

reiterate verb
BrE /riˈɪtəreɪt/ ; NAmE /riˈɪtəreɪt/ (formal)

to repeat something that you have already said, especially to emphasize it

ex) Shkreli says they still need to determine the cost, but he reiterates, they already give half of it away for free, or a dollar. For everyone else, he promises it will be less than $750 a pill.

reiterate an argument/a demand/an offer

The government has reiterated its commitment to economic reform.

Let me reiterate that we are fully committed to this policy.

‘I said “money”,’ he reiterated.

13

ammunition noun
BrE /ˌæmjuˈnɪʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌæmjuˈnɪʃn/ [uncountable]

1) a supply of bullets, etc. to be fired from guns

ex) Running out of ammunition in the war on germs.

The bandits escaped with a rifle and 120 rounds of ammunition.

They issued live ammunition to the troops.

A few of the men had run out of ammunition.

2) information that can be used against another person in an argument

ex) The letter gave her all the ammunition she needed.

These figures provide political ammunition to police chiefs arguing for more resources.

14

burn verb
BrE /bɜːn/ ; NAmE /bɜːrn/

7) [intransitive] if part of your body burns or is burning, it feels very hot and painful

ex) If it burns when you urinate, then you probably have a urinary-tract infection (UTI).

Your forehead's burning. Have you got a fever?

Her cheeks burned with embarrassment.

15

소변을 보다 (formal)

urinate verb
BrE /ˈjʊərɪneɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈjʊrəneɪt/ [intransitive](formal or specialist)

to get rid of urine from the body

ex) If it burns when you urinate, then you probably have a urinary-tract infection (UTI).

16

요로 감염증

urinary-tract infection (UTI)

ex) If it burns when you urinate, then you probably have a urinary-tract infection (UTI).

17

(생물) ~관, ~계

tract noun
BrE /trækt/ ; NAmE /trækt/

1) (biology) a system of connected organs or tissues along which materials or messages pass

ex) If it burns when you urinate, then you probably have a urinary-tract infection (UTI).

the digestive tract

the respiratory tract

a nerve tract

18

병원에서 치료 받거나 약국에서 약 처방 받을 때 한 번에 이뤄지는 일련의 치료(약).

course noun
BrE /kɔːs/ ; NAmE /kɔːrs/

11) [countable] course (of something) a series of medical treatments, pills, etc.

ex) Until recently, a short course of oral antibiotics would wipe out the bacteria causing the problem.

Patients often fail to take their full treatment course.

to prescribe a course of antibiotics

When taking antibiotics it is important to finish the course.

19

discover verb
BrE /dɪˈskʌvə(r)/ ; NAmE /dɪˈskʌvər/
(의도하지 않은 발견)

* uncover verb
BrE /ʌnˈkʌvə(r)/ ; NAmE /ʌnˈkʌvər/
(의도를 가지고 작정하고 알아냄)

1) discover something to be the first person to become aware that a particular place or thing exists

ex) Scientists have feared this day would come ever since Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928.

Cook is credited with discovering Hawaii.

Scientists around the world are working to discover a cure for AIDS.

2) to find somebody/something that was hidden or that you did not expect to find

ex) Police discovered a large stash of drugs while searching the house.

We discovered this beach while we were sailing around the island.

He was discovered hiding in a shed.

She was discovered dead at her home in Leeds.

3) to find out about something; to find some information about something

ex) They are discovering each other (썸 타는 중).

I've just discovered hang-gliding!

It was a shock to discover (that) he couldn’t read.

We never did discover why she gave up her job.

It was later discovered that the diaries were a fraud.

He was later discovered to be seriously ill.

4) [often passive] discover somebody to be the first person to realize that somebody is very good at singing, acting, etc. and help them to become successful and famous

ex) The singer was discovered while still at school.

* 1) uncover something to remove something that is covering something

ex) Uncover the pan and let the soup simmer.

Archaeologists have uncovered an entire Roman city.

2) uncover something to discover something that was previously hidden or secret

ex) Police have uncovered a plot to kidnap the President's son.

It will be difficult to uncover the truth.

20

bout noun
BrE /baʊt/ ; NAmE /baʊt/

1) a short period of great activity; a short period during which there is a lot of a particular thing, usually something unpleasant

ex) Recent years have seen repeated bouts of hand-wringing.

a drinking bout

the latest bout of inflation

Regular exercise is better than occasional bouts of strenuous activity.

2) bout (of something) an attack or period of illness

ex) a severe bout of flu/coughing

He suffered occasional bouts of depression.

a bout with the flu

21

handwringing noun
/ˈhændˌrɪŋɪŋ/ [uncountable]

the behavior that comes from being nervous or worried

ex) Recent years have seen repeated bouts of hand-wringing.

The candidate and her supporters went through a lot of handwringing as they waited to see the results.

22

resort noun
BrE /rɪˈzɔːt/ ; NAmE /rɪˈzɔːrt/

* resort verb
BrE /rɪˈzɔːt/ ; NAmE /rɪˈzɔːrt/

2) [uncountable] resort to something the act of using something, especially something bad or unpleasant, because nothing else is possible

synonym recourse

ex) There are hopes that the conflict can be resolved without resort to violence.

3) the first/last/final resort the first or last course of action that you should or can take in a particular situation

ex) Doctors are increasingly turning to what were once treatments of last resort.

Strike action should be regarded as a last resort, when all attempts to negotiate have failed.

In the last resort (= in the end) everyone must decide for themselves.

* resort to something
to make use of something, especially something bad, as a means of achieving something, often because there is no other possible solution

synonym recourse

ex) He even resorted to violence to resolve the conflict.

They felt obliged to resort to violence.

They achieved their demands without having to resort to force.

We had to resort to another loan from the bank.

We may have to resort to using untrained staff.

23

crack verb
BrE /kræk/ ; NAmE /kræk/

7) [transitive] crack something to find the solution to a problem, etc; to find the way to do something difficult; to solve a complicated problem, or to find the answer to a mystery

ex) But bacteria are cracking these, too.

to crack the enemy’s code

(informal) After a year in this job I think I've got it cracked!

Detectives believe they are near to cracking the case.

It was a code that seemed impossible to crack.

crack it (=succeed in solving a particular problem): I’ve been trying all morning to get this to work, and I’ve finally cracked it.

24

절단하다
- 의학적 절차로써
- 범죄로써 (신체 훼손)

amputate verb
BrE /ˈæmpjuteɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈæmpjuteɪt/

[transitive, intransitive] amputate (something) to cut off somebody’s arm, leg, finger or toe in a medical operation

ex) Antibiotic resistance could set medicine back a century, to a time when infections often led to amputations.

He had to have both legs amputated.

They may have to amputate.

Her right arm became infected and had to be amputated.

* mutilate verb
BrE /ˈmjuːtɪleɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈmjuːtɪleɪt/

1) mutilate somebody/something to damage somebody’s body very severely, especially by cutting or tearing off part of it

ex) The body had been badly mutilated.

25

이식 (수술)

transplantation noun
BrE /ˌtrænsplɑːnˈteɪʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌtrænsplænˈteɪʃn/ ; BrE /ˌtrænzplɑːnˈteɪʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌtrænzplænˈteɪʃn/ [uncountable]

1) the process of taking an organ, skin, etc. from one person, animal, part of the body, etc. and putting it into or onto another

ex) Procedures such as heart surgery and organ transplantation, and the treatment of some cancers, would be far riskier without effective antibiotics.

liver/kidney/heart/lung/organ transplantation

patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation

26

오용 / 남용/ 과용

misuse noun

BrE /ˌmɪsˈjuːs/ ; NAmE /ˌmɪsˈjuːs/ [uncountable, countable, usually singular] (formal) the act of using something in a dishonest way or for the wrong purpose

ex) Misuse of antibiotics is speeding things up further.

alcohol/drug misuse

the misuse of power/authority

a misuse of public funds

* abuse noun
BrE /əˈbjuːs/ ; NAmE /əˈbjuːs/

1) [uncountable, singular] the use of something in a way that is wrong or harmful

ex) alcohol/drug/solvent abuse

The system of paying cash bonuses is open to abuse (= might be used in the wrong way).

He was arrested on charges of corruption and abuse of power.

What she did was an abuse of her position as manager.

** overuse noun
BrE /ˌəʊvəˈjuːs/ ; NAmE /ˌoʊvərˈjuːs/ [uncountable, singular]

the act of using something too much or too often

ex) Overuse of antibiotics - patients taking them for illnesses where they are ineffective, and farmers feeding them to animals to promote growth - increases the pool of resistant bacteria even more.

The problem of antibiotic overuse and misuse is not easy to control.

An overuse of graphics in reports can be an unwelcome distraction.

27

pool noun
BrE /puːl/ ; NAmE /puːl/

5) [countable] pool (of something) a group of people available for work when needed

ex) Overuse of antibiotics - patients taking them for illnesses where they are ineffective, and farmers feeding them to animals to promote growth - increases the pool of resistant bacteria even more.

a pool of cheap labour

a typing pool (= a group of people who share a company’s typing work)

28

veterinary adjective
BrE /ˈvetnri/ , /ˈvetrənəri/ ; NAmE /ˈvetərəneri/ [only before noun]

connected with caring for the health of animals

ex) A recent move to cut farmers' use of antibiotics in America, where as much as four-fifths of all antibiotics (by weight) are fed to animals, should help - though exempting use for veterinary purposes leaves a loophole.

veterinary medicine/science

29

dispense verb
BrE /dɪˈspens/ ; NAmE /dɪˈspens/

* dispensary noun
BrE /dɪˈspensəri/ ; NAmE /dɪˈspensəri/ (pl. dispensaries)

1) dispense something (to somebody) (formal) to give out something to people

ex) The machine dispenses a range of drinks and snacks.

2) dispense something (to somebody) (formal) to provide something, especially a service, for people

ex) The organization dispenses free health care to the poor.

to dispense justice/advice

3) dispense something to prepare medicine and give it to people, as a job

ex) Better dispensing guidlines and diagnostic tools would also help, as would the greater use of some vaccines (preventing flu, for example, can cut the number of cases of pneumonia).

to dispense a prescription

(British English) to dispense medicine

(British English) a dispensing chemist

* 1) a place in a hospital, shop/store, etc. where medicines are prepared for patients

2) (old-fashioned) a place where patients are treated, especially one run by a charity

30

폐렴

pneumonia noun
BrE /njuːˈməʊniə/ ; NAmE /nuːˈmoʊniə/ [uncountable]

a serious illness affecting one or both lungs that makes breathing difficult

ex) Better dispensing guidlines and diagnostic tools would also help, as would the greater use of some vaccines (preventing flu, for example, can cut the number of cases of pneumonia).

She died from bronchial pneumonia.

31

위생
- 전체적인 위생 시설/관리 (특히 옛날 하수도 시설과 관련하여)
- (개인) 위생 (손 씻기 등)

sanitation noun
BrE /ˌsænɪˈteɪʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌsænɪˈteɪʃn/ [uncountable]

the equipment and systems that keep places clean, especially by removing human waste

ex) Cleaner hospitals and better public sanitation are even more important: in defeating tuberculosis in western Europe, hygiene played a bigger role than drugs.

disease resulting from poor sanitation

A lack of clean water and sanitation were the main problems.

* hygiene noun
BrE /ˈhaɪdʒiːn/ ; NAmE /ˈhaɪdʒiːn/ [uncountable]

the practice of keeping yourself and your living and working areas clean in order to prevent illness and disease

ex) food hygiene

personal hygiene

In the interests of hygiene, please wash your hands.

32

(폐)결핵

tuberculosis noun
BrE /tjuːˌbɜːkjuˈləʊsɪs/ ; NAmE /tuːˌbɜːrkjəˈloʊsɪs/ [uncountable]
(abbreviation TB)

a serious infectious disease in which swellings appear on the lungs and other parts of the body

ex) Cleaner hospitals and better public sanitation are even more important: in defeating tuberculosis in western Europe, hygiene played a bigger role than drugs.

33

~부류, 종류

- 동물, 약물, 사람, 사물 등...
- 식물, 언어 등...
- 박테리아, 미생물, 균 등..

* class noun
BrE /klɑːs/ ; NAmE /klæs/

7) [countable] a group of people, animals or things that have similar characteristics or qualities

ex) No new class of antibiotics has been discovered since 1987.

It was good accommodation for a hotel of this class.

different classes of drugs

Dickens was in a different class from (= was much better than) most of his contemporaries.

As a jazz singer she's in a class of her own (= better than most others).

* variety noun
BrE /vəˈraɪəti/ ; NAmE /vəˈraɪəti/ (pl. varieties)

3) [countable] variety (of something) a type of a thing, for example a plant or language, that is different from the others in the same general group

ex) a variety of pesticide-resistant rice crops

Apples come in a great many varieties.

a rare variety of orchid

different varieties of English

My cooking is of the ‘quick and simple’ variety.

* strain noun
BrE /streɪn/ ; NAmE /streɪn/

4) [countable] a particular type of plant or animal, or of a disease caused by bacteria, etc.

ex) a new strain of virus

a new strain of mosquitoes resistant to the poison

This is only one of the many strains of the disease.

34

[생물 분류]




과/속/종

* 계 kingdom noun
BrE /ˈkɪŋdəm/ ; NAmE /ˈkɪŋdəm/

4) (biology) one of the five major groups into which all living things are organized

ex) the animal/plant kingdom

* 문 phylum noun
BrE /ˈfaɪləm/ ; NAmE /ˈfaɪləm/ (pl. phyla BrE /ˈfaɪlə/ ; NAmE /ˈfaɪlə/ )(biology)

a group into which animals, plants, etc. are divided, smaller than a kingdom and larger than a class

* 강 class noun
BrE /klɑːs/ ; NAmE /klæs/

11) [countable] a group into which animals, plants, etc. that have similar characteristics are divided, below a phylum

* 목 order noun
BrE /ˈɔːdə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈɔːrdər/

11) [countable] a group into which animals, plants, etc. that have similar characteristics are divided, smaller than a class and larger than a family

ex) the order of primates

* 과 family noun
BrE /ˈfæməli/ ; NAmE /ˈfæməli/ (pl. families)

5) [countable] a group of related animals and plants; a group of related things, especially languages

ex) Lions belong to the cat family.

the Germanic family of languages

* 속 genus noun
BrE /ˈdʒiːnəs/ ; NAmE /ˈdʒiːnəs/ (pl. genera BrE /ˈdʒenərə/ ; NAmE /ˈdʒenərə/ )(biology)

a group into which animals, plants, etc. that have similar characteristics are divided, smaller than a family and larger than a species

* 종 species noun
BrE /ˈspiːʃiːz/ ; NAmE /ˈspiːʃiːz/ (pl. species)

a group into which animals, plants, etc. that are able to breed with each other and produce healthy young are divided, smaller than a genus and identified by a Latin name

ex) a rare species of beetle

There are many species of dog(s).

a conservation area for endangered species

35

run dry

to stop supplying water; to be all used so that none is left; if a supply of something such as money runs dry, there is no more of it left

ex) But as health officials struggle to keep old drugs working, the pipeline of new ones is running dry.

Supplies of vaccines could run dry if there is an epidemic.

The wells in most villages in the region have run dry.

Vaccine supplies started to run dry as the flu outbreak reached epidemic proportions.

Native resources of scientific talent and ingenuity have not run dry.

36

in the pipeline

something that is in the pipeline is being discussed, planned or prepared and will happen or exist soon

ex) But as health officials struggle to keep old drugs working, the pipeline of new ones is running dry.

A new impotence drug is in the pipeline.

Important new laws are already in the pipeline.

37

bear fruit

to have a successful result

ex) Joint public-private efforts in America and Europe, while promising, will take time to bear fruit.

38

scourge noun
BrE /skɜːdʒ/ ; NAmE /skɜːrdʒ/

1) [usually singular] scourge (of somebody/something) (formal) a person or thing that causes trouble or suffering

ex) Childhood obesity is today's scourge.

the scourge of war/disease/poverty

the effort to keep the scourge of drugs off our streets

Inflation was the scourge of the 1970s.

39

이런 추세가 지속되면, 이런 식이라면

* on current trends

* if the trend holds

ex) On current trends, half of all boys and 70% of girls may become overweight or obese in 30 years, experts warn.

40

abdomen noun
BrE /ˈæbdəmən/ ; NAmE /ˈæbdəmən/

* abdominal adjective
BrE /æbˈdɒmɪnl/ ; NAmE /æbˈdɑːmɪnl/

the part of the body below the chest that contains the stomach, bowels, etc.

ex) Patients reported pain in the lower chest or upper abdomen.

* [only before noun] (anatomy) relating to or connected with the abdomen

ex) And that the supplements can actually increase the risk of heart attacks, kidney stones, and abdominal pain.

41

check in

1) [INTRANSITIVE] to arrive at a hotel or a private hospital where you have arranged to stay and give your personal details to the person working at the reception desk

ex) Well, you know, if your doctor told you to take this, I would check in before you stop.

42

adequate adjective
BrE /ˈædɪkwət/ ; NAmE /ˈædɪkwət/

enough in quantity, or good enough in quality, for a particular purpose or need

opposite inadequate

ex) The other question that came from a viewer and this was asked often, what should women do to ensure they're getting adequate calcium and you say this pertains to men as well.

an adequate supply of hot water

The room was small but adequate.

There is a lack of adequate provision for disabled students.

He didn't give an adequate answer to the question.

The space available is not adequate for our needs.

training that is adequate to meet the future needs of industry

43

pertain verb
BrE /pəˈteɪn/ ; NAmE /pərˈteɪn/ [intransitive](formal)

* pertain to somebody | pertain to something

to exist or to apply in a particular situation or at a particular time

ex) Living conditions are vastly different from those pertaining in their country of origin.

Those laws no longer pertain.

* (formal) to be connected with something/somebody

ex) The other question that came from a viewer and this was asked often, what should women do to ensure they're getting adequate calcium and you say this pertains to men as well.

the laws pertaining to adoption

44

골다공증 (formal/informal)

osteoporosis noun
BrE /ˌɒstiəʊpəˈrəʊsɪs/ ; NAmE /ˌɑːstioʊpəˈroʊsɪs/
(also brittle bone disease)
[uncountable](medical)

a condition in which the bones become weak and are easily broken, usually when people get older or because they do not eat enough of certain substances

45

근육 (중량) 운동을 하다

* lift weights

ex) So, lifting weights and then anything that gets you up on your feet, such as walking, jogging, running and dancing can help.

* pump iron

(informal) to do exercises in which you lift heavy weights in order to make your muscles stronger

46

weigh in (with something)

(informal) to join in a discussion, an argument, an activity, etc. by saying something important, persuading somebody, or doing something to help

ex) The American Cancer Society is now weighing in, changing their recommendations for the first time in more than a decade.

We all weighed in with our suggestions.

Finally the government weighed in with financial aid.

47

유방조영술 (검진 그 자체/촬영)

mammogram noun
BrE /ˈmæməɡræm/ ; NAmE /ˈmæməɡræm/

an examination of a breast using X-rays to check for cancer

ex) Tonight, the American Cancer Society now saying women should start having mammograms at the age of 45, five years later than its previous recommendation of 40.

* mammography noun
BrE /mæˈmɒɡrəfi/ ; NAmE /mæˈmɑːɡrəfi/ [uncountable]

the use of X-rays to check for cancer in a breast

ex) The new guidelines are based on increasing evidence that mammography often produces false positives in younger women.

48

허위 [거짓/위] 양성/음성

false positive/negative

an incorrect result of a scientific test

ex) The new guidelines are based on increasing evidence that mammography often produces false positives in younger women.

One of the biggest complaints about current tests is that they give false positive results.

49

bottom line noun

1) the bottom line [singular] the most important thing that you have to consider or accept; the essential point in a discussion, etc.

ex) Dr. Jen Ashton with the bottom line for women watching right here in a moment.

The bottom line is that we have to make a decision today.

2) (business) [countable] the amount of money that is a profit or a loss after everything has been calculated

ex) The bottom line for 2014 was a pre-tax profit of £85 million.

Sales last month failed to add to the company’s bottom line.

50

as often as not, more often than not[that]

on most occasions, or in most situations; usually; in a way that is typical of somebody/something

ex) And I hope that the insurance companies are still gonna pay for it if you wanna have it more often than that.

As often as not, he's late for work.

More often than not, the arguments could have been avoided.

51

so conjunction
BrE /səʊ/ ; NAmE /soʊ/

3) so (that…) used to show the purpose of something

ex) The American Cancer Society also dropping its previous recommendation that women have a manual exam, so doctors can feel for abnormalities, because it's never been shown to save lives.

But I gave you a map so you wouldn't get lost!

She worked hard so that everything would be ready in time.

52

abnormality noun
BrE /ˌæbnɔːˈmæləti/ ; NAmE /ˌæbnɔːrˈmæləti/ (pl. abnormalities)[countable, uncountable]

a feature or characteristic in a person’s body or behaviour that is not usual and may be harmful, worrying or cause illness

ex) The American Cancer Society also dropping its previous recommendation that women have a manual exam, so doctors can feel for abnormalities, because it's never been shown to save lives.

abnormalities of the heart

congenital/foetal abnormality

53

산부인과, 산부인과 의사

* 산과 전문의 / 부인과 전문의

ob-gyn noun
BrE /ˌəʊ biː ˌdʒiː waɪ ˈen/ ; NAmE /ˌoʊ biː ˌdʒiː waɪ ˈen/ (North American English, informal)

1) [uncountable] the branches of medicine concerned with the birth of children (= obstetrics) and the diseases of women (= gynaecology)

2) [countable] a doctor who is trained in this type of medicine

ex) Let's get right to Dr. Jen Ashton, an OB-GYN herself.

* obstetrician
BrE /ˌɒbstəˈtrɪʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌɑːbstəˈtrɪʃn/

gynecologist (AmE) gynaecologist (BrE)
BrE /ˌɡaɪnəˈkɒlədʒɪst/ ; NAmE /ˌɡaɪnəˈkɑːlədʒɪst/

54

number cruncher noun
(also number-cruncher)
(informal)

1) a person whose job involves working with numbers, such as an accountant

2) a computer or computer program that works with numbers and calculates data

55

scratch your head (over something)

to think hard in order to find an answer to something

ex) There were many women in the newsroom today who were scratching their heads, saying this is a major change.

Experts have been scratching their heads over the increase in teenage crime.

56

1. 단독의, 일방적인
2. 쌍방의
3. 3자간의
4. 다자간의

1. unilateral adjective
BrE /ˌjuːnɪˈlætrəl/ ; NAmE /ˌjuːnɪˈlætrəl/

done by one member of a group or an organization without the agreement of the other members

ex) The industry argues that companies do not make unilateral decisions on packaging size, because the Food and Drug Administration has to approve those decisions.

a unilateral decision

a unilateral declaration of independence

They were forced to take unilateral action.

They had campaigned vigorously for unilateral nuclear disarmament (= when one country gets rid of its nuclear weapons without waiting for other countries to do the same).

2. bilateral adjective
BrE /ˌbaɪˈlætərəl/ ; NAmE /ˌbaɪˈlætərəl/

1) involving two groups of people or two countries

ex) bilateral relations/agreements/trade/talks

3. trilateral adjective
BrE /ˌtraɪˈlætərəl/ ; NAmE /ˌtraɪˈlætərəl/

involving three groups of people or three countries

ex) trilateral talks

4. multilateral adjective
BrE /ˌmʌltiˈlætərəl/ ; NAmE /ˌmʌltiˈlætərəl/

1) in which three or more groups, nations, etc. take part

ex) multilateral negotiations

The peace talks are to be conducted on a multilateral basis.

multilateral nuclear disarmament

2) having many sides or parts

57

base something on something | base something upon something

to use an idea, a fact, a situation, etc. as the point from which something can be developed

ex) But the F.D.A. can base its decisions only on safety considerations and cannot consider cost in regulating drugs.

What are you basing this theory on?

58

phial noun
BrE /ˈfaɪəl/ ; NAmE /ˈfaɪəl/
(also vial especially in North American English)
(formal)

a small glass container, for medicine or perfume

ex) In guidelines issued last year, the F.D.A. told pharmaceutical companies that vials "should not contain a significant volume beyond what would be considered a usual or maximum dose" because that could lead to the inappropriate and hazardous use of leftover drugs.

a vial of pills/perfume/toilet water

59

hazardous adjective
BrE /ˈhæzədəs/ ; NAmE /ˈhæzərdəs/

involving risk or danger, especially to somebody’s health or safety

ex) In guidelines issued last year, the F.D.A. told pharmaceutical companies that vials "should not contain a significant volume beyond what would be considered a usual or maximum dose" because that could lead to the inappropriate and hazardous use of leftover drugs.

hazardous waste/chemicals

a hazardous journey

It would be hazardous to invest so much.

a list of products that are potentially hazardous to health

60

recoup verb
BrE /rɪˈkuːp/ ; NAmE /rɪˈkuːp/

recoup something (formal) to get back an amount of money that you have spent or lost

synonym recover

ex) Of course, if the regulators require that the drugs be sold in more sizes, manufacturers could try to recoup lost revenue by raising prices for smaller amounts.

We hope to recoup our initial investment in the first year.

The firm is hoping to recoup losses on car sales in the UK with this new model.

61

동맥경화

* hardening of the arteries
* arteriosclerosis noun
BrE /ɑːˌtɪəriəʊskləˈrəʊsɪs/ ; NAmE /ɑːrˌtɪrioʊskləˈroʊsis/ [uncountable](medical)

a condition in which the walls of the arteries become thick and hard, making it difficult for blood to flow

ex) Stress in childhood may be linked to hardening of the arteries in adulthood, new research suggests.

62

criterion noun
BrE /kraɪˈtɪəriən/ ; NAmE /kraɪˈtɪriən/ (pl. criteria BrE /kraɪˈtɪəriə/ ; NAmE /kraɪˈtɪriə/ )

a standard or principle by which something is judged, or with the help of which a decision is made

ex) Using these criteria, they calculated a stress score.

The main criterion is value for money.

What criteria are used for assessing a student's ability?

63

단층 촬영 (CT)

tomography noun
BrE /təˈmɒɡrəfi/ ; NAmE /təˈmɑːɡrəfi/ [uncountable]

a way of producing an image of the inside of the human body or a solid object using X-rays or ultrasound

* Computed Tomography
* CT scan
* CAT scan

A CT scan, also called X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) and computerized axial tomography scan (CAT scan), makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

ex) When the members of the group were 40 to 46 years old, they used computed tomography to measure coronary artery calcification, a marker of atherosclerosis and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

64

관상 동맥

coronary artery noun
BrE ; NAmE (anatomy)

either of the two arteries that supply blood to the heart

ex) When the members of the group were 40 to 46 years old, they used computed tomography to measure coronary artery calcification, a marker of atherosclerosis and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

65

석회화

calcification noun
BrE /ˌkælsɪfɪˈkeɪʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌkælsɪfɪˈkeɪʃn/ [uncountable](specialist)

the process of becoming hard when calcium salts are added

ex) When the members of the group were 40 to 46 years old, they used computed tomography to measure coronary artery calcification, a marker of atherosclerosis and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

66

다발성 경화증

multiple sclerosis noun
BrE ; NAmE [uncountable]
(abbreviation MS)

a disease of the nervous system that gets worse over a period of time with loss of feeling and loss of control of movement and speech

67

plausible adjective
BrE /ˈplɔːzəbl/ ; NAmE /ˈplɔːzəbl/

1) (of an excuse or explanation) reasonable and likely to be true

ex) There are plausible mechanisms for the connection, including stress-induced increases in inflammation, which in animal models have been linked to a variety of ailments.

Her story sounded perfectly plausible.

The only plausible explanation is that he forgot.

68

ailment noun
BrE /ˈeɪlmənt/ ; NAmE /ˈeɪlmənt/

an illness that is not very serious

ex) There are plausible mechanisms for the connection, including stress-induced increases in inflammation, which in animal models have been linked to a variety of ailments.

childhood/common/minor ailments

I got all the usual childhood ailments.

Below is a list of common childhood ailments.

69

follow suit

2) to act or behave in the way that somebody else has just done

ex) Mexico, by far the heftiest country in the world, began imposing 1 peso for every liter in 2013. That led to a 6% reduction in soda consumption in 2014. France, Norway, Finland and about 30 states in the U.S. followed suit.

70

adobe dollar

a Mexican peso

ex) How many of these adobe dollars does it take to buy a can of pop here?

71

fall ill

to become ill; to sicken

ex) Chipotle, the popular Mexican restaurant is taking drastic action, closing 43 restaurants in two states after 22 people fell ill, raising fears of an E. coli outbreak.

72

E. coli noun
BrE /ˌiː ˈkəʊlaɪ/ ; NAmE /ˌiː ˈkoʊlaɪ/ [uncountable]

a type of bacteria that lives inside humans and some animals, some forms of which can cause food poisoning

ex) Chipotle, the popular Mexican restaurant is taking drastic action, closing 43 restaurants in two states after 22 people fell ill, raising fears of an E. coli outbreak.

73

would-be adjective
BrE ; NAmE [only before noun]

used to describe somebody who is hoping to become the type of person mentioned

ex) Popular Mexican food chain Chipotle closing 43 of its restaurants in Oregon and Washington state, would-be patrons were greeted with this message on the door. "FYI, We are closed due to a supply chain issue."

a would-be actor

advice for would-be parents

74

well-being noun
BrE ; NAmE [uncountable]

* wellness noun
BrE /ˈwelnəs/ ; NAmE /ˈwelnəs/ [uncountable](especially North American English)

general health and happiness

ex) The safety and well-being of our customers is always our highest priority.

emotional/physical/psychological well-being

to have a sense of well-being

We try to ensure the well-being of our employees.

* the state of being healthy

ex) wellness and disease prevention

a wellness centre offering yoga and tai chi

75

잠복기

incubation noun
BrE /ˌɪŋkjuˈbeɪʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌɪŋkjuˈbeɪʃn/
[countable] (also incubation period) (medical or biology) the time between somebody being infected with a disease and the appearance of the first symptoms (= signs)

ex) And because symptoms could take more than a week to show up, health officials expect the number of victims to rise.

The incubation period of the virus is 24 to 48 hours.

76

다진 고기

* pink slime
* lean beef trimmings
* ground beef
* finely textured beef
* lean finely textured beef
* boneless lean beef trimmings / BLBT

a meat-based product used as a food additive to ground beef and beef-based processed meats, as a filler or to reduce the overall fat content of ground beef.

ex) The company All American Meats is now recalling 167,000 pounds of ground beef over fears of E. coli as well.

77

scrub verb
BrE /skrʌb/ ; NAmE /skrʌb/

1) [transitive, intransitive] to clean something by rubbing it hard, perhaps with a brush and usually with soap and water

ex) Tonight, Chipotle is scrubbing its shuttered restaurants and under fire, this lawsuit filed by an E. coli victim claiming a burrito bowl she ate made her so sick she needed medical attention a week later, claiming the pain was so severe, she missed and will continue to miss work because of her illness.

I found him in the kitchen, scrubbing the floor.

He stepped into the shower and scrubbed himself all over.

She scrubbed the counters down with bleach.

The woman scrubbed at her face with a tissue.

Scrub the vegetables clean.

78

동부 표준시/서부시 (태평양 표준시)

* Eastern Standard Time noun
BrE ; NAmE [uncountable]
(abbreviation EST)
(also Eastern time)

the time used in the winter in the eastern US and Canada, which is five hours earlier than UTC

* Pacific Standard Time noun
BrE ; NAmE [uncountable]
(abbreviation PST)

the time used in winter in the western parts of Canada and the US that is eight hours earlier than UTC

ex) Most but not all of the victims have told health officials they ate at Chipotle, leading the restaurant chain to voluntarily close 43 restaurants in the Pacific Northwest, even though a direct link is uncertain.

79

admission noun
BrE /ədˈmɪʃn/ ; NAmE /ədˈmɪʃn/

2) [countable] a statement in which somebody admits that something is true, especially something wrong or bad that they have done

ex) We're gonna turn now to a stunning new admission from Volkswagen tonight.

He is a thief by his own admission (= he has admitted it).

an admission of guilt/failure/defeat

The minister's resignation was an admission that she had lied.

80

irregular adjective
BrE /ɪˈreɡjələ(r)/ ; NAmE /ɪˈreɡjələr/

3) not normal; not according to the usual rules

synonym abnormal

ex) The company's internal investigation now revealing 800,000 additional vehicles with irregular carbon dioxide emission levels.

an irregular practice

His behaviour is highly irregular.

81

offspring noun
BrE /ˈɒfsprɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˈɔːfsprɪŋ/ , /ˈɑːfsprɪŋ/ (pl. offspring)(formal or humorous)

1) a child of a particular person or couple

ex) Does exercise during pregnancy lead to exercise-loving offspring?

the problems parents have with their teenage offspring

to produce/raise offspring

2) the young of an animal or plant

ex) Female badgers may give birth to as many as five offspring.

The beast was believed to be the offspring of a panther.

82

설치류

rodent noun
BrE /ˈrəʊdnt/ ; NAmE /ˈroʊdnt/

any small animal that belongs to a group of animals with strong sharp front teeth. Mice, rats and squirrels are all rodents.

ex) Mice born to mothers that run during their pregnancies grow up to be rodents that love to run as adults, according to a thought-provoking new animal experiment, while pups with sedentary moms had a less-enthusiastic attitude toward exercise.

83

thought-provoking adjective

making people think seriously about a particular subject or issue

ex) Mice born to mothers that run during their pregnancies grow up to be rodents that love to run as adults, according to a thought-provoking new animal experiment, while pups with sedentary moms had a less-enthusiastic attitude toward exercise.

a brilliant and thought-provoking play

84

pup noun
BrE /pʌp/ ; NAmE /pʌp/

1) = puppy

2) a young animal of various species (= types)

ex) Mice born to mothers that run during their pregnancies grow up to be rodents that love to run as adults, according to a thought-provoking new animal experiment, while pups with sedentary moms had a less-enthusiastic attitude toward exercise.

a seal pup

85

run in the family

to be a common feature in a particular family

ex) Most of us have probably observed that activity patterns tend to run in families, a situation that has been confirmed in studies involving both people and animals.

Heart disease runs in the family.

86

familial adjective
BrE /fəˈmɪliəl/ ; NAmE /fəˈmɪliəl/ [only before noun](formal)

1) related to or typical of a family

ex) Logically, home environment and nurture influence familial activity levels; children learn from and mimic their parents.

2) (medical) (of diseases, conditions, etc.) affecting several members of a family

ex) familial left-handedness

87

at work

1) having an effect on something

ex) Recent science, however, suggests that there are other, deeper biological influences at work as well, including genetics.

There is a hidden force at work here. That's called 'community spirit.'

She suspected that secret influences were at work.

88

snippet noun
BrE /ˈsnɪpɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈsnɪpɪt/

1) a small piece of something, especially information or news

ex) A number of studies have identified various snippets of DNA that, if someone carries them, predispose that person to be quite active, while other gene variations may nudge someone toward being a couch potato.

Have you got any interesting snippets for me?

a snippet of information

2) a short piece of a conversation, piece of music, etc.

89

predispose verb
BrE /ˌpriːdɪˈspəʊz/ ; NAmE /ˌpriːdɪˈspoʊz/ (formal)

1) to influence somebody so that they are likely to think or behave in a particular way; to make someone likely to think, feel, or behave in a particular way

ex) A number of studies have identified various snippets of DNA that, if someone carries them, predispose that person to be quite active, while other gene variations may nudge someone toward being a couch potato.

Is there a set of conditions that predisposes a nation to revolution?

He believes that some people are predisposed to criminal behaviour.

Her good mood predisposed her to enjoy the play.

2) predispose somebody to something to make it likely that you will suffer from a particular illness

ex) a mutation that predisposes some people to lung cancer

Stress can predispose people to heart attacks.

He has a predisposition to breast cancer.

The gene predisposes the carrier to breast cancer.

90

ensue verb
BrE /ɪnˈsjuː/ ; NAmE /ɪnˈsuː/ [intransitive](formal)

to happen after or as a result of another event

synonym follow

ex) After a week with wheels, the females were matched with male mice from the same genetic line. Pregnancies ensued.

An argument ensued.

The riot police swooped in and chaos ensued.

91

with young

(of a female animal) pregnant

ex) The other mice were allowed o continue running at will throughout their pregnancies, and they did keep running, although their distance and speed declined as they grew heavy with young.

92

wean verb
BrE /wiːn/ ; NAmE /wiːn/

* wean somebody from something | wean somebody off something

** wean somebody on something

wean somebody/something (off/from something) to gradually stop feeding a baby or young animal with its mother’s milk and start feeding it with solid food

ex) After the babies were born and weaned, the pups were removed to their own cages, without wheels.

He was weaned off at 12 months.

Leopard cubs are weaned at three months.

* to make somebody gradually stop doing or using something

ex) It's hard to wean drug addicts off of their favorite highs.

The doctor tried to wean her off sleeping pills.

** [usually passive] to make somebody experience something regularly, especially from an early age

ex) He was weaned on a diet of rigid discipline and duty.

93

emulate verb
BrE /ˈemjuleɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈemjuleɪt/

1) emulate somebody/something (formal) to try to do something as well as somebody else because you admire them

ex) Their cages were separated from those of the adult mice, so the young mice would not have watched their mothers working out and tried to emulate them.

She hopes to emulate her sister's sporting achievements.

94

jiggle verb
BrE /ˈdʒɪɡl/ ; NAmE /ˈdʒɪɡl/ [intransitive, transitive](informal)

to move or make something move up and down or from side to side with short quick movements

ex) It may be that the mother's physical movements jiggle the womb slightly in ways that alter fetal brain development in parts of the brain devoted to motor control and behavior; or that certain biochemicals produced by the mom during exercise pass through the placenta, affecting the baby's physiology and gene activity lifelong.

Stop jiggling around!

She jiggled with the lock.

He stood jiggling his car keys in his hand.

Ken was jiggling the settings on his camera.

95

태반

placenta noun
BrE /pləˈsentə/ ; NAmE /pləˈsentə/
(also the placenta)
(anatomy)

the material that comes out of a woman or female animal’s body after a baby has been born, and which was necessary to feed and protect the baby

synonym afterbirth

ex) It may be that the mother's physical movements jiggle the womb slightly in ways that alter fetal brain development in parts of the brain devoted to motor control and behavior; or that certain biochemicals produced by the mom during exercise pass through the placenta, affecting the baby's physiology and gene activity lifelong.

96

bear verb
BrE /beə(r)/ ; NAmE /ber/

present simple I / you / we / they bear BrE /beə(r)/ ; NAmE /ber/
he / she / it bears BrE /beəz/ ; NAmE /berz/
past simple bore BrE /bɔː(r)/ ; NAmE /bɔːr/
past participle borne BrE /bɔːn/ ; NAmE /bɔːrn/
-ing form bearing BrE /ˈbeərɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˈberɪŋ/

10) [transitive] (formal) to give birth to a child

ex) Those of us who have borne children know how exhausting the experience can be.

She was not able to bear children.

She had borne him six sons.

97

blessing noun
BrE /ˈblesɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˈblesɪŋ/

2) [usually singular] approval of or permission for something

ex) But, he said, if a pregnant woman - with her doctor's blessings - can walk, jog, swim or otherwise be physically active, she may improve her own health and also, just possibly, instill an incipient love of exercise in the child growing within her.

The government gave its blessing to the new plans.

He went with his parents' blessing.

98

incipient adjective
BrE /ɪnˈsɪpiənt/ ; NAmE /ɪnˈsɪpiənt/ [usually before noun](formal)

just beginning

ex) But, he said, if a pregnant woman - with her doctor's blessings - can walk, jog, swim or otherwise be physically active, she may improve her own health and also, just possibly, instill an incipient love of exercise in the child growing within her.

signs of incipient unrest

99

make or break somebody/something

to be the thing that makes somebody/something either a success or a failure

ex) This is potentially a 'make-or-break' problem for the nation, but they ignored it and remained nonchalant to say the least.

This movie will make or break him as a director.

It's make-or-break time for the company.

100

nonchalant adjective
BrE /ˈnɒnʃələnt/ ; NAmE /ˌnɑːnʃəˈlɑːnt/

behaving in a calm and relaxed way; giving the impression that you are not feeling any anxiety

synonym casual

ex) This is potentially a 'make-or-break' problem for the nation, but they ignored it and remained nonchalant to say the least.

to appear/look/sound nonchalant

‘It'll be fine,’ she replied, with a nonchalant shrug.

101

nip something in the bud

to stop something when it has just begun because you can see that problems will come from it

ex) You could've just 'nipped it in the bud.'

102

watertight adjective
BrE /ˈwɔːtətaɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈwɔːtərtaɪt/ , /ˈwɑːtərtaɪt/

2) (of an excuse, a plan, an argument, etc.) carefully prepared so that it contains no mistakes, faults or weaknesses

ex) So what is the key to survival then? A keen look at things to come and watertight preparedness.

a watertight alibi

The case has to be made watertight.

103

a stitch in time (saves nine)

(saying) it is better to deal with something immediately because if you wait it may become worse or more difficult and cause extra work

104

meticulous adjective
BrE /məˈtɪkjələs/ ; NAmE /məˈtɪkjələs/

paying careful attention to every detail

synonym fastidious, thorough

ex) The answer is, meticulous future prediction and thorough preparation.

meticulous planning/records/research

Their room had been prepared with meticulous care.

She planned her trip in meticulous detail.

He's always meticulous in keeping the records up to date.

My father was meticulous about his appearance.

105

mix-up noun
BrE ; NAmE (informal)

a situation that is full of confusion, especially because somebody has made a mistake

synonym muddle

ex) We turn next here to a major lawsuit, a group of women coming together to sue over a birth control mix-up.

There has been a mix-up over the dates.

106

모기업

parent company

a company or organization that owns or controls a smaller company or organization of the same type

A parent company(owners) is a company that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and operation by doing and influencing or electing its board of directors; the second company being deemed as a subsidiary of the parent company.

107

피임

contraception noun
BrE /ˌkɒntrəˈsepʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌkɑːntrəˈsepʃn/ [uncountable]

the practice of preventing a woman from becoming pregnant; the methods of doing this

synonym birth control

ex) As a result, the plaintiffs claim they were taking placebo sugar pills, intended for the week of menstruation, at the wrong time of the month, leaving them without adequate contraception.

to give advice about contraception

108

원고 / 피고

* plaintiff noun
BrE /ˈpleɪntɪf/ ; NAmE /ˈpleɪntɪf/
(less frequent complainant)
(law)

a person who makes a formal complaint against somebody in court

ex) As a result, the plaintiffs claim they were taking placebo sugar pills, intended for the week of menstruation, at the wrong time of the month, leaving them without adequate contraception.

The court upheld the plaintiff’s claim for damages.

The plaintiff must prove that the defendant was negligent.

* defendant noun
BrE /dɪˈfendənt/ ; NAmE /dɪˈfendənt/

the person in a trial who is accused of committing a crime, or who is being sued by another person

109

(and) about time (too), (and) not before time

used to say that something should have happened before now

ex) That packaging error prompted an FDA recall in 2011, but not before these women say they unintentionally became pregnant.

He offered her a sincere apology but not before she made up her mind to divorce him.

110

피임약

contraceptive noun
BrE /ˌkɒntrəˈseptɪv/ ; NAmE /ˌkɑːntrəˈseptɪv/

a drug, device or practice used to prevent a woman from becoming pregnant

ex) oral contraceptives

111

국가 비상 사태를 선포하다

to declare a state of emergency

112

downplay verb
BrE /ˌdaʊnˈpleɪ/ ; NAmE /ˌdaʊnˈpleɪ/

downplay something to make people think that something is less important than it really is

synonym play down

ex) The US Olympic Committee is advising athletes to listen to the CDC while Olympic officials in Rio are trying to downplay the threat.

The coach is downplaying the team's poor performance.

113

in/with regard to somebody/something

(formal) concerning somebody/something

ex) US soccer's chief medical officer tells us, members of the US women's soccer team, who have won three consecutive Olympic gold medals, are taking all necessary precautions in regard to the Zika virus.

a country’s laws in regard to human rights

The company's position with regard to overtime is made clear in their contracts.

114

단거리 육상 선수

sprinter noun
BrE /ˈsprɪntə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈsprɪntər/

a person who runs, swims, etc. very fast over a short distance in a race

ex) For 33-year-old US sprinter DeeDee Trotter, there's no question at all.

Olympic sprinters

115

술달리기

drinkathon (drunkathon)

(informal) A prolonged session of drinking alcohol

116

(남기지 말고) 다 먹어!

깔끔하게 죽여 (숨통 끊어)!

Finish up!

Finish him off!

117

ill-prepared adjective

cf. ill-informed / ill-equipped / ill-treated / ill-advised / ill-equipped...

1) ill-prepared (for something) not ready, especially because you were not expecting something to happen

ex) One of the sobering lessons of the Ebola crisis was how ill-prepared the world was for such a deadly disease.

The team was ill-prepared for a disaster on that scale.

2) badly planned or organized

an ill-prepared speech

118

teeming adjective
BrE /ˈtiːmɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˈtiːmɪŋ/

* teem with something

present in large numbers; full of people, animals, etc. that are moving around

ex) It is terrifying to reflect on how the virus's advance was halted in the teeming city of Lagos thanks only to the heroism of a single doctor and because the place just happened to have the expertise needed to trace all of the first victim's contacts.

teeming insects

the teeming streets of the city

Families were attempting to survive on their own on the teeming streets of Manila.

* (also be teeming with something)
to be full of people, animals, etc. moving around

ex) The streets were teeming with tourists.

a river teeming with fish

119

사스 (급성 중증 호흡기 증후군)

SARS noun
BrE /sɑːz/ ; NAmE /sɑːrz/ [uncountable]

the abbreviation for ‘severe acute respiratory syndrome’ (an illness that is easily spread from person to person, which affects the lungs and can sometimes cause death)

ex) Today the world is facing a worrying outbreak of Zika virus, adding to a growing list of diseases that includes SARS, MERS and bird flu.

No new SARS cases have been reported in the region.

120

조류 독감

bird flu noun
BrE ; NAmE
(also chicken flu)
(formal avian flu)
[uncountable]

a serious illness that affects birds, especially chickens, that can be spread from birds to humans and that can cause death

ex) Today the world is facing a worrying outbreak of Zika virus, adding to a growing list of diseases that includes SARS, MERS and bird flu.

Ten new cases of bird flu were reported yesterday.

121

지금은 40대가 옛날로 치면 30대 같애.

40 is the new 30.

122

pandemic adjective
BrE /pænˈdemɪk/ ; NAmE /pænˈdemɪk/

* pandemic noun
BrE /pænˈdemɪk/ ; NAmE /pænˈdemɪk/

(of a disease) that spreads over a whole country or the whole world

ex) a pandemic disease

* a disease that spreads over a whole country or the whole world

ex) Predicting these losses is hard, but a recent report on global health risks puts the expected economic losses from potential pandemics at around $60 billion a year.

123

beef something↔up

(informal) to make something bigger, better, more interesting, etc.

ex) As the threat grows, so does the case for beefing up defences against disease.

Security has been beefed up for the royal visit.

They’re taking on more workers to beef up production.

124

coordination noun
(British English also co-ordination)
BrE /kəʊˌɔːdɪˈneɪʃn/ ; NAmE /koʊˌɔːrdɪˈneɪʃn/ [uncountable]

1) the act of making parts of something, groups of people, etc. work together in an efficient and organized way

ex) The money would strengthen public-health systems, improve co-ordination in an emergency and fund neglected areas of R&D.

a need for greater coordination between departments

a lack of coordination in conservation policy

a pamphlet produced by the government in coordination with (= working together with) the Sports Council

advice on colour coordination (= choosing colours that look nice together, for example in clothes or furniture)

125

라사열

lassa fever noun
BrE /ˈlæsə fiːvə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈlæsə fiːvər/ [uncountable]

a serious disease, usually caught from rats and found especially in W Africa

ex) But the priority should be to advance vaccines for diseases that are rare today, but which scientists know could easily become pandemics in the future: Lassa fever, say, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever or Marburg.

126

크림-콩고 출혈열

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is caused by infection with a tick-borne virus (Nairovirus) in the family Bunyaviridae. The disease was first characterized in the Crimea in 1944 and given the name Crimean hemorrhagic fever. It was then later recognized in 1969 as the cause of illness in the Congo, thus resulting in the current name of the disease.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is found in Eastern Europe, particularly in the former Soviet Union, throughout the Mediterranean, in northwestern China, central Asia, southern Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent.

ex) But the priority should be to advance vaccines for diseases that are rare today, but which scientists know could easily become pandemics in the future: Lassa fever, say, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever or Marburg.

127

haemorrhagic adjective(British English)
(North American English hemorrhagic)
BrE /ˌheməˈrædʒɪk/ ; NAmE /ˌheməˈrædʒɪk/ (medical)

happening with or caused by haemorrhage

ex) But the priority should be to advance vaccines for diseases that are rare today, but which scientists know could easily become pandemics in the future: Lassa fever, say, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever or Marburg.

a haemorrhagic fever

128

마르부르크병

Marburg disease noun
BrE /ˈmɑːbɜːɡ dɪziːz/ ; NAmE /ˈmɑːrbɜːrɡ dɪziːz/ [uncountable]

a very serious African disease which causes severe loss of blood from inside the body

ex) But the priority should be to advance vaccines for diseases that are rare today, but which scientists know could easily become pandemics in the future: Lassa fever, say, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever or Marburg.

129

let up(informal)

1) to become less strong

ex) Those fears have not let up, though this month the Chinese central bank did report an abrupt, puzzling slowdown in the outflows in February.

The pain finally let up.

2) to make less effort

ex) We mustn't let up now.

130

commercial property

The term commercial property (also called commercial real estate, investment or income property) refers to buildings or land intended to generate a profit, either from capital gain or rental income.

ex) In 2015, loans held by American banks expanded at the fastest pace since 2007, driven mainly by commercial-property loans and also by car loans, credit cards and residential mortgages.

131

compromise verb
BrE /ˈkɒmprəmaɪz/ ; NAmE /ˈkɑːmprəmaɪz/

2) [transitive, intransitive] to do something that is against your principles or does not reach standards that you have set

ex) The surge far outpaced growth in the overall economy last year, a sign that too much money may be chasing too few good opportunities and that lenders may be compromising standards.

I refuse to compromise my principles.

We are not prepared to compromise on safety standards.

132

speculative adjective
BrE /ˈspekjələtɪv/ ; NAmE /ˈspekjələtɪv/ , also /ˈspekjəleɪtɪv/

3) (of business activity) done in the hope of making a profit but involving the risk of losing money

ex) Another lesson was that banks, hedge funds and other financial firms are often linked through speculative bets they place on financial developments.

speculative investment

133

reverberate verb
BrE /rɪˈvɜːbəreɪt/ ; NAmE /rɪˈvɜːrbəreɪt/

3) [intransitive] (formal) to have a strong effect on people for a long time or over a large area

ex) Regulators should be anticipating how this could reverberate through the financial system.

Repercussions of the case continue to reverberate through the financial world.

134

stress test

An exercise stress test usually involves walking on a treadmill or riding a stationary bike while your heart rhythm, blood pressure and breathing are monitored. Your doctor may recommend an exercise stress test if he or she suspects you have coronary artery disease or an irregular heart rhythm (arrhythmia).

ex) Regulators do know more now about the vulnerabilities in the financial system, thanks in part to the increasing rigor of bank stress tests required under the Dodd-Frank financial reform law of 2010.

135

water something↔down

1) to make a liquid weaker by adding water

synonym dilute

2) [usually passive] to change a speech, a piece of writing, etc. in order to make it less strong or offensive

synonym dilute

ex) Even in areas where regulations under Dodd-Frank have been delayed and watered down, like rules to limit banks' involvement with hedge funds, regulatory pressure and market forces have led banks to curtail some of the riskiest activities.

136

opaque adjective
BrE /əʊˈpeɪk/ ; NAmE /oʊˈpeɪk/

2) (of speech or writing) difficult to understand; not clear

synonym impenetrable

opposite transparent

ex) But the system is still too opaque, and resistance to regulation remains fierce.

The jargon in his talk was opaque to me.

Most people found the theory rather opaque.

137

buffer noun
BrE /ˈbʌfə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈbʌfər/

1) a thing or person that reduces a shock or protects somebody/something against difficulties

ex) Mutual funds, for instance, are opposing a rule that would require them to hold more reserves as a buffer against large and sudden redemptions.

Support from family and friends acts as a buffer against stress.

She often had to act as a buffer between father and son.

The organization acts as a buffer between the management and the union.

a buffer state (= a small country between two powerful states that helps keep peace between them)

a buffer zone (= an area of land between two opposing armies or countries)

Peacekeepers have been sent in to establish a buffer zone between the rival forces.

138

redemption noun
BrE /rɪˈdempʃn/ ; NAmE /rɪˈdempʃn/ [uncountable]

1) (formal) the act of saving or state of being saved from the power of evil; the act of redeeming

ex) the redemption of the world from sin

Redeem yourself!

2) (finance) the act of exchanging shares for money (= of redeeming them)

ex) Mutual funds, for instance, are opposing a rule that would require them to hold more reserves as a buffer against large and sudden redemptions.

139

in store (for somebody)

waiting to happen to somebody

ex) Predicting what's in for us matters equally much for national as well as corporate management.

We don't know what life holds in store for us.

If she had known what lay in store for her, she would never have agreed to go.

They think it'll be easy but they have a surprise in store.

140

conversely adverb
BrE /ˈkɒnvɜːsli/ ; NAmE /ˈkɑːnvɜːrsli/ (formal)
BrE /liːp/ ; NAmE /liːp/

in a way that is the opposite or reverse of something

ex) It will ensure them survival, or even a great leap forward. Conversely, if you don't get it right, you'll fall.

You can add the fluid to the powder, or, conversely, the powder to the fluid.

Women suffering from anorexia are still convinced that their thin, frail bodies are fat and unsightly. Conversely, some people who are a great deal heavier than they should be can persuade themselves that they are ‘just right’.

141

strong adjective
BrE /strɒŋ/ ; NAmE /strɔːŋ/ (stronger BrE /ˈstrɒŋɡə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈstrɔːŋɡər/ , strongest BrE /ˈstrɒŋɡɪst/ ; NAmE /ˈstrɔːŋɡɪst/ )

15) used after numbers to show the size of a group

ex) Yulgok, a famous scholar, made a case for creating and training what's now known as "100,000-strong troops" for the future invasion 10 years before the attack.

a 5 000-strong crowd

The crowd was 5 000 strong.

142

author verb
BrE /ˈɔːθə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈɔːθər/

author something (formal) to be the author of a book, report, etc.

ex) Yulgok, a famous scholar, made a case for creating and training what's now known as "100,000-strong troops" for the future invasion 10 years before the attack.

143

tween noun
BrE /twiːn/ ; NAmE /twiːn/
(also tweener BrE /ˈtwiːnə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈtwiːnər/ especially British English, tweenager BrE /ˈtwiːneɪdʒə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈtwiːneɪdʒər/ )

a child between the ages of about 10 and 12

synonym pre-teen

144

the gamut noun
BrE /ˈɡæmət/ ; NAmE /ˈɡæmət/ [singular]

the complete range of a particular kind of thing

ex) The young marriages run the gamut - they're teens of every ethnicity and religion, many are American-born, and they're not all being forced into arranged marriages.

The network will provide the gamut of computer services to your home.

She felt she had run the (whole) gamut of human emotions from joy to despair.

The exhibition runs the whole gamut of artistic styles.

145

born verb
BrE /bɔːn/ ; NAmE /bɔːrn/
be born
(used only in the passive, without by)

3) -born (in compounds) born in the order, way, place, etc. mentioned

ex) The young marriages run the gamut - they're teens of every ethnicity and religion, many are American-born, and they're not all being forced into arranged marriages.

firstborn

nobly born

French-born

146

the fact of the matter/the truth of the matter phrase

You use the fact of the matter is or the truth of the matter is to introduce a fact which supports what you are saying or which is not widely known, for example because it is a secret.

ex) I know how strongly you think you know what you want at that age, but the truth of the matter is I was a kid when I got married.

The fact of the matter is that most people consume far more protein than they actually need...

147

underage adjective
BrE /ˈʌndəreɪdʒ/ ; NAmE /ˈʌndəreɪdʒ/ [only before noun]

done by people who are too young by law

ex) Data collected by the Tahirih Justice Center from New York, New Jersey, Maryland and Virginia shows some 14,000 underage marriages in 10 years.

underage drinking

148

pending adjective
BrE /ˈpendɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˈpendɪŋ/ (formal)

* pendulum noun
BrE /ˈpendjələm/ ; NAmE /ˈpendʒələm/

1) waiting to be decided or settled

ex) Atterbeary's pushing a bill to tighten those loopholes, and even stricter measures are pending in New Jersey and New York, where assembly member Amy Paulin wants to ban all marriages under 18.

Nine cases are still pending.

a pending file/tray (= where you put letters, etc. you are going to deal with soon)

2) going to happen soon

synonym imminent

ex) An election is pending in Italy.

his pending departure

* a long straight part with a weight at the end that moves regularly from side to side to control the movement of a clock (figurative)

ex) In education, the pendulum has swung back to traditional teaching methods.

the pendulum of public opinion

149

sign into law

(US, of an elected executive) To sign legislation as a mark of official approval

ex) Another measure in Virginia was just signed into law.

The president signed it into law.

150

statutory rape noun
BrE ; NAmE [uncountable](North American English, law)

* statutory adjective
BrE /ˈstætʃətri/ ; NAmE /ˈstætʃətɔːri/ [usually before noun]

the crime of having sex with somebody who is not legally old enough

ex) State Sen. Jill Vogel filed it after hearing that a man in his 50s was in a relationship with a 15-year-old girl. That's statutory rape.

* fixed by law; that must be done by law

ex) The authority failed to carry out its statutory duties.

When you buy foods you have certain statutory rights.

151

close in | close in on somebody | close in on something

to move nearer to somebody/something, especially in order to attack them

ex) But when investigators started closing in on him, he married the girl, making it no longer a crime.

The lions closed in on their prey.

152

appalling adjective
BrE /əˈpɔːlɪŋ/ ; NAmE /əˈpɔːlɪŋ/

1) (North American English, formal or British English) shocking; extremely bad

ex) People said, how is it possible that in Virginia that's allowed? You know, it's just appalling.

The prisoners were living in appalling conditions.

2) (informal) very bad

ex) The bus service is appalling now.

It was one of the most appalling atrocities of the war.

The regime has an appalling record on human rights.

153

anti-vaxxer noun
(informal)

a person who is opposed to vaccination, typically a parent who does not wish to vaccinate their child; someone who believes that vaccinations are harmful to human health and so refuses to vaccinate their children against childhood diseases

ex) Some Western countries have lower vaccination rates than poor parts of Africa. Anti-vaxxers are not the main culprits.

To most of us with a science background, anti-vaxxer nonsense seems as persuasive as ghost stories or UFO chasing.

154

eradicate verb
BrE /ɪˈrædɪkeɪt/ ; NAmE /ɪˈrædɪkeɪt/

to destroy or get rid of something completely, especially something bad

synonym wipe out

ex) Eradicating a disease is the sort of aim that rich countries come up with, and poor ones struggle to reach.

Diphtheria has been virtually eradicated in the United States.

We are determined to eradicate racism from our sport.

155

make a comeback

to return to one's former (successful) career

ex) But as memories of the toll from infectious diseases fade across the rich world, in some places they are making a comeback.

After ten years in retirement, the singer made a comeback.

You're never too old to make a comeback.

156

천연두

smallpox noun
BrE /ˈsmɔːlpɒks/ ; NAmE /ˈsmɔːlpɑːks/ [uncountable]

a serious infectious disease (now extremely rare) that causes fever, leaves permanent marks on the skin and often causes death

ex) Smallpox was eradicated in 1980 with the help of a vaccine; polio should soon follow.

In 1742 he suffered a fatal attack of smallpox.

157

소아마비

polio noun
BrE /ˈpəʊliəʊ/ ; NAmE /ˈpoʊlioʊ/
(formal poliomyelitis BrE /ˌpəʊliəʊˌmaɪəˈlaɪtɪs/ ; NAmE /ˌpoʊlioʊˌmaɪəˈlaɪtɪs/ )
[uncountable]

an infectious disease that affects the central nervous system and can cause temporary or permanent paralysis (= loss of control or feeling in part or most of the body)

ex) Smallpox was eradicated in 1980 with the help of a vaccine; polio should soon follow.

158

집단 면역, 군집 면역, 무리 면역

herd immunity

general immunity to a pathogen in a population based on the acquired immunity to it by a high proportion of members over time

ex) At least 95% of people must be vaccinated to stop its spread (a threshold known as "herd immunity").

159

congenital adjective
BrE /kənˈdʒenɪtl/ ; NAmE /kənˈdʒenɪtl/

1) (of a disease or medical condition) existing since or before birth

ex) The trends for other vaccine-preventable diseases, such as rubella, which can cause congenital disabilities if a pregnant woman catches it, are alarming, too.

congenital abnormalities

Half of all fetuses with the syndrome have a congenital heart defect.

160

a sad state of affairs (spoken)

a sorry state of affairs

a bad situation that you find upsetting

ex) This sorry state of affairs is often blamed on hardline "anti-vaxxers", parents who refuse all vaccines for their children.

It's a sad state of affairs when schools don't provide a basic education for their students.

161

motley adjective
BrE /ˈmɒtli/ ; NAmE /ˈmɑːtli/ (disapproving)

consisting of many different types of people or things that do not seem to belong together

ex) They are a motley lot.

She had a motley group of friends at college.

The room was filled with a motley collection of furniture and paintings.

The audience was a motley crew of students and tourists.

162

spurn verb
BrE /spɜːn/ ; NAmE /spɜːrn/

spurn somebody/something to reject or refuse somebody/something, especially in a proud way

synonym shun

ex) The Amish in American spurn modern medicine, along with almost everything else invented since the 17th century.

Eve spurned Mark's invitation.

a spurned lover

The president spurned the tight security surrounding him and adopted a more intimate style of campaigning.

163

deity noun
BrE /ˈdeɪəti/ ; NAmE /ˈdeɪəti/ ; BrE /ˈdiːəti/ ; NAmE /ˈdiːəti/ (pl. deities)

1) [countable] a god or goddess

ex) Greek/Roman/Hindu deities

2) the Deity [singular] (formal) God

164

thwart verb
BrE /θwɔːt/ ; NAmE /θwɔːrt/ [often passive]

to prevent somebody from doing what they want to do

synonym frustrate

ex) The Protestant Dutch Reformed Church thinks vaccines thwart divine will.

thwart somebody’s plans

She was thwarted in her attempt to take control of the party.

165

cum preposition
BrE /kʌm/ ; NAmE /kʌm/

(used for linking two nouns) and; as well as

ex) Anthroposophy, founded in the 19th century by Rudolf Steiner, an Austrian mystic-cum-philosopher, preaches that diseases strengthen children's physical and mental development.

a bedroom-cum-study

He’s a barman-cum-waiter.

166

refusenik noun
BrE /rɪˈfjuːznɪk/ ; NAmE /rɪˈfjuːznɪk/

a person who refuses to obey an order or law as a protest

ex) In most countries such refuseniks are only 2-3% of parents.

167

pick and choose

to choose only those things that you like or want very much

ex) A bigger problem, though, is the growing number of parents who delay vaccination, or pick and choose jabs.

You have to take any job you can get—you can't pick and choose.

168

fall into

3) (idiomatic) To be classified as; to fall under.

ex) Studies from America, Australia and Europe suggest that about a quarter of parents fall into this group, generally because they think that the standard vaccination schedule, which protects against around a dozen diseases, "overloads" children's immune systems, or that particular vaccines are unsafe.

That falls into three categories.

169

overload verb
BrE /ˌəʊvəˈləʊd/ ; NAmE /ˌoʊvərˈloʊd/ [often passive]

2) overload somebody (with something) to give somebody too much of something

ex) Studies from America, Australia and Europe suggest that about a quarter of parents fall into this group, generally because they think that the standard vaccination schedule, which protects against around a dozen diseases, "overloads" children's immune systems, or that particular vaccines are unsafe.

He's overloaded with responsibilities.

Don't overload the students with information.

170

ostracize verb
(British English also -ise)
BrE /ˈɒstrəsaɪz/ ; NAmE /ˈɑːstrəsaɪz/

ostracize somebody (formal) to refuse to let somebody be a member of a social group; to refuse to meet or talk to somebody

synonym shun

ex) Members of this poor and ostracised minority are shunned by health workers and often go unvaccinated.

He was ostracized by his colleagues for refusing to support the strike.

The regime risks being ostracized by the international community.

171

1차 진료

* 2차 진료

** 3차 진료

primary care noun
BrE ; NAmE
(also primary health care BrE ; NAmE )
[uncountable]

the medical treatment that you receive first when you are ill/sick, for example from your family doctor

ex) primary care doctor / physician (PCP) / provider (PCP)

* secondary care

** tertiary care

tertiary adjective
BrE /ˈtɜːʃəri/ ; NAmE /ˈtɜːrʃieri/ , /ˈtɜːrʃəri/

third in order, rank or importance

ex) the tertiary sector (= the area of industry that deals with services rather than materials or goods)

(British English) tertiary education (= at university or college level)

172

debunk verb
BrE /ˌdiːˈbʌŋk/ ; NAmE /ˌdiːˈbʌŋk/

debunk something to show that an idea, a belief, etc. is false; to show that something is not as good as people think it is

ex) Many were shaken by a claim, later debunked, that there was a link between autism and the MMR vaccine, which protects against measles, mumps and rubella.

His theories have been debunked by recent research.

Let’s start by debunking a few myths.

She attempts to debunk unrealistic expectations about marriage.

173

miss out (on something)

to fail to benefit from something useful or enjoyable by not taking part in it

ex) In America, some poor children miss out on vaccines despite a federal programme to provide the jabs free, since they have no regular relationship with a family doctor.

Of course I'm coming—I don't want to miss out on all the fun!

174

shun verb
BrE /ʃʌn/ ; NAmE /ʃʌn/

shun somebody/something to avoid somebody/something

ex) Members of this poor and ostracised minority are shunned by health workers and often go unvaccinated.

She was shunned by her family when she remarried.

an actor who shuns publicity

The company has long been shunned by ethical investors.

175

make life difficult (for somebody)
make life/things difficult (for someone)

to cause problems for somebody

ex) Several governments are trying to raise vaccination rates by making life harder for parents who do not vaccinate their children.

She does everything she can to make life difficult for him.

My boss seems to enjoy making life difficult for me.

176

confer verb
BrE /kənˈfɜː(r)/ ; NAmE /kənˈfɜːr/ (formal)

2) [transitive] confer something (on/upon somebody) to give somebody an award, a university degree or a particular honour or right

ex) The previous year, in a quarter of schools too few children had been vaccinated against measles to confer herd immunity.

An honorary degree was conferred on him by Oxford University in 2009.

177

withdraw verb
BrE /wɪðˈdrɔː/ ; NAmE /wɪðˈdrɔː/ ; BrE /wɪθˈdrɔː/ ; NAmE /wɪθˈdrɔː/

2) [transitive] to stop giving or offering something to somebody

ex) Australia's new "no jabs, no pay" law withdraws child benefits from parents who do not vaccinate, unless they have sound medical reasons.

Workers have threatened to withdraw their labour (= go on strike).

He withdrew his support for our campaign.

Unless you return the form within seven days, the offer will be withdrawn.

The drug was withdrawn from sale after a number of people suffered serious side effects.

178

jab noun
BrE /dʒæb/ ; NAmE /dʒæb/

1) a sudden strong hit with something pointed or with a fist (= a tightly closed hand)

ex) She gave him a jab in the stomach with her elbow.

a boxer’s left jab

Scott gave him a sharp left jab to the ribs.

As a response he got a sharp jab in the stomach with a rifle.

2) (British English, informal) an injection to help prevent you from catching a disease

ex) A bigger problem, though, is the growing number of parents who delay vaccination, or pick and choose jabs.

a flu jab

179

art noun
BrE /ɑːt/ ; NAmE /ɑːrt/

7) [countable, uncountable] an ability or a skill that you can develop with training and practice

ex) Persuasion, a fine art

a therapist trained in the art of healing

Letter-writing is a lost art nowadays.

Appearing confident at interviews is quite an art (= rather difficult).

180

opt out (of something)

1) to choose not to take part in something

ex) Rates in some American states where parents can easily opt out are as high as in West Virginia and Mississippi, which have long allowed only medical exemptions.

Employees may opt out of the company's pension plan.

2) (of a school or hospital in Britain) to choose not to be under the control of the local authority

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forum noun
BrE /ˈfɔːrəm/ ; NAmE /ˈfɔːrəm/

1) forum (for something) a place where people can exchange opinions and ideas on a particular issue; a meeting organized for this purpose

ex) This requires tracking information from search engines and following anti-vaccination websites and parents' forums.

Television is now an important forum for political debate.

an Internet forum

to hold an international forum on drug abuse

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worrier noun
BrE /ˈwʌriə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈwɜːriər/

a person who worries a lot about unpleasant things that have happened or that might happen

ex) On one such forum, worriers say they have scoured government and vaccine-manufacturer websites but feel overwhelmed by information that they regard as inconclusive or contradictory.

He’s such a worrier.

183

scour verb
BrE /ˈskaʊə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈskaʊər/

1) scour something (for somebody/something) to search a place or thing thoroughly in order to find somebody/something

synonym comb

ex) On one such forum, worriers say they have scoured government and vaccine-manufacturer websites but feel overwhelmed by information that they regard as inconclusive or contradictory.

They scoured the forest for the murder suspect.

We scoured the area for somewhere to pitch our tent.

He had been scouring the papers for weeks, looking for a job.

cf) screen me for cancer

184

antiretroviral adjective
BrE /ˌæntiˌretrəʊˈvaɪrəl/ ; NAmE /ˌæntiˌretroʊˈvaɪrəl/ (medical)

designed to stop viruses such as HIV damaging the body

ex) antiretroviral drugs

Antiretroviral drugs are the only way to treat HIV.

185

astronomical adjective
BrE /ˌæstrəˈnɒmɪkl/ ; NAmE /ˌæstrəˈnɑːmɪkl/

2) (also astronomic) (informal) (of an amount, a price, etc.) very large

ex) As everyone knows, Bill Gates, the richest man in the world, has been donating an astronomical amount of money, through a foundation he created, to help fight HIV/AIDS and improve education worldwide.

cf) HIV carriers/AIDS patients
--> Not all HIV carriers are AIDS patients.

the astronomical price of land for building

The figures are astronomical.

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이렇게 생각해 보면

seen in this light

ex) Seen in these lights, donation in this country barely exists.

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fall short of something

to fail to reach the standard that you expected or need; to not reach a particular level or to fail to achieve something that you were trying to do

ex) Personal donations still fall far short of what corporations stump up.

The hotel fell far short of their expectations.

The party is likely to fall short of a parliamentary majority.

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stump up (for something) | stump up something (for something)

(British English, informal) to pay money for something

synonym cough up

ex) Personal donations still fall far short of what corporations stump up.

We were asked to stump up for the repairs.

Who is going to stump up the extra money?

189

emancipated adjective
BrE /ɪˈmænsɪpeɪtɪd/ ; NAmE /ɪˈmænsɪpeɪtɪd/ (formal)

no longer restricted, especially by legal, political or social considerations

ex) But now, under Virginia's new law, 16 and 17-year-olds who want to marry have to first convince a judge that they should be legally emancipated.

Are women now fully emancipated (= with the same rights and opportunities as men)?

an emancipated young woman (= one with modern ideas about women’s place in society)

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coerce verb
BrE /kəʊˈɜːs/ ; NAmE /koʊˈɜːrs/

coerce somebody (into something/into doing something) | coerce somebody (to do something) (formal) to force somebody to do something by using threats

ex) Someone would at least be looking to see if they're not being coerced, that the individual's mature enough to decide to marry, and that the marriage is not going to endanger the minor in any way.

They were coerced into negotiating a settlement.

She hadn’t coerced him in any way.

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way out noun

2) a way of escaping from a difficult situation

ex) It seemed like marriage was the best way out.

She was in a mess and could see no way out.

She had taken the easy way out by returning the keys without a message.

192

unleash verb
BrE /ʌnˈliːʃ/ ; NAmE /ʌnˈliːʃ/

unleash something (on/upon somebody/something) to suddenly let a strong force, emotion, etc. be felt or have an effect
The government's proposals unleashed a storm of protest in the press.

193

`statistic noun
BrE /stəˈtɪstɪk/ ; NAmE /stəˈtɪstɪk/

1) statistics (informal stats) [plural] a collection of information shown in numbers

ex) You can call up a grid of every baseball game being played, go directly to any game or see stats as you watch.

crime/unemployment, etc. statistics

According to official statistics the disease killed over 500 people.

Statistics show that far more people are able to ride a bicycle than can drive a car.

These statistics are misleading.

194

slew noun
BrE /sluː/ ; NAmE /sluː/

[singular] slew of something (informal, especially North American English) a large number or amount of something

ex) None of these gadgets are cheap which is why a slew of websites and big box stores are anxious to buy your old phones.

This year has seen a whole slew of novels set in Hong Kong.

195

big box
(also big-box store BrE ; NAmE )
BrE ; NAmE (North American English, informal)

a very large shop/store, built on one level and located outside a town, which sells goods at low prices

ex) None of these gadgets are cheap which is why a slew of websites and big box stores are anxious to buy your old phones.

When a big-box store opens, smaller retailers often go out of business.

Efforts were made to limit big-box expansion.

196

materialize verb
(British English also -ise)
BrE /məˈtɪəriəlaɪz/ ; NAmE /məˈtɪriəlaɪz/

1) [intransitive] (usually used in negative sentences) to take place or start to exist as expected or planned

ex) Of all the big announcements, the one thing people consistently say they want the most never materialized.

The promotion he had been promised failed to materialize.

197

orbiter noun
BrE /ˈɔːbɪtə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈɔːrbɪtər/

* orb noun
BrE /ɔːb/ ; NAmE /ɔːrb/

a spacecraft designed to move around a planet or moon rather than to land on it

ex) NASA's Mars orbiters has seen something only imagines: liquid water has been found on Mars.

* 1) (literary) an object shaped like a ball, especially the sun or moon

The red orb of the sun sank beneath the horizon.

198

rivulet noun
BrE /ˈrɪvjələt/ ; NAmE /ˈrɪvjələt/ (formal)

a very small river; a small stream of water or other liquid

ex) Look closely during the summer months, little rivulets, streaks develop 12-15 ft wide, a football field long.

Rivulets of sweat ran down her back.

Rain ran in tiny rivulets down the window.

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rover noun
BrE /ˈrəʊvə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈroʊvər/ (literary)

2) a small vehicle used by astronauts for travelling on the surface of a planet

ex) Right now, only rovers like Curiosity are on the surface of Mars, but with the discovery of water, a human visit becomes a bit more of a possibility.

200

briny adjective
BrE /ˈbraɪni/ ; NAmE /ˈbraɪni/

(of water) containing a lot of salt

synonym salty

ex) That, scientists say, is salty, even briny water.

201

strand verb
BrE /strænd/ ; NAmE /strænd/ [usually passive]

1) strand somebody to leave somebody in a place from which they have no way of leaving

ex) It could also change a manned mission to Mars, dramatized in the new Matt Damon movie about a stranded astronaut.

Snowstorms stranded thousands of tourists and dozens of jets at the airport.

The strike left hundreds of tourists stranded at the airport.

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crackle verb
BrE /ˈkrækl/ ; NAmE /ˈkrækl/

[intransitive] to make short sharp sounds like something that is burning in a fire

ex) No electric lights, mobile phones, radios crackling with cricket or televisions blaring Bollywood hits.

A log fire crackled in the hearth.

The radio crackled into life.

(figurative) The atmosphere crackled with tension.

203

blare verb
BrE /bleə(r)/ ; NAmE /bler/

[intransitive, transitive] to make a loud unpleasant noise

ex) No electric lights, mobile phones, radios crackling with cricket or televisions blaring Bollywood hits.

police cars with lights flashing and sirens blaring

Music blared out from the open window.

The radio was blaring (out) rock music.

204

medieval adjective
(also mediaeval)
BrE /ˌmediˈiːvl/ ; NAmE /ˌmediˈiːvl/ , also /ˌmiːdˈiːvl/ [usually before noun]

connected with the Middle Ages (about AD 1000 to AD 1450)

ex) Its economy would be medieval: tailors without electric sewing machines; metalworkers without power lathes; farmers without water pumps.

medieval architecture/castles/manuscripts
the literature of the late medieval period

205

lathe noun
BrE /leɪð/ ; NAmE /leɪð/

a machine that shapes pieces of wood or metal by holding and turning them against a fixed cutting tool

ex) Its economy would be medieval: tailors without electric sewing machines; metalworkers without power lathes; farmers without water pumps.

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등유, (등불용) 석유

kerosene noun
(also kerosine)
BrE /ˈkerəsiːn/ ; NAmE /ˈkerəsiːn/ [uncountable]

a type of fuel oil that is made from petroleum and that is used in the engines of planes and for heat and light. In British English it is usually called paraffin when it is used for heat and light.

ex) Nights would be lit only by the moon, cooking fires, candles and kerosene lamps.