To Prep 1 - Words Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in To Prep 1 - Words Deck (392):
1

cocktail noun
BrE /ˈkɒkteɪl/ ; NAmE /ˈkɑːkteɪl/

3) [countable] a mixture of different substances, usually ones that do not mix together well

ex) You've had your anti-nausea cocktail.

2

make-up noun
BrE /ˈmeɪk ʌp/ ; NAmE /ˈmeɪk ʌp/

3) [singular] make-up (of something) the different things, people, etc. that combine to form something; the way in which they combine

ex) Because women have different genetic make-up than men, they have different degrees of susceptibility to cancer-causing substances.

3

diagnose verb
BrE /ˈdaɪəɡnəʊz/ , /ˌdaɪəɡˈnəʊz/ ; NAmE /ˌdaɪəɡˈnoʊs/ [transitive, intransitive]

to say exactly what an illness or the cause of a problem is

ex) 80,000 women will be diagnosed with lung cancer this year.

4

biopsy noun
BrE /ˈbaɪɒpsi/ ; NAmE /ˈbaɪɑːpsi/ (pl. biopsies)

the removal and examination of tissue from the body of somebody who is ill/sick, in order to find out more about their disease

ex) I had a biopsy and the biopsy showed that I had lung cancer.

5

carcinogen noun
BrE /kɑːˈsɪnədʒən/ ; NAmE /kɑːrˈsɪnədʒən/

a substance that can cause cancer

ex) They want to determine whether women metabolize carcinogens differently, are less able to repair DNA damage, are more at risk due to hormones, especially estrogen.

6

targeted adjective
BrE /ˈtɑːɡɪtɪd/ ; NAmE /ˈtɑːrɡɪtɪd/

aimed at a particular place or group of people

ex) Researchers hope this study will help them better understand how genes, hormones, and tumors interact, possibly leading to more targeted treatments for women and men.

7

outlive verb
BrE /ˌaʊtˈlɪv/ ; NAmE /ˌaʊtˈlɪv/

outlive somebody to live longer than somebody

ex) For Karefive treatment has allowed her to outlive doctors' predictions and see her children grow into teenagers.

8

fetal adjective
(British English also foetal) BrE /ˈfiːtl/ ; NAmE /ˈfiːtl/

* fetus noun
(British English also foetus) BrE /ˈfiːtəs/ ; NAmE /ˈfiːtəs/

[only before noun] connected with a fetus; typical of a fetus

* a young human or animal before it is born, especially a human more than eight weeks after fertilization

ex) Fetal Health: Planning for the Future

9

preconception noun
BrE /ˌpriːkənˈsepʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌpriːkənˈsepʃn/ [countable, usually plural, uncountable]

an idea or opinion that is formed before you have enough information or experience

synonym assumption

* Preconception health refers to the health of women and men during their reproductive years, which are the years they can have a child. It focuses on taking steps now to protect the health of a baby they might have sometime in the future.

ex) Schedule a preconception visit with your physician to discuss vitamins, immunizations and any medications you take.

10

contemplate verb
BrE /ˈkɒntəmpleɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈkɑːntəmpleɪt/

1) [transitive] to think about whether you should do something, or how you should do something

synonym consider, think about/of

ex) If you're contemplating pregnancy, be sure to shed your illusions before making a decision.

11

folic acid noun
BrE /ˌfɒlɪk ˈæsɪd/ , /ˌfəʊlɪk ˈæsɪd/ ; NAmE /ˌfoʊlɪk ˈæsɪd/ [uncountable]

a vitamin found in green vegetables, liver and kidney, needed by the body for the production of red blood cells

ex) Before and during pregnancy, eat a variety of healthy foods, and get at least 400 to 800mcg of folic acid every day.

12

prenatal adjective
BrE /ˌpriːˈneɪtl/ ; NAmE /ˌpriːˈneɪtl/ (especially North American English)
(British English also antenatal)

relating to the medical care given to pregnant women

ex) Ask your clinician for a prenatal vitamin to take daily for three months before conception, during the pregnancy and between pregnancies.

13

double up phrasal verb
double up | double up on something somebody | double up on with somebody

(informal) to form a pair in order to do something or to share something

ex) Do not double up on your usual multivitamins.

14

illicit adjective
BrE /ɪˈlɪsɪt/ ; NAmE /ɪˈlɪsɪt/

1) not allowed by the law

synonym illegal

ex) If you're pregnant or likely to become so, don't smoke, drink alcohol or use illicit drugs (they can cause early births and brain damage).

15

acne noun
BrE /ˈækni/ ; NAmE /ˈækni/ [uncountable]

a skin condition, common among young people, that produces many pimples (= spots), especially on the face and neck

ex) Drugs used to treat acne or seizures can harm a developing fetus.

16

parasitic adjective
BrE /ˌpærəˈsɪtɪk/ ; NAmE /ˌpærəˈsɪtɪk/
(less frequent parasitical BrE /ˌpærəˈsɪtɪkl/ ; NAmE /ˌpærəˈsɪtɪkl/

* parasite noun
BrE /ˈpærəsaɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈpærəsaɪt/

1) caused by a parasite

* a small animal or plant that lives on or inside another animal or plant and gets its food from it

ex) To avoid toxoplasmosis (a parasitic infection that passes from hand to mouth), have someone else empty the cat-litter box, wear gloves when you garden and wash your hands after handling raw meat.

17

rich adjective
BrE /rɪtʃ/ ; NAmE /rɪtʃ/ (richer, richest)

5) rich (in something) (often in compounds) containing or providing a large supply of something

opposite poor

ex) You should also avoid mercury-rich fish, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel and tilefish.

* mercury-rich fish = fish high in rich

18

swordfish noun
BrE /ˈsɔːdfɪʃ/ ; NAmE /ˈsɔːrdfɪʃ/ [countable, uncountable](pl. swordfish)

a large sea fish with a very long thin pointed upper jaw 황새치

ex) You should also avoid mercury-rich fish, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel and tilefish.

19

anomaly noun
BrE /əˈnɒməli/ ; NAmE /əˈnɑːməli/ (pl. anomalies)

anomaly (in something) a thing, situation, etc. that is different from what is normal or expected

ex) Ultrasound images can reveal anomalies in time to plan further testing or care.

20

amniocentesis noun
BrE /ˌæmniəʊsenˈtiːsɪs/ ; NAmE /ˌæmnioʊsenˈtiːsɪs/ [uncountable, singular]

a medical test that involves taking some liquid from a pregnant woman’s womb in order to find out if the baby has particular illnesses or health problems 양수천자

ex) Other tests, such as amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling, involve drawing fetal cells from amniotic fluid or preplacental tissue and checking them for chromosomal defects.

21

chorionic villi \ˌkȯr-ē-ˈä-nik\

* villus noun
BrE /ˈvɪləs/ ; NAmE /ˈvɪləs/ (pl. villi BrE /ˈvɪlaɪ/ ; NAmE /ˈvɪlaɪ/ ; BrE /ˈvɪliː/ ; NAmE /ˈvɪliː/ ) (biology)

Chorionic villi are villi that sprout from the chorion to provide maximum contact area with maternal blood. They are an essential element in pregnancy from a histomorphologic perspective, and are, by definition, a product of conception. Branches of the umbilical arteries carry embryonic blood to the villi. After circulating through the capillaries of the villi, blood returns to the embryo through the umbilical veins. Thus, villi are part of the border between maternal and fetal blood during pregnancy. 융모막 융모

ex) Other tests, such as amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling, involve drawing fetal cells from amniotic fluid or preplacental tissue and checking them for chromosomal defects.

22

amniotic fluid noun
BrE /ˌæmniɒtɪk ˈfluːɪd/ ; NAmE /ˌæmniɑːtɪk ˈfluːɪd/ [uncountable]

the liquid that surrounds a baby inside the mother’s womb 양수

ex) Other tests, such as amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling, involve drawing fetal cells from amniotic fluid or preplacental tissue and checking them for chromosomal defects.

23

preplacental adjective
/prē′plă-sen′tăl/

before formation of a placenta (태반)

ex) Other tests, such as amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling, involve drawing fetal cells from amniotic fluid or preplacental tissue and checking them for chromosomal defects.

24

chromosomal adjective
BrE /ˌkrəʊməˈsəʊməl/ ; NAmE /ˌkroʊməˈsoʊməl/

(biology) connected with one or more chromosomes

ex) Other tests, such as amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling, involve drawing fetal cells from amniotic fluid or preplacental tissue and checking them for chromosomal defects.

25

assisted suicide

The term is often used interchangeably with physician-assisted suicide (PAS), which involves a doctor "knowingly and intentionally providing a person with the knowledge or means or both required to commit suicide, including counselling about lethal doses of drugs, prescribing such lethal doses or supplying the drugs."

ex) Oregon's law permitting doctor-assisted suicide is the only one of its kind in any American state.

26

come/enter into force

(of a law, rule, etc.) to start being used

ex) Since the "Death with Dignity Act" came into force seven years ago, close to 200 terminally ill patients are known to have chosen to end their lives with a cocktail of drugs.

27

overturn verb
BrE /ˌəʊvəˈtɜːn/ ; NAmE /ˌoʊvərˈtɜːrn/

2) [transitive] overturn something to officially decide that a legal decision, etc. is not correct, and to make it no longer valid

ex) Conservatives, many of whom regard the issue with as much passion as they do abortion, have long sought to overturn the law.

28

uphold verb
BrE /ʌpˈhəʊld/ ; NAmE /ʌpˈhoʊld/

2) uphold something (especially of a court of law) to agree that a previous decision was correct or that a request is reasonable

ex) In 1997, the Supreme Court upheld a ban on assisted suicide in the state of Washington, but left decisions on the issue to the individual states.

29

cervical adjective
BrE /ˈsɜːvɪkl/ , /səˈvaɪkl/ ; NAmE /ˈsɜːrvɪkl/ [only before noun](anatomy)

1) connected with the cervix

ex) It is the deadliest form of cancer for women, responsible for more deaths than breast cancer, cervical cancer, and ovarian cancer combined.

30

tantrum noun
BrE /ˈtæntrəm/ ; NAmE /ˈtæntrəm/

a sudden short period of angry, unreasonable behaviour, especially in a child

ex) Parenthood involves sacrificing sleep, enduring tantrums and changing plans when your child gets sick.

31

seizure noun
BrE /ˈsiːʒə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈsiːʒər/

3) (old-fashioned) [countable] a sudden attack of an illness, especially one that affects the brain

ex) Drugs used to treat acne or seizures can harm a developing fetus.

32

litter bin noun
BrE ; NAmE (British English) (North American English trash can)

*cat-litter box

a container for people to put rubbish/garbage in, in the street or in a public building

ex) To avoid toxoplasmosis (a parasitic infection that passes from hand to mouth), have someone else empty the cat-litter box, wear gloves when you garden and wash your hands after handling raw meat.

33

indefinitely adverb
BrE /ɪnˈdefɪnətli/ ; NAmE /ɪnˈdefɪnətli/

for a period of time with no fixed limit

ex) Tonight, some doctors are predicting that many Americans will be using weight loss drugs indefinitely.

34

sea change noun
BrE ; NAmE [usually singular]

a strong and noticeable change in a situation

ex) I actually do think it's a sea change. I think that technology has allowed us to get a look at the molecular portrait of these cancers and get a sense of how they're biologically distinct.

35

portrait noun
BrE /ˈpɔːtreɪt/ , /ˈpɔːtrət/ ; NAmE /ˈpɔːrtrət/

2) a detailed description of somebody/something

synonym depiction

ex) I actually do think it's a sea change. I think that technology has allowed us to get a look at the molecular portrait of these cancers and get a sense of how they're biologically distinct.

36

pay, earn, charge, etc. top dollar

(informal) pay, earn, charge, etc. a lot of money

ex) That's true. They do charge top dollar.

37

give somebody the creeps

(informal) to make somebody feel nervous and slightly frightened, especially because somebody/something is unpleasant or strange

ex) And their salespeople are very strange. They really give me the creeps!

38

go belly up

(informal) to fail completely

ex) Well, they must be doing something right over there. Meanwhile, we're about to go belly-up.

39

save the day/situation

to prevent failure or defeat, when this seems certain to happen

ex) I thought my new advertising campaign would save the day.

40

(go) back to the drawing board

to start thinking about a new way of doing something after a previous plan or idea has failed

ex) Well, then I'll go back to the drawing board.

They rejected our proposal, so it's back to the drawing board.

41

give someone the ax

1) to dismiss someone from employment

ex) What? You're giving me the ax?

42

(as) sharp as a tack

very intelligent; extremely clever or astute

ex) Yes. I've already found a new manager. She's as sharp as a tack.

43

right-hand man noun
BrE ; NAmE [singular]

a person who helps somebody a lot and who they rely on, especially in an important job

ex) But Bob, you were Peter's right-hand man!

44

(keep your) chin up

(informal) used to tell somebody to try to stay cheerful even though they are in a difficult or unpleasant situation

ex) Keep your chin up. Maybe he'll change his mind and take you back.

45

pigs might fly(British English)
when pigs fly (North American English)

(ironic, saying) used to show that you do not believe something will ever happen

ex) A: Maybe he'll change his mind and take you back.
B: When pigs fly! Once he makes up his mind, he never changes it.

46

clap/lay/set eyes on somebody/something

(informal) (usually used in negative sentences) to see somebody/something

ex) Look on the bright side: you won't have to set eyes on Peter ever again.

47

out-of-work adjective
BrE ; NAmE [only before noun]

unemployed

ex) Hang in there. I'm sure you won't be out of work for long.

48

live (from) hand to mouth

to spend all the money you earn on basic needs such as food without being able to save any money

ex) In the meantime, we'll have to live from hand to mouth.

49

make (both) ends meet

to earn just enough money to be able to buy the things you need

ex) Don't get too stressed out, Bob. We'll make ends meet.

50

if the worst comes to the worst
if worse/worst comes to worst

if the situation becomes too difficult or dangerous

ex) If worse comes to worst, we can sell our home and move into a tent.

51

be easier said than done

(saying) to be much more difficult to do than to talk about

ex) A: Let's think big! Maybe you can start your own business.
B: Easier said than done.

52

dementia noun
BrE /dɪˈmenʃə/ ; NAmE /dɪˈmenʃə/ [uncountable](medical)

a serious mental disorder caused by brain disease or injury, that affects the ability to think, remember and behave normally

ex) One out of every ten Americans over the age of 65 has some form of dementia, including Alzheimer's.

53

battery noun
BrE /ˈbætri/ ; NAmE /ˈbætri/ ; BrE /ˈbætəri/ ; NAmE /ˈbætəri/ (pl. batteries)

2) [countable] battery (of something) a large number of things or people of the same type

ex) In this study, volunteers were subjected to a battery of memory tests, and questioned about their weekly exercise habits.

54

malignancy noun
BrE /məˈlɪɡnənsi/ ; NAmE /məˈlɪɡnənsi/ (pl. malignancies) (formal)

1) [countable] a malignant mass of tissue in the body

synonym tumour

ex) People have long suspected that diet plays a role in malignancies, but they lacked definitive proof that changing one's diet could reduce the risk of cancer.

55

stringent adjective
BrE /ˈstrɪndʒənt/ ; NAmE /ˈstrɪndʒənt/ (formal)

1) (of a law, rule, regulation, etc.) very strict and that must be obeyed

ex) Now, for the first time, a large study has shown that breast cancer patients may be able to reduce the chances that their tumors will return by following a stringent low-fat diet.

56

robust adjective
BrE /rəʊˈbʌst/ ; NAmE /roʊˈbʌst/

3) (of a system or an organization) strong and not likely to fail or become weak

ex) Although some scientists doubt that the findings are robust enough to warrant great confidence, any breast cancer patient who can forgo the pleasures of fatty foods would probably be wise to do so.

57

spare verb
BrE /speə(r)/ ; NAmE /sper/

2) to save somebody/yourself from having to go through an unpleasant experience

ex) Not only is she surviving breast cancer, but she's been spared unnecessary toxic treatments.

58

warrant verb
BrE /ˈwɒrənt/ ; NAmE /ˈwɔːrənt/ , /ˈwɑːrənt/

1) to make an action seem reasonable or necessary

ex) Although some scientists doubt that the findings are robust enough to warrant great confidence, any breast cancer patient who can forgo the pleasures of fatty foods would probably be wise to do so.

59

forgo verb
(also forego)
BrE /fɔːˈɡəʊ/ ; NAmE /fɔːrˈɡoʊ/

forgo something (formal) to decide not to have or do something that you would like to have or do

ex) Although some scientists doubt that the findings are robust enough to warrant great confidence, any breast cancer patient who can forgo the pleasures of fatty foods would probably be wise to do so.

60

menopause noun
BrE /ˈmenəpɔːz/ ; NAmE /ˈmenəpɔːz/
(informal the change (of life))
[uncountable]
(also the menopause)
[singular]

the time during which a woman gradually stops menstruating, usually at around the age of 50

ex) The researchers studied some 2,400 postmenopausal women who were healthy after receiving standard treatments for early breast cancer, including surgery, radiation and chemotherapy or hormonal therapy.

61

exult verb
BrE /ɪɡˈzʌlt/ ; NAmE /ɪɡˈzʌlt/ [intransitive, transitive](formal)

to feel and show that you are very excited and happy because of something that has happened

ex) That was a statistically significant difference but barely so, causing some scientists to exult that diet had finally been proved beneficial and others to lament that the proof seemed mighty slim.

62

mighty adverb
BrE /ˈmaɪti/ ; NAmE /ˈmaɪti/

(informal, especially North American English) (with adjectives and adverbs) very

synonym really

ex) That was a statistically significant difference but barely so, causing some scientists to exult that diet had finally been proved beneficial and others to lament that the proof seemed mighty slim.

63

motor adjective
BrE /ˈməʊtə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈmoʊtər/ [only before noun]

*motor capacity

3) (specialist) connected with movement of the body that is produced by muscles; connected with the nerves that control movement

*체력

ex) Now scientists are peering into the brains of alcoholics for clues about the price of excess on thinking, balance, and motor capacity.

64

irreversible adjective
BrE /ˌɪrɪˈvɜːsəbl/ ; NAmE /ˌɪrɪˈvɜːrsəbl/

that cannot be changed back to what it was before

opposite reversible

ex) What are they learning? That women do not handle alcohol as well as men and face greater risks of potentially irreversible brain damage, as well as other serious health problems, including liver damage, heart disease and cancer.

65

deficiency noun
BrE /dɪˈfɪʃnsi/ ; NAmE /dɪˈfɪʃnsi/ (pl. deficiencies)(formal)

1) [uncountable, countable] deficiency (in/of something) the state of not having, or not having enough of, something that is essential

synonym shortage

ex) Two new studies detected deficiencies in the gray and white matter and cerebrospinal fluid of alcoholic subjects.

66

cerebrospinal adjective
\sə-ˌrē-brō-ˈspī-nəl, ˌser-ə-brō-\

of or relating to the brain and spinal cord or to these together with the cranial and spinal nerves that innervate voluntary muscles 뇌척수의, 중추 신경계의

ex) Two new studies detected deficiencies in the gray and white matter and cerebrospinal fluid of alcoholic subjects.

67

detrimental adjective
BrE /ˌdetrɪˈmentl/ ; NAmE /ˌdetrɪˈmentl/

detrimental (to somebody/something) (formal) harmful

synonym damaging

ex) What's more, according to NIH researcher Daniel Hommer, the detrimental effects of chronic alcohol abuse are causing organic damage at younger ages than once thought.

68

cerebral cortex noun
BrE /ˈserəbrəl/ ; NAmE /səˈriːbrəl/
BrE /ˈkɔːteks/ ; NAmE /ˈkɔːrteks/

the extensive outer layer of gray matter of the cerebral hemispheres, largely responsible for higher brain functions, including sensation, voluntary muscle movement, thought, reasoning, and memory 대뇌피질 대뇌겉질

69

binge noun
BrE /bɪndʒ/ ; NAmE /bɪndʒ/

(informal) a short period of time when somebody does too much of a particular activity, especially eating or drinking alcohol

ex) Hopefully, this will make people aware that heavy drinking in the 20s is dangerous - and that includes binge drinking.

to go on a binge

I had a shopping binge with my credit card.

70

abstinence noun
BrE /ˈæbstɪnəns/ ; NAmE /ˈæbstɪnəns/

[uncountable] abstinence (from something) (formal) the practice of not allowing yourself something, especially food, alcoholic drinks or sex, for moral, religious or health reasons

ex) The 36 alcohol dependent women enrolled in the Hommer study were recruited from an inpatient treatment program in Bethesda, Md., and compared after a minimum of three weeks of abstinence with men and other with no history of alcohol or other drug problems.

71

withdrawal noun
BrE /wɪðˈdrɔːəl/ ; NAmE /wɪðˈdrɔːəl/ ; BrE /wɪθˈdrɔːəl/ ; NAmE /wɪθˈdrɔːəl/

4) [uncountable] the period of time when somebody is getting used to not taking a drug that they have become addicted to, and the unpleasant effects of doing this

ex) Each were either binge drinkers or consumed the equivalent of 11-12 drinks a day - enough to experience withdrawal symptoms and blackouts.

72

inebriated adjective
BrE /ɪˈniːbrieɪtɪd/ ; NAmE /ɪˈniːbrieɪtɪd/ (formal or humorous)

drunk

ex) As a result, they become inebriated more easily.

73

fluctuation noun
BrE /ˌflʌktʃuˈeɪʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌflʌktʃuˈeɪʃn/ [countable, uncountable]fluctuation (in/of something)

one of several frequent changes in size, amount, quality, etc, especially from one extreme to another; the act of changing frequently like this

ex) Monthly hormone fluctuations also affect alcohol metabolism and can make blood alcohol content levels jump faster than in men.

74

reversible adjective
BrE /rɪˈvɜːsəbl/ ; NAmE /rɪˈvɜːrsəbl/

2) (of a process, an action or a disease) that can be changed so that something returns to its original state or situation

opposite irreversible

ex) Scientists believe that more studies on alcoholic women are needed after short and long periods of sobriety to determine the effects of alcohol on thinking ability, motor skills, and balance - and whether the effects are reversible.

75

track record noun

all the past achievements, successes or failures of a person or an organization

ex) "Women alcoholics do not have a good track record of recovery," he says.

He has a proven track record in marketing.

76

wreak havoc (on)

to cause a lot of trouble or damage

ex) Alcohol can wreak havoc on the brain: everything from self-control to loss of inhibitions.

77

inhibition noun
BrE /ˌɪnhɪˈbɪʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌɪnhɪˈbɪʃn/ ; BrE /ˌɪnɪˈbɪʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌɪnɪˈbɪʃn/

2) [uncountable] (formal) the act of restricting or preventing a process or an action

ex) Alcohol depresses the central nervous system, lowers inhibitions, and impairs judgment.

78

telltale adjective
BrE /ˈtelteɪl/ ; NAmE /ˈtelteɪl/

[only before noun] showing that something exists or has happened

ex) Exercise not only increases blood flow and oxygen to the brain, it may also reduce the telltale plaque in the brain associated with Alzheimer's.

79

physiological adjective
BrE /ˌfɪziəˈlɒdʒɪkl/ ; NAmE /ˌfɪziəˈlɑːdʒɪkl/

1) connected with the scientific study of the normal functions of living things

ex) This lends some actual physiological support that there might be a direct mechanism between exercise an d the development of plaques.

80

cardiovascular adjective
BrE /ˌkɑːdiəʊˈvæskjələ(r)/ ; NAmE /ˌkɑːrdioʊˈvæskjələr/ (medical)

connected with the heart and the blood vessels (= the tubes that carry blood around the body)

ex) After eight years, it turns out consuming less fat did not reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer.

81

colon noun
BrE /ˈkəʊlən/ ; NAmE /ˈkoʊlən/

* co·lo·rec·tal adjective
/kō′lə-rĕk′təl/

** rectum noun
BrE /ˈrektəm/ ; NAmE /ˈrektəm/ (pl. rectums, recta BrE /ˈrektə/ ; NAmE /ˈrektə/ )(anatomy)

2) (anatomy) the main part of the large intestine (= part of the bowels) 결장

* relating to or involving both the colon and the rectum: colorectal cancer.

** the end section of the tube where food waste collects before leaving the body through the anus 직장

ex) We went into the study thinking that a diet, a diet low in total fat would reduce the risk definitively for breast cancer, colon cancer, and heart disease.

82

take noun
BrE /teɪk/ ; NAmE /teɪk/

3) take on something (informal) the particular opinion or idea that somebody has about something

ex) I think if that's the take on this, then that would be an erroneous one.

83

erroneous adjective
BrE /ɪˈrəʊniəs/ ; NAmE /ɪˈroʊniəs/ (formal)

not correct; based on wrong information

ex) I think if that's the take on this, then that would be an erroneous one.

84

chock-full adjective
BrE /ˌtʃɒk ˈfʊl/ ; NAmE /ˌtʃɑːk ˈfʊl/

[not before noun] chock-full (of something/somebody) (informal) completely full

ex) In the basement, the woman had several copies of the Physician's Desk Reference, scales for weighing pills, and a cupboard chock-full of both prescription and over-the counter medications.

85

all in all

used for showing that you are considering every aspect of something

ex) All in all, doctors told the family later, she had 11 types of prescription medications, including at least 400 Valium pills.

86

fetch verb
BrE /fetʃ/ ; NAmE /fetʃ/

2) fetch something to be sold for a particular price

synonym sell

ex) Her medications, doctors said, would probably fetch about $15,000 on the street.

87

unbeknown adjective
BrE /ˌʌnbɪˈnəʊn/ ; NAmE /ˌʌnbɪˈnoʊn/
(less frequent unbeknownst BrE /ˌʌnbɪˈnəʊnst/ ; NAmE /ˌʌnbɪˈnoʊnst/ )

unbeknown to somebody (formal) without the person mentioned knowing

ex) To get pills, Anne's grandmother would go from doctor to doctor complaining of anxiety, asking each for a prescription so that, unbeknownst to the doctors, she racked up a huge stockpile of drugs.

88

rack up phrasal verb

rack up something
(especially North American English) to collect something, such as profits or losses in a business, or points in a competition

ex) To get pills, Anne's grandmother would go from doctor to doctor complaining of anxiety, asking each for a prescription so that, unbeknownst to the doctors, she racked up a huge stockpile of drugs.

89

potent adjective
BrE /ˈpəʊtnt/ ; NAmE /ˈpoʊtnt/

1) having a strong effect on your body or mind

ex) One in 10 high school seniors has tried the painkiller Vicodin without a prescription, and 1 in 20 has taken the potent pill OxyContin.

90

gear up phrasal verb
gear up | gear up for something | gear up to something | gear up somebody | gear up somebody for something | gear up somebody to something | gear up something | gear up something for something | gear up something to something | gear somebody up | gear somebody up for something | gear somebody up to something | gear something up | gear something up for something | gear something up to something

to prepare yourself/somebody/something to do something; to step up to the challenge, get motivated, work harder to get the job done

ex) As these efforts gear up, experts at all levels are realizing that fighting the war on prescription drugs may be unlike anything they've done before.

91

dope noun
BrE /dəʊp/ ; NAmE /doʊp/

1) [uncountable] (informal) a drug that is taken illegally for pleasure, especially cannabis or, in the US, heroin

ex) Kiddie dope.

He has admitted smoking dope as a teenager.

92

tsar noun
(also tzar, czar)
BrE /zɑː(r)/ ; NAmE /zɑːr/

* drug czar - definition and synonyms

1) [COUNTABLE] a government official who is responsible for dealing with a specific problem, especially one that causes a lot of public worry

* an official employed by a national government to try to stop the trade in illegal drugs

ex) "We are faced here with a different kind of threat," says John Walters, the U.S. drug czar.

93

diversion noun
BrE /daɪˈvɜːʃn/ ; NAmE /daɪˈvɜːrʒn/

2) [COUNTABLE/UNCOUNTABLE] a change in the use or purpose of something

ex) In this case, this is a diversion from a legitimate source.

94

finesse noun
BrE /fɪˈnes/ ; NAmE /fɪˈnes/

[uncountable] great skill in dealing with people or situations, especially in a delicate way

ex) In contrast to other types of illicit drugs, fighting this threat takes more finesse than force.

95

round up somebody | round up something | round somebody up | round something up

2) if police or soldiers round up a group of people, they find them and arrest or capture them

ex) Federal agents and others refer to prescription pills as "kiddie dope" and don't regard rounding up those who sell it illegally as a top priority, he says.

96

fall into somebody’s hands/the hands of somebody

(formal) to become controlled by somebody

ex) The word balance is often used to describe the complex task of keeping these groups happy while preventing the drugs from falling into the hands of illicit users and criminals.

97

see/think fit (to do something)

(formal) to consider it right or acceptable to do something; to decide or choose to do something

ex) The most delicate relationship right now is between law enforcement and doctors, who want to be able to prescribe medication as they see fit without evoking suspicion of drug trafficking - a fact not lost on the Drug Enforcement Administration.

98

opiate noun
BrE /ˈəʊpiət/ ; NAmE /ˈoʊpiət/ (formal)

a drug derived from opium. Opiates are used in medicine to reduce severe pain.

ex) Painkillers like Vicodin, Percocet, and OxyContin, derived from opiates, technically known as narcotic analgesics, are the biggest concern among policymakers and experts because they can be very addictive.

99

narcotic adjective
BrE /nɑːˈkɒtɪk/ ; NAmE /nɑːrˈkɑːtɪk/

1) (of a drug) that affects your mind in a harmful way

2) (of a substance) making you sleep

ex) Painkillers like Vicodin, Percocet, and OxyContin, derived from opiates, technically known as narcotic analgesics, are the biggest concern among policymakers and experts because they can be very addictive.

100

analgesic adjective
BrE /ˌænəlˈdʒiːzɪk/ ; NAmE /ˌænəlˈdʒiːzɪk/ (medical)

that reduces pain

ex) Painkillers like Vicodin, Percocet, and OxyContin, derived from opiates, technically known as narcotic analgesics, are the biggest concern among policymakers and experts because they can be very addictive.

101

analgesic noun
BrE /ˌænəlˈdʒiːzɪk/ ; NAmE /ˌænəlˈdʒiːzɪk/ (medical)

a substance that reduces pain

synonym painkiller

ex) Painkillers like Vicodin, Percocet, and OxyContin, derived from opiates, technically known as narcotic analgesics, are the biggest concern among policymakers and experts because they can be very addictive.

102

euphoria noun
BrE /juːˈfɔːriə/ ; NAmE /juːˈfɔːriə/ [uncountable]

an extremely strong feeling of happiness and excitement that usually lasts only a short time

ex) People take the drugs because they produce a sense of euphoria, similar to the high from heroin.

103

high-profile adjective
BrE ; NAmE [usually before noun]

receiving or involving a lot of attention and discussion on television, in newspapers, etc.

ex) But the heavy focus on abuse of painkillers, along with several high-profile court cases involving doctors, has had a chilling effect on pain medicine, doctors contend.

104

contend verb
BrE /kənˈtend/ ; NAmE /kənˈtend/

1) [transitive] contend that… (formal) to say that something is true, especially in an argument

synonym maintain

ex) But the heavy focus on abuse of painkillers, along with several high-profile court cases involving doctors, has had a chilling effect on pain medicine, doctors contend.

105

repercussion noun
BrE /ˌriːpəˈkʌʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌriːpərˈkʌʃn/ [usually plural]

* reverberation noun
BrE /rɪˌvɜːbəˈreɪʃn/ ; NAmE /rɪˌvɜːrbəˈreɪʃn/

** ripple effect noun
BrE ; NAmE

*** fallout noun
BrE /ˈfɔːlaʊt/ ; NAmE /ˈfɔːlaʊt/ [uncountable]

an indirect and usually bad result of an action or event that may happen some time afterwards

synonym consequence

* reverberations [plural] the effects of something that happens, especially unpleasant ones that spread among a large number of people

synonym repercussion

** a situation in which an event or action has an effect on something, which then has an effect on something else

*** the bad results of a situation or an action

ex) "I can't even begin to explain the severity of the repercussions on their lives."

106

evoke verb
BrE /ɪˈvəʊk/ ; NAmE /ɪˈvoʊk/

evoke something (formal) to bring a feeling, a memory or an image into your mind

ex) The most delicate relationship right now is between law enforcement and doctors, who want to be able to prescribe medication as they see fit without evoking suspicion of drug trafficking - a fact not lost on the Drug Enforcement Administration.

107

laud verb
BrE /lɔːd/ ; NAmE /lɔːd/

laud somebody/something (formal) to praise somebody/something

ex) The 32-page document was released in August 2004 and lauded in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

108

unilaterally adverb
BrE /ˌjuːnɪˈlætrəli/ ; NAmE /ˌjuːnɪˈlætrəli/

by one member of a group or an organization without the agreement of the other members

ex) "It was just amazing to have that collaboration unilaterally ended," he says, "without explanation."

109

rift noun
BrE /rɪft/ ; NAmE /rɪft/

1) a serious disagreement between people that stops their relationship from continuing

synonym breach, division

2) a large crack or opening in the ground, rocks or clouds

ex) If that rift is not mended, it could impede the war on prescription drugs, which depends on cooperation between the medical community and law enforcement.

110

impede verb
BrE /ɪmˈpiːd/ ; NAmE /ɪmˈpiːd/

[often passive] impede something (formal) to delay or stop the progress of something

synonym hinder, hamper

ex) If that rift is not mended, it could impede the war on prescription drugs, which depends on cooperation between the medical community and law enforcement.

111

slack off (on something)

to do something more slowly or with less energy than before

ex) That's right, son. Stop slacking off and start hitting the books!

112

lost cause noun

something that has failed or that cannot succeed

ex) But I can't stand chemistry class. Besides, it's a lost cause. That class is way over my head.

113

buckle down (to something)

(informal) to start to do something seriously

ex) You need to buckle down.

I'd better buckle down to those reports.

114

not care/give a hoot, not care/give two hoots

(informal) not to care at all

ex) When I'm a famous musician, people won't give a hoot about my knowledge of atoms and molecules.

115

be beside the point

to not be important or closely related to the main thing you are talking about

ex) Yes, I know it was an accident, but that's beside the point.

They took my words out of context, but that's beside the point.

116

set your heart on something, have your heart set on something

to want something very much

ex) We know you have your heart set on going to New York University.

117

stand a chance (of doing something)

to have the possibility of succeeding or achieving something

ex) And you don't stand a chance of getting in there with such poor grades!

The driver didn't stand a chance of stopping in time.

118

showdown noun
BrE /ˈʃəʊdaʊn/ ; NAmE /ˈʃoʊdaʊn/ [usually singular]

an argument, a fight or a test that will settle a disagreement that has lasted for a long time

ex) Overseas now to the looming showdown with Iran over its nuclear program.

119

curtail verb
BrE /kɜːˈteɪl/ ; NAmE /kɜːrˈteɪl/

curtail something (formal) to limit something or make it last for a shorter time

ex) Today was the deadline the United Nations Security Council gave Iran to curtail its nuclear program.

120

move ahead/forward with something

to advance with something; to make progress with something

ex) The UN report concludes Iran is moving ahead with its nuclear program, continuing to make fuel that could be used in nuclear bombs, continuing to defy the UN.

121

set the stage for something

to make it possible for something to happen; to make something likely to happen

ex) The stage is now set for a showdown in the UN Security Council over a resolution to punish Iran.

122

like-minded adjective

having similar ideas and interests

ex) We're forming a strong coalition of like-minded countries that believe that the Iranians should not have a nuclear weapon.

123

wield verb
BrE /wiːld/ ; NAmE /wiːld/

1) wield something to have and use power, authority, etc.

ex) Both wield a veto at the UN Security Council and both have repeatedly said they do not want to impose sanctions on Iran.

124

veto noun
BrE /ˈviːtəʊ/ ; NAmE /ˈviːtoʊ/ (pl. vetoes)

1) [countable, uncountable] the right to refuse to allow something to be done, especially the right to stop a law from being passed or a decision from being taken

ex) Both wield a veto at the UN Security Council and both have repeatedly said they do not want to impose sanctions on Iran.

125

haggle verb
BrE /ˈhæɡl/ ; NAmE /ˈhæɡl/

[intransitive] haggle (with somebody) (over something) to argue with somebody in order to reach an agreement, especially about the price of something

ex) A little-noticed bill that will expand and strengthen the nation's drug laws appears to have survived the legislative haggling that takes place before parliament is dissolved for the general election.

126

dissolve verb
BrE /dɪˈzɒlv/ ; NAmE /dɪˈzɑːlv/

3) [transitive] dissolve something to officially end a marriage, business agreement or parliament

ex) A little-noticed bill that will expand and strengthen the nation's drug laws appears to have survived the legislative haggling that takes place before parliament is dissolved for the general election.

127

wean verb
BrE /wiːn/ ; NAmE /wiːn/

wean somebody/something (off/from something) to gradually stop feeding a baby or young animal with its mother’s milk and start feeding it with solid food

ex) The aim is to wean Britons off their favourite highs.

128

end noun
BrE /end/ ; NAmE /end/

4) an aim or a purpose

ex) To that end (=in order to achieve that), the bill criminalises magic mushrooms (at the moment, unprepared ones are legal).

129

erratic adjective
BrE /ɪˈrætɪk/ ; NAmE /ɪˈrætɪk/

(often disapproving) not happening at regular times; not following any plan or regular pattern; that you cannot rely on

synonym unpredictable

ex) Opponents say that prohibition has little effect on supply or demand. That's wrong: as well as raising prices, it makes quality more erratic.

130

outfit noun
BrE /ˈaʊtfɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈaʊtfɪt/

2) [countable + singular or plural verb] (informal) a group of people working together as an organization, business, team, etc.

ex) Danny Kushlick of Transform, a pro-legalisation outfit, points out that pipe tobacco is easy to obtain, though few use it these days.

131

niche noun
BrE /niːʃ/ ; NAmE /niːʃ/ ; BrE /nɪtʃ/ ; NAmE /nɪtʃ/

2) (business) an opportunity to sell a particular product to a particular group of people

ex) It all tobacco were outlawed, dealers would ignore the niche market and pipe-smokers would turn to cigars and cigarettes.

132

tumble verb
BrE /ˈtʌmbl/ ; NAmE /ˈtʌmbl/

3) [intransitive] to fall rapidly in value or amount

ex) Ecstasy tablets tumbled from $11 to $4.

133

lenient adjective
BrE /ˈliːniənt/ ; NAmE /ˈliːniənt/

not as strict as expected when punishing somebody or when making sure that rules are obeyed

ex) Both drugs have lured users away from speed (amphetamines) even though as a Class-B drug it attracts more lenient sentences.

134

aura noun
BrE /ˈɔːrə/ ; NAmE /ˈɔːrə/

aura (of something) a feeling or particular quality that is very noticeable and seems to surround a person or place

ex) Though cocaine's price has fallen, it retains an aura of celebrity that helps sales.

135

sedate adjective
BrE /sɪˈdeɪt/ ; NAmE /sɪˈdeɪt/ [usually before noun]

2) quiet, especially in a way that lacks excitement

ex) But the current trend is for late-night pubs and bars, which suit cocaine users but are too sedate for pill poppers.

136

reclusive adjective
BrE /rɪˈkluːsɪv/ ; NAmE /rɪˈkluːsɪv/

living alone and avoiding other people

ex) Whether or not the reclusive Kim Jong Il shows up in person for his national shindig on February 16th, the fireworks have begun.

137

shindig noun
BrE /ˈʃɪndɪɡ/ ; NAmE /ˈʃɪndɪɡ/ (informal)

a big noisy party


ex) Whether or not the reclusive Kim Jong Il shows up in person for his national shindig on February 16th, the fireworks have begun.

138

shady adjective
BrE /ˈʃeɪdi/ ; NAmE /ˈʃeɪdi/ (shadier, shadiest)

3) [usually before noun] (informal) seeming to be dishonest or illegal

ex) North Korea's announcement, not just that it has built nuclear weapons (it has said that before), but that it is suspending indefinitely its participation in six-party talks that America, China and others had been hoping would end its shady nuclear dealings, is an attempt to put the blame on the Bush administration for the nuclear impasse.

139

impasse noun
BrE /ˈæmpɑːs/ ; NAmE /ˈɪmpæs/ [usually singular]

a difficult situation in which no progress can be made because the people involved cannot agree what to do

synonym deadlock stand-off

ex) North Korea's announcement, not just that it has built nuclear weapons (it has said that before), but that it is suspending indefinitely its participation in six-party talks that America, China and others had been hoping would end its shady nuclear dealings, is an attempt to put the bla

140

cajole verb
BrE /kəˈdʒəʊl/ ; NAmE /kəˈdʒoʊl/ [transitive, intransitive]

to make somebody do something by talking to them and being very nice to them

synonym coax

ex) But it is also a poser for China, which had been expecting to cajole, bribe and drag North Korea into more talks within weeks.

141

bribe verb
BrE /braɪb/ ; NAmE /braɪb/

to give somebody money or something valuable in order to persuade them to help you, especially by doing something dishonest

ex) But it is also a poser for China, which had been expecting to cajole, bribe and drag North Korea into more talks within weeks.

142

drag somebody into something | drag something into something | drag in somebody | drag in something | drag somebody in | drag something in

1) to start to talk about something/somebody that has nothing to do with what is being discussed

2) to try to get somebody who is not connected with a situation involved in it

ex) But it is also a poser for China, which had been expecting to cajole, bribe and drag North Korea into more talks within weeks.

143

poser noun
BrE /ˈpəʊzə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈpoʊzər/

1) (informal) a difficult question or problem

synonym puzzler

ex) But it is also a poser for China, which had been expecting to cajole, bribe and drag North Korea into more talks within weeks.

144

sit down and do something

to give something time and attention in order to try to solve a problem or achieve something

ex) Pressure had been building for him to sit down again, along with South Korea, Japan and Russia, and this time negotiate seriously.

145

stand-off noun

stand-off (between A and B) a situation in which no agreement can be reached

synonym deadlock impasse

ex) North Korea had yet to respond to an American proposal last June that would offer economic assistance and security guarantees, as North Korea has demanded, but only if Mr. Kim agrees to the verifiable dismantling of both his nuclear programmes: the plutonium programme that had been frozen until two years ago under a 1994 deal with America, and the uranium-enrichment activity that America accuses him of carrying on in secret, and that led to the latest stand-off.

146

slap down somebody | slap down something | slap somebody down | slap something down

(informal) to criticize somebody in an unfair way, often in public, so that they feel embarrassed or less confident

ex) Instead of slapping down a counter-proposal of his own, Mr. Kim has used a string of excuses - America's presidential election (in which he rooted for George Bush's opponent), waiting to see whether Mr. Bush sounded "hostile" in his State of the Union address earlier this month (he didn't).

147

root for somebody

[no passive] (usually used in the progressive tenses) (informal) to support or encourage somebody in a sports competition or when they are in a difficult situation


ex) Instead of slapping down a counter-proposal of his own, Mr. Kim has used a string of excuses - America's presidential election (in which he rooted for George Bush's opponent), waiting to see whether Mr. Bush sounded "hostile" in his State of the Union address earlier this month (he didn't).

148

huff noun
BrE /hʌf/ ; NAmE /hʌf/

an ​angry and ​offended ​mood

ex) He blames his latest huff on Ms. Rice, who recently lumped North Korea among the "outposts of tyranny."

149

lump verb
BrE /lʌmp/ ; NAmE /lʌmp/

(lump A and B together | lump A (in) with B) to put or consider different things together in the same group

ex) He blames his latest huff on Ms. Rice, who recently lumped North Korea among the "outposts of tyranny."

150

outpost noun
BrE /ˈaʊtpəʊst/ ; NAmE /ˈaʊtpoʊst/

1) a small military camp away from the main army, used for watching an enemy’s movements, etc. 교두보

ex) He blames his latest huff on Ms. Rice, who recently lumped North Korea among the "outposts of tyranny." 악의 교두보

151

prop something↔up

2) (often disapproving) to help something that is having difficulties

ex) Until now, China, South Korea and Japan have all been happy to prop up Mr. Kim with dollops of aid, so long as he refrained from doing rash things: testing a bomb, for example, or another of his far-flying missiles.

152

dollop noun
BrE /ˈdɒləp/ ; NAmE /ˈdɑːləp/ (informal)

2) an amount of something

ex) Until now, China, South Korea and Japan have all been happy to prop up Mr. Kim with dollops of aid, so long as he refrained from doing rash things: testing a bomb, for example, or another of his far-flying missiles.

153

rash adjective
BrE /ræʃ/ ; NAmE /ræʃ/

(of people or their actions) doing something that may not be sensible without first thinking about the possible results; done in this way

synonym reckless

ex) Until now, China, South Korea and Japan have all been happy to prop up Mr. Kim with dollops of aid, so long as he refrained from doing rash things: testing a bomb, for example, or another of his far-flying missiles.

154

forge ahead (with something)

to move forward quickly; to make a lot of progress quickly

ex) South Korea has forged ahead with economic co-operation, including links across the otherwise heavily fortified border.

155

centrifuge noun
BrE /ˈsentrɪfjuːdʒ/ ; NAmE /ˈsentrɪfjuːdʒ/

a machine with a part that spins around to separate substances, for example liquids from solids, by forcing the heavier substance to the outer edge

ex) Tests by America's Department of Energy have convinced American officials that North Korea may well have supplied the uranium hexafluoride gas - partly-processed uranium which can be spun in centrifuge machines to make enriched uranium for either civilian or military uses - that Libya turned over to inspectors a year ago when it abandoned its once secret nuclear-weapons programme.

156

irrefutable adjective
BrE /ˌɪrɪˈfjuːtəbl/ ; NAmE /ˌɪrɪˈfjuːtəbl/ ; BrE /ɪˈrefjətəbl/ ; NAmE /ɪˈrefjətəbl/ (formal)

that cannot be proved wrong and that must therefore be accepted

ex) The evidence is not irrefutable, but the conclusion is also based on traces of plutonium found on the canisters concerned, as well as a third piece of evidence not so far made public.

157

fuel rod noun
BrE ; NAmE (specialist)

a long thin piece of fuel used in a nuclear power station 연료봉

ex) America accepts that North Korea has probably finished extracting the plutonium (enough or half a dozen bombs) from spent fuel-rods preciously stored under the 1994 deal near its nuclear reactor at Yongbyon; it will soon be able to unload more rods from the reactor for reprocessing.

158

reactor noun
BrE /riˈæktə(r)/ ; NAmE /riˈæktər/
(also nuclear reactor)

a large structure used for the controlled production of nuclear energy

ex) America accepts that North Korea has probably finished extracting the plutonium (enough or half a dozen bombs) from spent fuel-rods preciously stored under the 1994 deal near its nuclear reactor at Yongbyon; it will soon be able to unload more rods from the reactor for reprocessing.

159

bipartisan adjective
BrE /ˌbaɪpɑːtɪˈzæn/ ; NAmE /ˌbaɪˈpɑːrtɪzn/

involving two political parties

ex) But the idea that America should set aside its uranium concerns is given a bipartisan rebuttal in the current issue of Foreign Affairs by Robert Gallucci, who negotiated the 1994 plutonium deal with North Korea under the Clinton administration, and Mitchell Reiss, the just departed head of policy planning in the Bush administration's State Department.

160

rebuttal noun
BrE /rɪˈbʌtl/ ; NAmE /rɪˈbʌtl/ [countable, uncountable](formal)

the act of saying or proving that a statement or criticism is false

synonym refutation

ex) But the idea that America should set aside its uranium concerns is given a bipartisan rebuttal in the current issue of Foreign Affairs by Robert Gallucci, who negotiated the 1994 plutonium deal with North Korea under the Clinton administration, and Mitchell Reiss, the just departed head of policy planning in the Bush administration's State Department.

161

turn a blind eye (to something)

to pretend not to notice something bad that is happening, so you do not have to do anything about it

ex) Turning a blind eye to evidence of North Korea's enrichment work would, they argue, leave Mr. Kim with a covert supply of fissile material, whether for bomb making or for export, including to terrorist groups.

162

covert adjective
BrE /ˈkʌvət/ , /ˈkəʊvɜːt/ ; NAmE /ˈkoʊvɜːrt/ (formal)

secret or hidden, making it difficult to notice

ex) Turning a blind eye to evidence of North Korea's enrichment work would, they argue, leave Mr. Kim with a covert supply of fissile material, whether for bomb making or for export, including to terrorist groups.

163

fissile adjective
BrE /ˈfɪsaɪl/ ; NAmE /ˈfɪsl/ (physics)

capable of nuclear fission 핵분열성의

ex) Turning a blind eye to evidence of North Korea's enrichment work would, they argue, leave Mr. Kim with a covert supply of fissile material, whether for bomb making or for export, including to terrorist groups.

164

acquiesce verb
BrE /ˌækwiˈes/ ; NAmE /ˌækwiˈes/

[intransitive] acquiesce (in/to something) (formal) to accept something without arguing, even if you do not really agree with it

ex) So far, despite its tough line, says Gary Samore, of the London-based IISS, America has in effect acquiesced in North Korea's becoming a covert nuclear power.

165

intrigue noun
BrE /ˈɪntriːɡ/ ; NAmE /ˈɪntriːɡ/ ; BrE /ɪnˈtriːɡ/ ; NAmE /ɪnˈtriːɡ/

2) [countable] a secret plan or relationship, especially one which involves somebody else being tricked

ex) Meanwhile, there have been reports of political intrigues and even some limited anti-regime protests.

166

quell verb
BrE /kwel/ ; NAmE /kwel/ (formal)

1) quell something/somebody to stop something such as violent behaviour or protests

ex) Mr. Kim may soon pick one of his sons as the next dynasty-designate, in part to quell rumours that he is losing his grip.

167

lose your grip (on something)

to become unable to understand or control a situation

ex) Mr. Kim may soon pick one of his sons as the next dynasty-designate, in part to quell rumours that he is losing his grip.

168

lash out | lash out at somebody | lash out at something

2) to criticize somebody in an angry way

ex) Lashing out under pressure is a Kim trademark.

169

canister noun
BrE /ˈkænɪstə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈkænɪstər/

2) a strong metal container containing gas or a chemical substance, especially one that bursts when it is fired from a gun or thrown

ex) The evidence is not irrefutable, but the conclusion is also based on traces of plutonium found on the canisters concerned, as well as a third piece of evidence not so far made public.

170

sworn adjective
BrE /swɔːn/ ; NAmE /swɔːrn/ [only before noun]

2) (sworn/bitter enemies) people, countries, etc. that have a strong hatred for each other

ex) It has some time since the two nations were bitter enemies.

171

set in

(of rain, bad weather, infection, etc.) to begin and seem likely to continue

ex) But a speech by President Putin, today, left little doubt that a new chill has set in.

172

comrade noun
BrE /ˈkɒmreɪd/ ; NAmE /ˈkɑːmræd/

1) a person who is a member of the same communist or socialist political party as the person speaking

ex) "Comrade wolf knows whom to eat. It eats without listening. And it's clearly not going to listen to anyone."

173

exert verb
BrE /ɪɡˈzɜːt/ ; NAmE /ɪɡˈzɜːrt/

1) exert something to use power or influence to affect somebody/something

ex) "The stronger our military is," he said, "the less the temptation to exert such pressure on us."

174

stymie verb
BrE /ˈstaɪmi/ ; NAmE /ˈstaɪmi/

stymie somebody/something (informal) to prevent somebody from doing something that they have planned or want to do; to prevent something from happening

synonym foil

ex) With its veto power at the UN Security Council, Elizabeth, Russia can stymie US diplomatic efforts to punish Iran for its nuclear program.

175

be/stand head and shoulders above somebody/something

to be much better than other people or things

ex) She said my presentation was head and shoulders above the others.

176

way to go!

(North American English, informal) used to tell somebody that you are pleased about something they have done

ex) A: She said my presentation was head and shoulders above the others.
B: Way to go!

177

go into something

3) to join an organization, especially in order to have a career in it

ex) She also said I should go into politics, just like Hillary.

to go into teaching

to go into the Army/the Church/Parliament

178

gung-ho adjective
BrE /ˌɡʌŋ ˈhəʊ/ ; NAmE /ˌɡʌŋ ˈhoʊ/ (informal, disapproving)

too enthusiastic about something, without thinking seriously about it, especially about fighting and war

ex) You're so gung-ho about school. It drives me crazy.

179

butt in | butt in on somebody | butt in on something

1) to interrupt a conversation rudely

2) (informal) to become involved in a situation that does not concern you

synonym interfere

ex) Ted, don't butt in! You're just jealous.

180

hit the nail on the head

to say something that is exactly right

ex) A: Ted, don't butt in! You're just jealous.
B: Right. You hit the nail on the head. I'm green with envy.

181

be green with envy

to be very ​unhappy because someone has something that you ​want

ex) Right. You hit the nail on the head. I'm green with envy.

182

on thin ice

2) at risk of upsetting or annoying someone; in a risky situation

ex) Would you just shut up? You're on thin ice with me right now.

183

shake in your shoes

(informal) to be very frightened or nervous

ex) Oh no! Look at me. I'm shaking in my shoes.

184

reckoning noun
BrE /ˈrekənɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˈrekənɪŋ/

* a day of reckoning

the time when somebody will have to deal with the result of 2) [countable, usually singular, uncountable] a time when somebody’s actions will be judged to be right or wrong and they may be punished

* something that they have done wrong, or be punished for something bad that they have done

ex) We turn now to a financial reckoning facing so many homeowners.

185

breaking point noun
BrE ; NAmE
(also break point)
[uncountable]

the time when problems become so great that a person, an organization or a system can no longer deal with them

ex) Tonight, ABC's Betsy Stark on the homeowners squeezed to the breaking point.

186

get in on something

to take part in an activity

ex) Heidi is one of millions of Americans who got in on the great American housing boom by buying a house with an adjustable-rate mortgage.

187

kick in (informal)

1) to begin to take effect

Once that adjustable rate kicked in, it just got from bad to worse. Very bad.

188

come up for something [no passive]

2) to be reaching the time when something must be done

ex) Economists estimate that nearly a quarter of all mortgage loans will come up for interest rate resets in the next two years, bringing monthly mortgage payments as much as 50% higher.

His contract is coming up for renewal.

189

fob somebody↔off (with something)

1) to try to stop somebody asking questions or complaining by telling them something that is not true

ex) If Iran is allowed to fob off nuclear inspectors, so will North Korea.

Don't let him fob you off with any more excuses.

She wouldn't be fobbed off this time.

190

dispiriting adjective
BrE /dɪˈspɪrɪtɪŋ/ ; NAmE /dɪˈspɪrɪtɪŋ/

making somebody lose their hope or enthusiasm

ex) Good news is dispiritingly rare in the global effort to curb the spread of nuclear weapons.

191

dabble verb
BrE /ˈdæbl/ ; NAmE /ˈdæbl/

1) [intransitive] dabble (in/with something) to take part in a sport, an activity, etc. but not very seriously

ex) North Korea seemed to surprise itself this week by agreeing to a set of principles with America, South Korea, Japan, China and Russia to give up its weapons and end its nuclear dabbling - so much so, that a day later it was already bad-temperedly backtracking.

192

bad-tempered adjective
BrE /ˌbæd ˈtempəd/ ; NAmE /ˌbæd ˈtempərd/

often angry; in an angry mood

ex) North Korea seemed to surprise itself this week by agreeing to a set of principles with America, South Korea, Japan, China and Russia to give up its weapons and end its nuclear dabbling - so much so, that a day later it was already bad-temperedly backtracking.

193

so much so

to such a ​great ​degree

ex) North Korea seemed to surprise itself this week by agreeing to a set of principles with America, South Korea, Japan, China and Russia to give up its weapons and end its nuclear dabbling - so much so, that a day later it was already bad-temperedly backtracking.

It was a great project, so much so that it won first prize.

She is pretty, so much so if you get to see her once, you'll fall in love with here on the spot.

194

backtrack verb
BrE /ˈbæktræk/ ; NAmE /ˈbæktræk/

2) [intransitive] to change an earlier statement, opinion or promise because of pressure from somebody/something

ex) North Korea seemed to surprise itself this week by agreeing to a set of principles with America, South Korea, Japan, China and Russia to give up its weapons and end its nuclear dabbling - so much so, that a day later it was already bad-temperedly backtracking.

195

temerity noun
BrE /təˈmerəti/ ; NAmE /təˈmerəti/ [uncountable](formal)

extremely confident behaviour that people are likely to consider rude

ex) It also threatens to enrich the uranium (just for reactor fuel, it says, though others suspect for bomb-making) and to end all co-operation with international inspectors if the 35-nation board of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), meeting this week, has the temerity to report its past nuclear rule-breaking to the UN Security Council.

196

flounce verb
BrE /flaʊns/ ; NAmE /flaʊns/

[intransitive] (+ adv./prep.) to move somewhere in a way that draws attention to yourself, for example because you are angry or upset

ex) North Korea flounced out of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 2003 and claims loudly to have the bomb; Iran, still officially in, claims not to want or need one.

197

in the dock

on trial in court, especially in a criminal case; under intense scrutiny; being tried in a court, especially a criminal court; on trial

ex) So why are the Europeans and America, along with Australia, Canada, Japan and others, pressing to put Iran in the dock at the UN?

198

cascade noun
BrE /kæˈskeɪd/ ; NAmE /kæˈskeɪd/

4) (formal) a large number of things falling or coming quickly at the same time

ex) The answers can be found in a cascade of IAEA inspectors' reports describing two decades of cheating: covering up experiments to enrich uranium and make plutonium, and lying repeatedly about how much nuclear equipment and materials was bought from the same black-market middlemen that sold Libya a flat-pack bomb-making kit, and that helped supply North Korea too.

199

flat-pack noun
BrE ; NAmE (British English)

a piece of furniture that is sold in pieces in a flat box and that you have to build yourself

ex) The answers can be found in a cascade of IAEA inspectors' reports describing two decades of cheating: covering up experiments to enrich uranium and make plutonium, and lying repeatedly about how much nuclear equipment and materials was bought from the same black-market middlemen that sold Libya a flat-pack bomb-making kit, and that helped supply North Korea too.

200

warhead noun
BrE /ˈwɔːhed/ ; NAmE /ˈwɔːrhed/

the explosive part of a missile 탄두

ex) Yet there are other indications - including possible design work on a nuclear warhead - that its intentions are far from peaceful.

201

fret verb
BrE /fret/ ; NAmE /fret/

[intransitive, transitive] fret (about/over something) | fret (that…) (especially British English) to be worried or unhappy and not able to relax

ex) Some fret at measures to curb its "right" to such technologies under the NPT.

202

peep noun
BrE /piːp/ ; NAmE /piːp/ peep noun
BrE /piːp/ ; NAmE /piːp/

2) [singular] (informal) something that somebody says or a sound that somebody makes

ex) China did not let it utter a peep over North Korea, preferring those six-party talks.

203

accord verb
BrE /əˈkɔːd/ ; NAmE /əˈkɔːrd/ (formal)

[transitive] to give somebody/something authority, status or a particular type of treatment

ex) In fact, the NPT accords Iran only a right to the "benefits of civilian nuclear power," and only then if it is keeping its non-nuclear promises.

204

defiance noun
BrE /dɪˈfaɪəns/ ; NAmE /dɪˈfaɪəns/ [uncountable]

open refusal to obey somebody/something

ex) Meanwhile, letting its defiance stand carries big risks.

205

duck verb
BrE /dʌk/ ; NAmE /dʌk/

4) [intransitive, transitive] (rather informal) to avoid a difficult or unpleasant duty or responsibility

ex) The IAEA's board has a legal obligation to report safeguards breaches to the Security Council. Ducking it undermines the inspectors' authority.

206

undermine verb
BrE /ˌʌndəˈmaɪn/ ; NAmE /ˌʌndərˈmaɪn/

1) undermine something to make something, especially somebody’s confidence or authority, gradually weaker or less effective

ex) The IAEA's board has a legal obligation to report safeguards breaches to the Security Council. Ducking it undermines the inspectors' authority.

207

in good standing

1) in favor or on good terms with someone

ex) Iran claims to be in good standing with the NPT.

The companies wanted to stay in good standing with the government.

208

drag your feet/heels

to be deliberately slow in doing something or in making a decision

ex) Russia has been dragging its feet over supplying fuel for Iran's one soon-to-be-operating reactor at Bushehr, but the IAEA is still providing technical assistance and others are involved too.

209

dig your heels/toes in

to refuse to do something or to change your mind about something

ex) If Iran still digs its heel in, the council could suspend the work of other UN agencies in Iran, and its right to vote in the UN General Assembly.

210

run rings around/round somebody

(informal) to be much better at doing something than somebody else

ex) For if Iran is left to run rings round inspectors, what chance that North Korea will pay them heed?

211

refinance verb
BrE /ˌriːˈfaɪnæns/ ; NAmE /ˌriːˈfaɪnæns/

[transitive, intransitive] refinance (something) (finance) to borrow money in order to pay a debt 차환/대환하다

ex) They should talk to their lender, Elizabeth, because they may be able to renegotiate or refinance at better terms.

212

year-on-year (year-over-year) adjective

* over the same period

(of figures, prices, etc.) as compared with the corresponding ones from a year earlier

ex) The sales of Samsung Electronics are up 20% year on year.

the monthly year-on-year growth rates

213

add insult to injury

to make a bad relationship with somebody worse by offending them even more

ex) And then, adding insult to injury, tonight, "Consumer Reports" issued its annual list of best vehicles and left US cars on the curb.

214

fit and finish

The attention to detail of a finished product, most often referring to a manufactured products (cars, handguns, etc) but also applicable to almost any human production (tv shows, websites, etc). Fit refers to how well the component parts come together, and finish refers to the completeness or perfection of the work.

ex) In general, we have seen that domestic vehicles lack the fit and finish and the fuel economy and reliability, often, of the better Japanese models.

215

reliability noun
BrE /rɪˌlaɪəˈbɪləti/ ; NAmE /rɪˌlaɪəˈbɪləti/ [uncountable]

3) the quality of being able to work or operate for long periods without breaking down or needing attention

ex) In general, we have seen that domestic vehicles lack the fit and finish and the fuel economy and reliability, often, of the better Japanese models.

216

interstate noun
BrE /ˈɪntəsteɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈɪntərsteɪt/

(also interstate highway) (in the US) a wide road, with at least two lanes in each direction, where traffic can travel fast for long distances across many states. You can only enter and leave interstates at special ramps.

ex) You can drive from San Francisco to Paterson, New Jersey, on Interstate 80 without paying a cent (save for petrol and the occasional meal).

217

save preposition
BrE /seɪv/ ; NAmE /seɪv/

(also save for) (old use or formal) except something

ex) You can drive from San Francisco to Paterson, New Jersey, on Interstate 80 without paying a cent (save for petrol and the occasional meal).

218

float verb
BrE /fləʊt/ ; NAmE /floʊt/

5) [transitive] float something to suggest an idea or a plan for other people to consider

ex) The Senate originally floated a $318 billion bill; that has since been combined with a House bill and reduced to a more acceptable $292 billion until 2009.

219

put sth in perspective

cf. put sth in proportion

to look at something in relation to other things and compare the situations.

ex) To put these numbers in proportion, the original 1956 act that created the federal highway system spent only $219 billion (in current dollars) over 13 years.

You can put your worries into perspective when you realize how many people in the world are so much worse off than you.

Just to put that into perspective, that's zero marketing and faster growth than when Facebook first launched.

John just paid £100,000 for a painting but, to put that in perspective, he has £7,000,000 in the bank!

220

stratospheric adjective
BrE /ˌstrætəˈsferɪk/ ; NAmE /ˌstrætəˈsferɪk/ , also /ˌstrætəˈsfɪrɪk/

1) (specialist) in the layer of the earth's atmosphere between about 10 and 50 kilometres above the surface of the earth 성층권의

2) (informal) extremely high

ex) What, then, is pushing costs to these stratospheric levels?

221

wear and tear

the damage to objects, furniture, property, etc. that is the result of normal use

ex) Thicker surfaces would be able to stand the wear and tear, but construction standards have not been updated since the 1950s.

222

lorry noun
BrE /ˈlɒri/ ; NAmE /ˈlɔːri/ , /ˈlɑːri/ (British English)(pl. lorries)
(also truck North American English, British English)

a large vehicle for carrying heavy loads by road

ex) Oregon is the only state to tax lorries by the amount of weight carried per axle: more axles carry the truck's weight more evenly, easing the pressure on the road below.

223

friction noun
BrE /ˈfrɪkʃn/ ; NAmE /ˈfrɪkʃn/

2) [uncountable] (physics) the resistance (= the force that stops something moving) of one surface to another surface or substance moving over or through it

ex) every other state charges trucks by fuel consumption, and more axles mean more friction and weight, reducing fuel efficiency.

224

earmark verb
BrE /ˈɪəmɑːk/ ; NAmE /ˈɪrmɑːrk/

[usually passive] to decide that something will be used for a particular purpose, or to state that something will happen to somebody/something in the future

ex) Since 1982, when legislators were allowed to earmark transport funds for specific highway bills, this has been a convenient way of dishing out congressional pork.

225

dish something↔out

1) (informal) to give something, often to a lot of people or in large amounts

ex) Since 1982, when legislators were allowed to earmark transport funds for specific highway bills, this has been a convenient way of dishing out congressional pork.

226

pork barrel noun
BrE ; NAmE [uncountable] (North American English, slang)

local projects that are given a lot of government money in order to win votes; the money that is used

ex) Since 1982, when legislators were allowed to earmark transport funds for specific highway bills, this has been a convenient way of dishing out congressional pork.

227

constituent noun
BrE /kənˈstɪtjuənt/ ; NAmE /kənˈstɪtʃuənt/

1) a person who lives, and can vote in a constituency

ex) I-99 is also known as "Bud Shuster Byway" after the long-serving Republican congressman who secured the money for his grateful constituents.

228

tussle noun
BrE /ˈtʌsl/ ; NAmE /ˈtʌsl/

tussle (for/over something) a short struggle, fight or argument especially in order to get something

ex) Highway money is also an important part of the tussles between Washington, DC, and the states.

229

cut off somebody | cut off something | cut somebody off | cut something off

2) [often passive] to stop the supply of something to somebody

ex) Highway money is also an important part of the tussles between Washington, DC, and the states. The latter, eager to point to highway construction as a sign of growth, love getting federal funds; the federal government, in turn, has found that threatening to cut off highway money is a good way to get states or municipalities to do something else.

230

municipality noun
BrE /mjuːˌnɪsɪˈpæləti/ ; NAmE /mjuːˌnɪsɪˈpæləti/ (pl. municipalities)(formal)

a town, city or district with its own local government; the group of officials who govern it

ex) The federal government, in turn, has found that threatening to cut off highway money is a good way to get states or municipalities to do something else.

231

bring somebody/something, come, get, fall, etc. into line (with somebody/something)

to behave or make somebody/something behave in the same way as other people or how they should behave

ex) Then a law was passed to allow the government to withhold highway funds from the rest; by 1988, all the states had fallen into line.

232

politick verb
pol·i·tick \ˈpä-lə-ˌtik\ [intransitive]

to engage in often partisan political discussion or activity

ex) Politicking about the main source of highway funds, a tax on gasoline, could also end up increasing road spending.

233

privatize verb
(British English also -ise)
BrE /ˈpraɪvətaɪz/ ; NAmE /ˈpraɪvətaɪz/

privatize something to sell a business or an industry so that it is no longer owned by the government 민영화하다

ex) Mr. Winston suggests charging variable tolls for road space: toll lanes already exist on busy routes such as I-15 near San Diego and I-10 near Houston. Or roads could be privatised.

234

afoot adjective
BrE /əˈfʊt/ ; NAmE /əˈfʊt/ [not before noun]

being planned; happening

ex) A $175 billion plan is afoot to build a Trans-Texas Corridor - an enormous project including 4,000 miles of private toll roads as well as a railway packed into a quarter-mile-wide swathe of land that would go past, rather than through, the state's big towns.

235

swathe noun
BrE /sweɪð/ ; NAmE /sweɪð/
(also swath BrE /swɒθ/ ; NAmE /swɑːθ/ )
(formal)

2) a large strip or area of something

ex) A $175 billion plan is afoot to build a Trans-Texas Corridor - an enormous project including 4,000 miles of private toll roads as well as a railway packed into a quarter-mile-wide swathe of land that would go past, rather than through, the state's big towns.

236

warm to something | warm towards something

to become more interested in or enthusiastic about something

ex) Whether Americans will warm to the idea of paying to drive on many more roads remains to be seen; if they don't, they will simply pay the tab through higher taxes.

237

it remains to be seen

(idiomatic) to have not yet happened; to be as yet unknown; it is not ​yet ​certain

ex) Whether Americans will warm to the idea of paying to drive on many more roads remains to be seen; if they don't, they will simply pay the tab through higher taxes.

It remains to be seen who will win.

238

pick up the tab/check (pay the tab/check)

to pay the bill

ex) Whether Americans will warm to the idea of paying to drive on many more roads remains to be seen; if they don't, they will simply pay the tab through higher taxes.

Whenever we go out, my father picks up the tab.

Order whatever you want. The company is picking up the check.

239

groan under the weight of something

(formal) used to say that there is too much of something

ex) Companies like Ford and General Motors groan under the weight of their history,k manifested in the legacy costs that are a result of decades of promises to support workers and provide them with health care in their old age.

240

manifest verb
BrE /ˈmænɪfest/ ; NAmE /ˈmænɪfest/ (formal)

1) manifest something (in something) to show something clearly, especially a feeling, an attitude or a quality

synonym demonstrate

ex) Companies like Ford and General Motors groan under the weight of their history, manifested in the legacy costs that are a result of decades of promises to support workers and provide them with health care in their old age.

241

legacy cost

The costs involved with a company paying increased healthcare fees and other benefit-related costs for its current employees and retired pensioners. It is believed that escalating legacy costs can be a very large contributing factor towards limiting a company's competitiveness.

Typically, it is the larger, older and more established companies that have problems with spiraling legacy costs, because they have the most pension and healthcare liabilities. In the face of these costs, many companies are taking measures to lower legacy costs as much as possible. One example of this can be seen by the trend of companies changing their employee retirement plans from defined-benefit plans to defined-contribution plans.

ex) Companies like Ford and General Motors groan under the weight of their history, manifested in the legacy costs that are a result of decades of promises to support workers and provide them with health care in their old age.

242

payroll noun
BrE /ˈpeɪrəʊl/ ; NAmE /ˈpeɪroʊl/

1) a list of people employed by a company showing the amount of money to be paid to each of them

2) [usually singular] the total amount paid in wages by a company

ex) GM, Ford and the parts maker Delphi have all offered thousands of buyouts as part of efforts to restructure their inefficient manufacturing businesses, trimming payrolls to become more competitive.

243

not unlike

similar to

ex) But that means fewer workers supporting armies of retirees, a demographic challenge not unlike the one facing the Social Security system.

244

hammer out something

1) to discuss a plan, an idea, etc. until everyone agrees or a decision is made

ex) In an ideal world, America would join the overwhelming majority of developed countries and hammer out some kinds of national health care system.

245

onset noun
BrE /ˈɒnset/ ; NAmE /ˈɑːnset/ , /ˈɔːnset/ [singular]

the beginning of something, especially something unpleasant

ex) Failing such a sudden and unlikely onset of sanity, creative solutions are needed.

246

strike a bargain/deal

to make an agreement with somebody in which both sides have an advantage

ex) Senator Barack Obama has proposed striking a bargain with American automakers to help them with retiree health care costs in exchange for higher fuel efficiency standards.

247

stride noun
BrE /straɪd/ ; NAmE /straɪd/

* make great/big strides

3) an improvement in the way something is developing

* to progress well

ex) Today, GM, Ford and Chrysler all insisted they are making big strides.

248

up in the air

not yet decided

ex) Maybe go to the movies or to a party. Our plans are still up in the air.

249

down in the dumps

(informal) feeling unhappy

synonym depressed

ex) I don't want to hang around here. Dad is really down in the dumps.

250

there’s no accounting for taste

(saying) used to say how difficult it is to understand why somebody likes somebody/something that you do not like at all

ex) A: Take it easy, Mom. We're not about to get married. We just enjoy hanging out together.
B: I guess there's no accounting for taste. Have a good time.

251

have a blast

(informal) to have a great time; to have a lot of fun; to enjoy doing something very much

ex) A: I guess there's no accounting for taste. Have a good time.
B: Don't worry. We'll have a blast!

252

scare noun
BrE /skeə(r)/ ; NAmE /sker/

1) [countable] (used especially in newspapers) a situation in which a lot of people are anxious or frightened about something

ex) Why, the mobile phone of course, which is simutaneously the most successful digital device on the planet (1.7 billion users and counting) and the origin of all sorts of myths and scare stories.

253

what of

* what about

1) formal how does that affect (someone or something)
2) why does (something) matter

ex) Their use in the air is banned because it would interfere with mobile networks on the ground, though this has now been solved, and in-flight calling will be possible next year.

254

take on a life of its own

to no longer be controlled by anyone

ex) With the industry unwilling to withdraw its warning signs, the myth of phone-related explosions has taken on a life of its own.

Once an earthquake starts, it takes on a life of its own.

Someone imagined it, and the idea took on a life of its own.

255

on the face of it

(informal) used to say that something seems to be good, true, etc. but that this opinion may need to be changed when you know more about it

ex) On the face of it, there is a contradiction here: mobile phones are ubiquitous and indispensable, yet they have also given rise to a curious bundle of safety fears.

On the face of it, it seems like a great deal.

What may, on the face of it, seem obvious often turns out to be far more complicated.

256

contradiction noun
BrE /ˌkɒntrəˈdɪkʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌkɑːntrəˈdɪkʃn/

1) [countable, uncountable] contradiction (between A and B) a lack of agreement between facts, opinions, actions, etc.

ex) On the face of it, there is a contradiction here: mobile phones are ubiquitous and indispensable, yet they have also given rise to a curious bundle of safety fears.

257

indispensable adjective
BrE /ˌɪndɪˈspensəbl/ ; NAmE /ˌɪndɪˈspensəbl/

too important to be without

synonym essential

ex) On the face of it, there is a contradiction here: mobile phones are ubiquitous and indispensable, yet they have also given rise to a curious bundle of safety fears.

258

give rise to something

(formal) to cause something to happen or exist

ex) On the face of it, there is a contradiction here: mobile phones are ubiquitous and indispensable, yet they have also given rise to a curious bundle of safety fears.

The novel's success gave rise to a number of sequels.

259

wary adjective
BrE /ˈweəri/ ; NAmE /ˈweri/ (warier, wariest)

careful when dealing with somebody/something because you think that there may be a danger or problem

synonym cautious

ex) Britain has taken an unusually cautious position, but that is because the British government is particularly wary in the wake of the mad-cow fiasco of the 1980s and 1990s.

260

fiasco noun
BrE /fiˈæskəʊ/ ; NAmE /fiˈæskoʊ/ (pl. fiascos, (North American English also)fiascoes)(informal)

something that does not succeed, often in a way that causes embarrassment

synonym disaster

ex) Britain has taken an unusually cautious position, but that is because the British government is particularly wary in the wake of the mad-cow fiasco of the 1980s and 1990s.

The party was a complete fiasco.

What a fiasco!

After the fiasco over the brochures, I decided to take charge of the marketing.

261

detonate verb
BrE /ˈdetəneɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈdetəneɪt/

[intransitive, transitive] detonate (something) to explode, or to make a bomb or other device explode

ex) There is currently a debate about whether it is safe to install mobile antennas in underground stations, for examples, for fear that terrorists will use mobile phones to detonate bombs.

262

ransom noun
BrE /ˈrænsəm/ ; NAmE /ˈrænsəm/

[countable, uncountable] money that is paid to somebody so that they will set free a person who is being kept as a prisoner by them

ex) Nobody is suggesting that alarm clocks be outlawed, however; nor does anyone suggest banning telephones, even though kidnappers can use them to make ransom demands.

a ransom demand/note

They are refusing to pay ransom for her release.

They stole cattle for ransom.

263

weigh something against something

to ponder something by balancing it against something.

ex) Rather than demonising new technologies, their legitimate uses by good people must always be weighed against their illegitimate uses by bad ones.

When I weigh your suggestion against my own ideas, I realize that I must follow my own conscience.

264

spearhead verb
BrE /ˈspɪəhed/ ; NAmE /ˈspɪrhed/

spearhead something to begin an activity or lead an attack against somebody/something

ex) Wal-Mart spearheads push on radio-frequency tags, but some suppliers balk.

He is spearheading a campaign for a new stadium in the town.

265

baulk verb (British English)
(usually North American English balk)
BrE /bɔːk/ ; NAmE /bɔːk/

1) [intransitive] baulk (at something) to be unwilling to do something or become involved in something because it is difficult, dangerous, etc.

ex) Wal-Mart spearheads push on radio-frequency tags, but some suppliers balk.

Many parents may baulk at the idea of paying $100 for a pair of shoes.

He baulked for a moment. ‘I can’t afford it,’ he finally admitted.

266

big box
(also big-box store/big-box retailer BrE ; NAmE )
BrE ; NAmE (North American English, informal)

a very large shop/store, built on one level and located outside a town, which sells goods at low prices

ex) For big-box retailers with razor-thin margins - and that's pretty much all of them - knowledge isn't just power; it's also profit.

267

razor-thin adjective
BrE ; NAmE (North American English)

* a razor-thin margin/majority

a razor-thin ​difference in ​amount is very ​small

* a very small difference between two amounts or results

ex) For big-box retailers with razor-thin margins - and that's pretty much all of them - knowledge isn't just power; it's also profit.

The Republican Senator won a third term by a razor-thin edge over his Democratic challenger.

268

turnover noun
BrE /ˈtɜːnəʊvə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈtɜːrnoʊvər/

1) [countable, usually singular, uncountable] turnover (of something) the total amount of goods or services sold by a company during a particular period of time

3) [singular] turnover (of something) the rate at which goods are sold in a shop/store and replaced by others

ex) At Wal-Mart, Saturday afternoons are a peak period for high-turnover products like shampoo and toothpaste.

269

crucial adjective
BrE /ˈkruːʃl/ ; NAmE /ˈkruːʃl/

extremely important, because it will affect other things

synonym critical, essential

ex) While only a first step, Wal-Mart's efforts are crucial to creating a pervasive RFID system throughout corporate America by decade's end.

a crucial factor/issue/decision

Winning this contract is crucial to the success of the company.

It is crucial that we get this right.

270

pervasive adjective
BrE /pəˈveɪsɪv/ ; NAmE /pərˈveɪsɪv/

existing in all parts of a place or thing; spreading gradually to affect all parts of a place or thing

ex) While only a first step, Wal-Mart's efforts are crucial to creating a pervasive RFID system throughout corporate America by decade's end.

271

tweak verb
BrE /twiːk/ ; NAmE /twiːk/

2) tweak something to make slight changes to a machine, system, etc. to improve it

ex) Find that out with RFID, and advertising and marketing strategies could be tweaked in response.

272

line of sight noun
BrE ; NAmE
(also line of vision, sight-line)

an imaginary line that goes from somebody’s eye to something that they are looking at

ex) RFID tags have lots of advantages over bar codes, which are line-of-sight devices that must be seen directly by a laser to be read.

There was a column directly in my line of sight, so I could only see half the stage.

273

across the board

involving everyone or everything in a company, an industry, etc.

ex) The industry needs more investment across the board.

an across-the-board wage increase

274

for one thing

used to introduce one of two or more reasons for doing something

ex) No doubt there are plenty of hurdles to overcome - for one thing, the tags don't stick too well to frozen foods like Sara Lee cheesecakes - with the biggest obstacle being figuring out how to integrate all this new information.

‘Why don't you get a car?’ ‘Well, for one thing, I can't drive!’

275

if not

3) used to suggest that something may be even larger, more important, etc. than was first stated

ex) For one thing, slapping radio tags on pallets at distribution centers is hardly a dream come true for suppliers forced by Wal-Mart to spend thousands if not millions of dollars on tags without any immediate benefit.

They cost thousands if not millions of pounds to build.

276

loath adjective
(less frequent loth)
BrE /ləʊθ/ ; NAmE /loʊθ/

loath to do something (formal) not willing to do something

ex) The suppliers themselves are loath to express such misgivings in public.

277

misgiving noun
BrE /ˌmɪsˈɡɪvɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˌmɪsˈɡɪvɪŋ/

[countable, usually plural, uncountable] (misgiving about something/about doing something) feelings of doubt or anxiety about what might happen, or about whether or not something is the right thing to do

ex) The suppliers themselves are loath to express such misgivings in public.

I had grave misgivings about making the trip.

278

mandate noun
BrE /ˈmændeɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈmændeɪt/

3) mandate (to do something) (formal) an official order given to somebody to perform a particular task

ex) According to consultancy Incucomm, Wal-Mart's top suppliers have spent just under $500,000 each to comply with the mandate - far less than the widely cited analyst estimates of $1 millions and up.

279

phase something↔in

to introduce or start using something gradually in stages over a period of time

ex) A recent poll of 90 companies conducted by an RFID trade group found that fewer than 10 percent of retailers and 40 percent of manufacturers had target dates for phasing in RFID.

280

miss out (on)

to ​fail to use an ​opportunity to ​enjoy or get an ​advantage from something

ex) If you were to wait for Intel to come up with the definitive chip or Microsoft the definitive piece of software, you would be missing out on a lot of opportunities.

281

come back/down to earth (with a bang/bump), bring somebody (back) down to earth (with a bang/bump)

(informal) to return, or to make somebody return, to a normal way of thinking or behaving after a time when they have been very excited, not very practical, etc.

ex) Coming down to earth
You have a fit of enthusiasm, John, but you must come down to earth. We can't possibly afford any of your suggestions.

282

bounce back

to become healthy, successful or confident again after being ill/sick or having difficulties

synonym recover

ex) Um, wasn't the stock market supposed to bounce back after Wednesday's big drop?

283

read something into something

to think that something means more than it really does

ex) We shouldn't read too much into a couple of days' movements in stock prices.

Don't read too much into what she says.

284

uneasy adjective
BrE /ʌnˈiːzi/ ; NAmE /ʌnˈiːzi/

1) feeling worried or unhappy about a particular situation, especially because you think that something bad or unpleasant may happen or because you are not sure that what you are doing is right

synonym anxious

ex) But it seems that investors are suddenly feeling uneasy about the state of the economy.

285

deficit noun
BrE /ˈdefɪsɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈdefɪsɪt/

1) (economics) the amount by which money spent or owed is greater than money earned in a particular period of time

ex) In 2005, the trade deficit passed $700 billion, yet the dollar actually rose against the euro and the yen.

286

reassert verb
BrE /ˌriːəˈsɜːt/ ; NAmE /ˌriːəˈsɜːrt/

1) reassert something to make other people recognize again your right or authority to do something, after a period when this has been in doubt

2) (reassert itself) to start to have an effect again, after a period of not having any effect

ex) Over the last few weeks, however, gravity seems to have started reasserting itself.

287

a/the pecking order

(informal, often humorous) the order of importance in relation to one another among the members of a group

synonym hierarchy

ex) New Zealand is at the top of the pecking order of rugby nations.

to be first in the pecking order

288

hard-pressed adjective

1) having a lot of problems, especially too much work, and too little time or money

ex) Finally, there are preliminary indications that consumers, hard-pressed by high gasoline prices, may be reaching their limit.

289

assert verb
BrE /əˈsɜːt/ ; NAmE /əˈsɜːrt/

1) to state clearly and firmly that something is true

ex) The release attacked The Times for asserting that paychecks weren't keeping up with fixed costs like medical care and gasoline.

290

flail verb
BrE /fleɪl/ ; NAmE /fleɪl/

1) [intransitive, transitive] flail (something) (about/around) to move around without control; to move your arms and legs around without control

ex) He asked whether the number was adjusted for inflation; after flailing about, Mr. Snow admitted, sheepishly, that it wasn't.

The boys flailed around on the floor.

He was running along, his arms flailing wildly.

291

sheepishly adverb
BrE /ˈʃiːpɪʃli/ ; NAmE /ˈʃiːpɪʃli/

in a way that shows that you are embarrassed because you have done something silly or wrong

synonym shamefacedly

ex) He asked whether the number was adjusted for inflation; after flailing about, Mr. Snow admitted, sheepishly, that it wasn't.

292

negate verb
BrE /nɪˈɡeɪt/ ; NAmE /nɪˈɡeɪt/ (formal)

1) negate something to stop something from having any effect

synonym nullify

ex) In fact, nearly all of the wage increase was negated by higher prices.

293

orderly adjective
BrE /ˈɔːdəli/ ; NAmE /ˈɔːrdərli/

2) behaving well; peaceful

ex) Ben Bernanke, the chairman of the Federal Reserve, contends that what's happening in the housing market is "a very orderly and moderate kind of cooling."

294

make inroads into/on something

to take or use a large part of something; make advances into; make forays into; make raids on; make encroachments into; encroach upon

ex) The success of Hyundai Motors' Grandeur sedan in the U.S. means it now has confidence to make inroads into the European market.

All these repair bills are making huge inroads into my savings.

295

brace verb
BrE /breɪs/ ; NAmE /breɪs/

1) brace somebody/yourself (for something) | brace somebody/yourself (to do something) to prepare somebody/yourself for something difficult or unpleasant that is going to happen

ex) People have become keener on bracing for the worst in the wake of the disaster.

UN troops are braced for more violence.

They are bracing themselves for a long legal battle.

296

I, you, etc. could use something

(informal) used to say that you would like to have something very much

ex) In Chicago, financial analyst Peter Ziv could use some help.

I think we could all use a drink after that!

297

in the market for something

interested in buying something

ex) I'm very much in the market for a broker or brokers to join our firm.

I'm not in the market for a new car at the moment.

298

up a storm

with a lot of energy; [figurative] [doing or making] a great amount with fury or intensity. (*Typically: cook ~; gab ~; sing ~; kick ~; talk ~.)

ex) We are hiring up a storm in all areas of the business.

Her dog barks up a storm every time the phone rings.

They were sitting in a corner, talking up a storm.

We talked up a storm until past midnight.

Everyone was gabbing up a storm and didn't hear the chairman come in.

299

take somebody↔on

1) (especially British English) to employ somebody

ex) Will I be able to have benefits at - on that new job that I take on?

She was taken on a as a trainee.

300

mainstay noun
BrE /ˈmeɪnsteɪ/ ; NAmE /ˈmeɪnsteɪ/

[usually singular] mainstay (of something) a person or thing that is the most important part of something and enables it to exist or be successful

ex) The anxiety is fueled in part by word that manufacturing, long a mainstay in the nation's economy, lost 1,000 jobs last month.

301

word noun
BrE /wɜːd/ ; NAmE /wɜːrd/

4) [singular] a piece of information or news

ex) The anxiety is fueled in part by word that manufacturing, long a mainstay in the nation's economy, lost 1,000 jobs last month.

There's been no word from them since before Christmas.

She sent word that she would be late.

302

break the bank

to require more money than is available; Ruin one financially, exhaust one's resources, as in I guess the price of a movie won't break the bank. This term originated in gambling, where it means that a player has won more than the banker (the house) can pay. It also may be used ironically, as above. [c. 1600]; (figurative) to use up all one's money. (Alludes to casino gambling, in the rare event when a gambler wins more money than the house has on hand.)

ex) Georgia is hardly the only state to break the bank getting a large assembly plant to move in.

303

shun verb
BrE /ʃʌn/ ; NAmE /ʃʌn/

present simple I / you / we / they shun BrE /ʃʌn/ ; NAmE /ʃʌn/
he / she / it shuns BrE /ʃʌnz/ ; NAmE /ʃʌnz/
past simple shunned BrE /ʃʌnd/ ; NAmE /ʃʌnd/
past participle shunned BrE /ʃʌnd/ ; NAmE /ʃʌnd/
-ing form shunning BrE /ˈʃʌnɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˈʃʌnɪŋ/

shun somebody/something to avoid somebody/something

ex) They're increasingly shunned by our welfare policies.

She was shunned by her family when she remarried.

304

if you ask me

(informal) in my personal opinion

ex) We once prided ourselves in being a country of good manners in the East. If you ask me, I don't think we can force people to 'respect' the elderly.

305

pass the buck

to ​blame someone or make them ​responsible for a ​problem that you should ​deal with

ex) But then the government isn't doing anything but trying to pass the buck.

306

ought to modal verb
BrE /ˈɔːt tə/ ; NAmE /ˈɔːt tə/ ; BrE before vowels and finally /ˈɔːt tu/ ; NAmE before vowels and finally /ˈɔːt tu/

1) used to say what is the right thing to do

ex) They ought to be investing their money in things like education, health care.

‘Ought I to write to say thank you?’ ‘Yes, I think you ought (to).’

They ought to have apologized (= but they didn't).

He oughtn't to have been driving so fast.

307

recoup verb
BrE /rɪˈkuːp/ ; NAmE /rɪˈkuːp/

recoup something (formal) to get back an amount of money that you have spent or lost

synonym recover

ex) He says states give these companies tax breaks that are so enormous, there's no way the states can ever recoup the costs.

308

main street noun

1) (British English high street) [countable] (especially in names) the main street of a town, where most shops/stores, banks, etc. are

ex) On Main Street, a few miles from the plant site, they're ecstatic.

2) Main Street
a. average businesses and households considered as a group
b. the inhabitants of small US towns considered as having a narrow-minded or materialistic worldview.

ex) Main Street won't be happy with this new program.

309

outweigh verb
BrE /ˌaʊtˈweɪ/ ; NAmE /ˌaʊtˈweɪ/

outweigh something to be greater or more important than something

ex) They're hoping the benefits outweigh the incredible cost.

The advantages far outweigh the disadvantages.

The advantages of this scheme more than outweigh the costs involved.

310

have a heart of gold

to be a very kind person

ex) That was so nice of you, dear. You've got a heart of gold!

311

pig out (on something)

(informal) to eat too much food

ex) Go ahead and pig out!

They pigged out on pizza.

312

be on edge

to be nervous, excited or bad-tempered

ex) I guess I have been a little on edge. But these cookies are just what the doctor ordered.

313

just what the doctor ordered

(humorous) exactly what somebody wants or needs

ex) I guess I have been a little on edge. But these cookies are just what the doctor ordered.

314

out of this world

(informal) used to emphasize how good, beautiful, etc. something is

ex) Yum-yum. These are out of this world.

315

scrumptious adjective
BrE /ˈskrʌmpʃəs/ ; NAmE /ˈskrʌmpʃəs/ (informal)

tasting very good

synonym delicious

ex) You could call them Susan't Scrumptious Cookies. You'd make a bundle.

316

make a bundle (informal)

to ​earn a lot of ​money

ex) You could call them Susan't Scrumptious Cookies. You'd make a bundle.

317

(to give) credit where credit's due

an ​expression that ​means that you should ​praise someone who ​deserves it, ​although you might ​dislike some things about them

ex) You know I always give credit where credit is due.

I don't ​especially like the woman but, credit where credit's ​due, she's very ​efficient.

318

blistering adjective
BrE /ˈblɪstərɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˈblɪstərɪŋ/ [usually before noun]

1) (describing actions in sport) done very fast or with great energy

ex) The runners set off at a blistering pace.

2) extremely hot in a way that is uncomfortable

synonym baking

ex) a blistering July day

blistering heat

3) very critical

ex) We begin with a blistering day in the oil markets and on Wall Street.

319

all but

1) almost

ex) Bottom line, the combination of higher oil prices and higher short-term interest rates all but guarantee a slower growing economy in 2006.

320

mixed bag noun
BrE ; NAmE [singular](informal)

a collection of things or people of very different types

ex) A very dramatically mixed bag of economic news today. Thanks, Betsy.

The competition entries were a very mixed bag.

321

been there, done that

(informal) used to show that you think a place or an activity is not very interesting or impressive because you have already experienced it

ex) I'm with you on that. For one thing, you've already been there, done that.

Not Spain again! Been there, done that, got the T-shirt.

322

window of opportunity noun
[countable]

an opportunity to do something that will only be available to you for a short time

ex) We now have a window of opportunity - but without urgent action, the window will close rapidly.

323

by any standard

by no matter what measure

* Standard = measure
means = method

By all standards means according to any measure that's already established. Like your grades, according to how you stack up compared to the averages.

By all means or by any means refers to how it's accomplished. Using any method that gets you there.

If you were to get "A" which is excellent by all standards, meaning you were at the top compared to anyone and everyone else.
You got this "A" because you were determined to excel by any means, whether it was studying hard or cheating, whatever it took.

ex) By any standard, serious epidemics are underway in many countries in this region.

324

-fold suffix

(in adjectives and adverbs) multiplied by; having the number of parts mentioned

ex) In less than 10 years, there has been a nine-fold increase in the total number of people infected with HIV.

to increase tenfold

325

recruit noun
BrE /rɪˈkruːt/ ; NAmE /rɪˈkruːt/

1) a person who has recently joined the armed forces or the police

ex) He spoke of us scornfully as raw recruits (= people without training or experience).

The death of young people in the uniformed services or amongst potential recruits is also a grave threat to the capacity of nations to maintain internal stability or international security.

2) a person who joins an organization, a company, etc.

attempts to attract new recruits to the nursing profession

326

imperative adjective
BrE /ɪmˈperətɪv/ ; NAmE /ɪmˈperətɪv/

1) [not usually before noun] (formal) very important and needing immediate attention or action

synonym vital

ex) These impacts together serve to make it increasingly difficult to get ahead of the epidemic - which is another imperative reason for acting early.

327

on a par with somebody/something

as good, bad, important, etc. as somebody/something else

ex) So we must fully recognize AIDS to be one of the most serious threats to our prospects for progress and stability - it is on a par with such extraordinary threats as nuclear weaponry or global climate change.

328

debacle noun
BrE /deɪˈbɑːkl/ ; NAmE /deɪˈbɑːkl/ ; BrE /dɪˈbɑːkl/ ; NAmE /dɪˈbɑːkl/

an event or a situation that is a complete failure and causes embarrassment

ex) D for Debacle
He should take responsibility for the debacle and resign.

329

array noun
BrE /əˈreɪ/ ; NAmE /əˈreɪ/

1) [usually singular] a group or collection of things or people, often one that is large or impressive

ex) It appears that millions of Americans, confused by the array of competing plans or simply unaware of the cutoff date, will miss the deadline.

330

cut-off noun

1) a point or limit when you stop something

ex) It appears that millions of Americans, confused by the array of competing plans or simply unaware of the cutoff date, will miss the deadline.

331

finality noun
BrE /faɪˈnæləti/ ; NAmE /faɪˈnæləti/ [uncountable]

the quality of being final and impossible to change

ex) "Deadlines," he said last week, "help people understand there's finality, and people need to get after it, you know?"

332

get after

1) get after someone/something to chase someone or something

ex) "Deadlines," he said last week, "help people understand there's finality, and people need to get after it, you know?"

333

implicit adjective
BrE /ɪmˈplɪsɪt/ ; NAmE /ɪmˈplɪsɪt/

1) implicit (in something) suggested without being directly expressed

ex) His real objection to extending the deadline is probably that this would be an implicit admission that his administration botched the program's start-up.

334

object lesson noun

[usually singular] a practical example of what you should or should not do in a particular situation

ex) It's also an object lesson in what happens when the government is run by people who aren't interested in the business of governing.

Her calm handling of the emergency was an object lesson to us all.

335

middleman noun
BrE /ˈmɪdlmæn/ ; NAmE /ˈmɪdlmæn/ (pl. middlemen BrE /ˈmɪdlmen/ ; NAmE /ˈmɪdlmen/)

1) a person or a company that buys goods from the company that makes them and sells them to somebody else

ex) Adding drug coverage as part of ordinary Medicare would also have saved a lot of money, both by eliminating the cost of employing private insurance companies as middlemen and by allowing the government to negotiate lower drug prices.

336

so what we got

그래서 결국에는 (앞의 ~~의 결과물로 ~~가 생김)

ex) So what we got was a drug program set up to serve the administrations's friends and its political agenda, not the alleged beneficiaries.

337

before we get there

그 문제를 논의하기 전에

ex) Before we get there, let's talk for a moment about the problems older Americans have encountered over the past few months.

I don't really want to go into that.

338

~percent of the time

(전체 중) ~퍼센트의 경우
cf) most of the time 대부분의 경우

ex) A survey by the Government Accountability Office found that when Medicare recipients asked for help in determining which plan would cover their medications at the lowest cost, they were given the right answer only 41 percent of the time.

339

arm noun
BrE /ɑːm/ ; NAmE /ɑːrm/

6) [usually singular] arm (of something) a section of a large organization that deals with one particular activity

synonym wing

ex) What you've got is everything - and I mean everything - being run by the political arm.

340

cronyism noun
BrE /ˈkrəʊniɪzəm/ ; NAmE /ˈkroʊniɪzəm/ [uncountable] (disapproving)

* crony noun
BrE /ˈkrəʊni/ ; NAmE /ˈkroʊni/ [usually plural](pl. cronies)(often disapproving)

the situation in which people in power give jobs to their friends

* a person that somebody spends a lot of time with

ex) Ideology and cronyism take complete precedence over the business of governing.

341

precedence noun
BrE /ˈpresɪdəns/ ; NAmE /ˈpresɪdəns/

[uncountable] precedence (over somebody/something) the condition of being more important than somebody else and therefore coming or being dealt with first

synonym priority

ex) Ideology and cronyism take complete precedence over the business of governing.

She had to learn that her wishes did not take precedence over other people's needs.

The speakers came on to the platform in order of precedence (= the most important one first).

Environmental concerns must be given precedence over commercial interest.

342

as opposed to

(formal) used to make a contrast between two things

ex) And that's why when it comes to actual policy as opposed to politics, the Bush administration has turned out to have the reverse Midas touch.

200 attended, as opposed to 300 the previous year.

This exercise develops suppleness as opposed to (= rather than) strength.

343

crud noun
BrE /krʌd/ ; NAmE /krʌd/ [uncountable](informal)

any dirty or unpleasant substance

ex) Everything it gets its hands on, from the reconstruction of Iraq to the rescue of New Orleans, from the drug benefit to the reform of the C.I.A., turns to crud.

344

prehistoric adjective
BrE /ˌpriːhɪˈstɒrɪk/ ; NAmE /ˌpriːhɪˈstɔːrɪk/

connected with the time in history before information was written down

ex) There are new details tonight about a prehistoric predator that roamed the earth a hundred million years ago.

345

predator noun
BrE /ˈpredətə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈpredətər/ [countable, uncountable]

1) an animal that kills and eats other animals

ex) There are new details tonight about a prehistoric predator that roamed the earth a hundred million years ago.

346

roam verb
BrE /rəʊm/ ; NAmE /roʊm/

[intransitive, transitive] to walk or travel around an area without any definite aim or direction

synonym wander

ex) There are new details tonight about a prehistoric predator that roamed the earth a hundred million years ago.

347

in itself

considered separately from other things; in its true nature

ex) That in itself is striking because the common wisdom about the great meat eaters was that they hunted alone.

In itself, it's not a difficult problem to solve.

348

come at somebody

[no passive] to move towards somebody as though you are going to attack them

I think that if this guy came at you with all his friends, you wouldn't feel you had much chance of getting away.

349

dig noun
BrE /dɪɡ/ ; NAmE /dɪɡ/

3) an occasion when an organized group of people dig in the ground to discover old buildings or objects, in order to find out more about their history

synonym excavation

ex) Philip Currie, a Canadian scientist who worked on the dig, says an adult Mapusaurus would have been something like 43 feet from head to tail.

to go on a dig

an archaeological dig

350

top dog noun
BrE ; NAmE [usually singular](informal)

a person, group or country that is better than all the others, especially in a situation that involves competition

ex) Scientists are finding a whole new class of giant meat eaters who roamed the earth 100 million years ago. Top dogs, said one researcher, of an ancient world.

351

bright and early

very early in the morning

ex) You're up bright and early this morning, Susan.

352

not get/have a wink of sleep, not sleep a wink

to not be able to sleep

ex) I didn't sleep a wink. I was awake all night thinking about the new business.

353

work like a dog/trojan

to work very hard

ex) Running your own business is lots of work. Are you prepared to work like a dog?

354

(a) fat chance (of something/doing something)

(informal) used for saying that you do not believe something is likely to happen

ex) You want me to run a cookie business? Fat chance!

‘They might let us in without tickets.’ ‘Fat chance of that!’

355

crash adjective
BrE /kræʃ/ ; NAmE /kræʃ/

[only before noun] involving hard work or a lot of effort over a short period of time in order to achieve quick results

ex) I'll give you a crash course.

a crash diet

356

happy camper noun

someone who is ​happy with ​their ​situation

ex) I'll be nice. I promise you'll be a happy camper.

357

adapt verb
BrE /əˈdæpt/ ; NAmE /əˈdæpt/

1) [transitive] to change something in order to make it suitable for a new use or situation

synonym modify

ex) They're clearly adapted for slicing through flesh, like a pair of scissors.

358

baffling adjective
BrE /ˈbæflɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˈbæflɪŋ/

baffling (to somebody) causing you to feel completely confused and unable to understand

ex) It has remained a baffling and often devastating disorder.

Some of the country’s customs are baffling to outsiders.

359

affectionate adjective
BrE /əˈfekʃənət/ ; NAmE /əˈfekʃənət/

showing caring feelings and love for somebody

synonym loving

ex) Children with autism do show affectionate behavior.

He is very affectionate towards his children.

360

all-or-nothing adjective

used to describe two extreme situations which are the only possible ones

ex) I mean, that social behavior is not a pervasive all-or-nothing thing.

an all-or-nothing decision (= one which could either be very good or very bad)

361

stall verb
BrE /stɔːl/ ; NAmE /stɔːl/

4) [transitive, intransitive] stall (something) to stop something from happening until a later date; to stop making progress

ex) Meanwhile, in Congress, a bill mandating half a billion dollars over five years for research and treatment has been stalled in committee for a year.

attempts to revive the stalled peace plan

Discussions have once again stalled.

362

against all odds

despite very low probability; in a most unlikely way

ex) People often talk of 'against all odds.' They say someone made it against all odds.

Against all odds, she managed to win the trophy.

363

guest worker noun

a person, usually from a poor country, who comes to another richer country in order to work there

ex) President Bush is punishing a guest worker program that would allow many immigrants to stay.

364

bring somebody/something to life

to make somebody/something more interesting or exciting

ex) It is a shadow economy, brought to life every morning as the sun comes up in cities and in towns across America.

Flowers can bring a dull room back to life.

365

staggering adjective
BrE /ˈstæɡərɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˈstæɡərɪŋ/ (rather informal)

so great, shocking or surprising that it is difficult to believe

synonym astounding

ex) A staggering $970 billion worth.

366

hardened adjective
ˈhärdnd/

ex) From the trucks and busses carrying illegal immigrants to the fields of south Florida, to the farms of Duplin County, North Carolina, to the hardened street corners of Newark, New Jersey.

367

hooked adjective
BrE /hʊkt/ ; NAmE /hʊkt/

3) [not before noun] hooked (on something) (informal) enjoying something very much, so that you want to do it, see it, etc. as much as possible

ex) 'Is America hooked on cheap labor, on illegal immigrants?' 'Of course. America is absolutely hooked on cheap labor.'

368

equivalent noun
BrE /ɪˈkwɪvələnt/ ; NAmE /ɪˈkwɪvələnt/

* equivalent adjective
BrE /ɪˈkwɪvələnt/ ; NAmE /ɪˈkwɪvələnt/

a thing, amount, word, etc. that is equivalent to something else

ex) If we were to send back or deport all illegal workers tomorrow, it would be the equivalent of emptying New York state.

* equal in value, amount, meaning, importance, etc.

ex) Eight kilometers is roughly equivalent to five miles.

The new regulation was seen as equivalent to censorship.

369

deafening adjective
BrE /ˈdefnɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˈdefnɪŋ/

very loud

ex) In fact, he says, if you were to remove every illegal worker, you'd create an almost deafening sound heard by just about every American family, because of a real dependency on undocumented workers.

370

just about(informal)

1) almost; very nearly
2) approximately

ex) In fact, he says, if you were to remove every illegal worker, you'd create an almost deafening sound heard by just about every American family, because of a real dependency on undocumented workers.

371

drywall (=plasterboard) noun
BrE /ˈdraɪwɔːl/ ; NAmE /ˈdraɪwɔːl/ [uncountable](North American English)

a building material made of sheets of cardboard with plaster between them, used for inside walls and ceilings

ex) One in four drywall installers and landscapers are undocumented.

372

landscaper noun

someone who arranges features of the landscape or garden attractively

ex) One in four drywall installers and landscapers are undocumented.

373

loan verb
BrE /ləʊn/ ; NAmE /loʊn/

1) (especially North American English) to lend something to somebody, especially money

ex) First he needs Susan to loan him money for a new guitar.

The bank is happy to loan money to small businesses.

374

in good spirits (in high spirits)

(figurative) happy and cheerful; positive and looking toward the future, despite unhappy circumstances

ex) You're in good spirits today, Ted.

Tom wasn't in very good spirits after he heard the bad news.

375

beat about the bush(British English)
(North American English beat around the bush)

to talk about something for a long time without coming to the main point

ex) Mom, I'm not going to beat around the bush. I need to borrow $1,000 for a new guitar.

376

shell out (for something) | shell somethingout (for something)

(informal) to pay a lot of money for something

synonym fork out (for something)

ex) Ted, your father and I can't shell out that much.

377

take something/somebody by storm

1) to be extremely successful very quickly in a particular place or among particular people

ex) We're going to take the music world by storm and make lots of money.

378

pipe dream noun

a hope or plan that is impossible to achieve or not practical

ex) That sounds like a pipe dream. Aren't high school rock bands a dime a dozen?

379

a dime a dozen(North American English)
(British English two/ten a penny)

very common and therefore not valuable

ex) That sounds like a pipe dream. Aren't high school rock bands a dime a dozen?

380

make, cause, etc. a splash

(informal) to do something in a way that attracts a lot of attention or causes a lot of excitement

ex) Yeah, but we're different. With my guitar playing and Amber's beautiful voice, we're sure to make a splash!

381

those are the breaks (them's the breaks/that's the way the cookie crumbles)

(idiomatic) that is the way things happen; that's life

ex) A: How?
B: You can bake cookies.
B: I bet Mrs. Clapton never made Eric bake cookies, but I guess those are the breaks.

382

soften somebody↔up (informal)

1) to try to persuade somebody to do something for you by being very nice to them before you ask them

ex) Britain is being softened up for a revival of nuclear power.

Potential customers are softened up with free gifts before the sales talk.

383

ugly sister (Ugly Sister)

a person or thing considered unattractive, inferior, or unpleasant compared to others of the same type or group; an unpleasant or undesirable counterpart

ex) Nuclear power has long been the ugly sister of the British electricity industry.

384

see no need for

~할 이유가 없는 것 같다 (개인적 의견).

ex) When Labour came to power in 1997, it claimed it saw no need for any more.

I see no need for a teacher in preparing for the exam.

385

lamentable adjective
BrE /ˈlæməntəbl/ ; NAmE /ˈlæməntəbl/ ; BrE /ləˈmentəbl/ ; NAmE /ləˈmentəbl/ (formal)

very disappointing; so bad that you feel disappointed or angry

synonym deplorable, regrettable

ex) Nuclear power has always been expensive, say the doubters, pointing to the industry's lamentable record of cost overruns, public bailouts and bad management.

386

overrun noun
BrE /ˈəʊvərʌn/ ; NAmE /ˈoʊvərʌn/

the act of taking more time or money than was intended

ex) Nuclear power has always been expensive, say the doubters, pointing to the industry's lamentable record of cost overruns, public bailouts and bad management.

387

carbon trading noun
BrE /ˈkɑːbən treɪdɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˈkɑːrbən treɪdɪŋ/
(also emissions trading BrE ; NAmE )
[uncountable]

a system that gives countries and organizations the right to produce a particular amount of carbon dioxide and other gases that cause global warming, and allows them to sell this right

ex) And, says Mr. Grimston, the introduction of carbon-trading schemes should make fossil fuel generation more expensive, since companies will be forced to internalise the cost of their waste, something the nuclear industry already does - at least in theory.

388

internalize verb
(British English also -ise)
BrE /ɪnˈtɜːnəlaɪz/ ; NAmE /ɪnˈtɜːrnəlaɪz/

internalize something (specialist) to make a feeling, an attitude, or a belief part of the way you think and behave

ex)

389

liberalize verb
(British English also -ise)
BrE /ˈlɪbrəlaɪz/ ; NAmE /ˈlɪbrəlaɪz/

* privatize verb
(British English also -ise)
BrE /ˈpraɪvətaɪz/ ; NAmE /ˈpraɪvətaɪz/

liberalize something to make something such as a law or a political or religious system less strict

* privatize something to sell a business or an industry so that it is no longer owned by the government

ex) Liberalised energy markets have made firms reluctant to invest in expensive and risky nuclear plants, especially after the near-collapse of British Energy two years ago.

390

to boot

(old-fashioned or humorous) used to add a comment to something that you have said

ex) The latest reactors, it says, generate only a tenth as much waste as the old ones, are cheaper to build and run, and safer to boot.

He was a vegetarian, and a fussy one to boot.

391

decommission verb
BrE /ˌdiːkəˈmɪʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌdiːkəˈmɪʃn/

decommission something to officially stop using weapons, a nuclear power station, etc.

ex) The Royal Academy of Engineering (RAE) reckons that the new designs could generate energy for as little as 2.3p per kilowatt-hour (including construction and decommissioning costs), compared with 2.2-3.2p for fossil fuels and 3.7p for wind power.

392

stay put

(informal) if somebody/something stays put, they continue to be in the place where they are or where they have been put

ex) I was told to stay put.

He chose to stay put while the rest of us toured the area.