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Flashcards in TO 10-2 Deck (171):

chap noun
BrE /tʃæp/ ; NAmE /tʃæp/ (British English, informal, becoming old-fashioned)

used to talk about a man in a friendly way

ex) So, this chap here, he thinks he can tell you the future.

He isn't such a bad chap really.

Come on, chaps, let’s go for a drink!


fluke noun
BrE /fluːk/ ; NAmE /fluːk/ [usually singular](informal)

a lucky or unusual thing that happens by accident, not because of planning or skill

ex) I don't believe in precognition, and every now and then, you hear that somebody has been able to predict something that happened in the future, and that's probably because it was a fluke, and we only hear about the flukes and about the freaks.

They are determined to show that their last win was no fluke.

It was a sheer fluke that no one was hurt in the bomb blast.

a fluke goal


precognition noun
BrE /ˌpriːkɒɡˈnɪʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌpriːkɑːɡˈnɪʃn/ [uncountable](formal)

the knowledge that something will happen in the future, which somebody has because of a dream or a sudden feeling

ex) I don't believe in precognition, and every now and then, you hear that somebody has been able to predict something that happened in the future, and that's probably because it was a fluke, and we only hear about the flukes and about the freaks.


flesh and blood

when you say that somebody is flesh and blood, you mean that they are a normal human with needs, emotions and weaknesses

ex) It also happens in the very real, flesh and blood of academic medicine.

Listening to the cries was more than flesh and blood could stand.



During an arrhythmia, the heart can beat too fast, too slow, or with an irregular rhythm. A heartbeat that is too fast is called tachycardia (TAK-ih-KAR-de-ah). A heartbeat that is too slow is called bradycardia (bray-de-KAR-de-ah). Most arrhythmias are harmless, but some can be serious or even life threatening.

ex) So in 1980, some researchers did a study on a drug called lorcainide, and this was an anti-arrhythmic drug, a drug that suppresses abnormal heart rhythms, and the idea was, after people have had a heart attack, they're quite likely to have abnormal heart rhythms, so if we give them a drug that suppresses abnormal heart rhythms, this will increase the chances of them surviving.


mea culpa exclamation
BrE /ˌmeɪə ˈkʊlpə/ ; NAmE /ˌmeɪə ˈkʊlpə/ (from Latin, often humorous)

used when you are admitting that something is your fault

ex) Now actually, in 1993, the researchers who did that 1980 study, that early study, published a mea culpa, an apology to the scientific community, in which they said, "When we carried out our study in 1980, we thought that the increased death rate that occurred in the lorcainide group was an effect of chance."


publication bias

Publication bias is a type of bias occurring in published academic research. It occurs when the outcome of an experiment or research study influences the decision whether to publish (or otherwise distribute) it. Publication bias is of interest because literature reviews of claims about support for a hypothesis or values for a parameter will themselves be biased if the original literature is contaminated by publication bias. While some preferences are desirable—for instance a bias against publication of flawed studies—a tendency of researchers and journal editors to prefer some outcomes rather than others (e.g., results showing a significant finding) leads to a problematic bias in the published literature. 출판 편향

ex) The development of lorcainide was abandoned for commercial reasons, and this study was never published; it's now a good example of publication bias.


all but

1) almost

ex) The party was all but over when we arrived.

It was all but impossible to read his writing.

2) everything or everyone except something/somebody

ex) Only three of the negative trials were published, but all but one of the positive trials were published.

All but one of the plates were damaged.


write-up noun

an article in a newspaper or magazine in which somebody writes what they think about a new book, play, product, etc.

ex) And when they started obtaining the writeups of those trials through various different means, through Freedom of Information Act requests, through harassing various different organizations, what they found was inconsistent.

The performance got a good write-up in the local press.


rendition noun
BrE /renˈdɪʃn/ ; NAmE /renˈdɪʃn/

1) [countable] the performance of something, especially a song or piece of music; the particular way in which it is performed

synonym interpretation

ex) The band gave a live rendition of their latest single.

2) (also extraordinary rendition) [uncountable] (especially in the US) the practice of sending foreign suspects to be questioned in another country where the laws about the treatment of prisoners are less strict

ex) And when they tried to get a hold of the clinical study reports, the 10,000-page long documents that have the best possible rendition of the information, they were told they weren't allowed to have them.

They claimed that there had been rendition flights via Scotland.

The move was an attempt to legalize extraordinary rendition.


mole noun
BrE /məʊl/ ; NAmE /moʊl/

2) a small dark brown mark on the skin, sometimes slightly higher than the skin around it

ex) Think of Marilyn Monroe's or Scarlett johansson's mole.


전 세계적인 유행병이 될 위험성이 뒤늦게서야 인식되면서, 엄청난 공포와 통제되지 않은 반응들을 불러일으켰습니다.

Only belatedly have the risks of a global pandemic been recognized, causing much panic and uncoordinated response.


하지만 이러한 간섭은 불리한 조건이라기 보다는 문제처럼 보이지만 실은 뜻밖의 좋은 결과를 가져다 주는 것에 가깝다.

But this interference isn't so much a handicap as a blessing in disguise.


이러한 맥락에서 ~이렇다.

So it is in this context that I feel sorry to see so many foreign words around us these days.


정부가 앞장서야 하며 국민들도 함께 노력해야 한다.

The government must take the lead, and the citizens must join the efforts.


주성분, 유효 성분

An active ingredient (AI) is the ingredient in a pharmaceutical drug that is biologically active. The similar terms active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and bulk active are also used in medicine, and the term active substance may be used for natural products.

ex) A report conducted for the National Assembly shows, the prescriptions for the active ingredient in ADHD drugs went down by 10%, but the number grew more than 10% among adolescents ages 16~18.


장기간 복용하면 같은 효과를 보기 위해 더욱 더 많은 양을 필요로 하게 된다.

It you're on it long term, you need more and more doses to feel the same effect.


끊는 게 거의 불가능해진다.

It becomes almost impossible to get off of it (=wean yourself off of it).


부모가 제일 문제다.

I believe the biggest blame should go to the parents.


그게 세상 돌아가는 방식이라고 하는 사람들도 있을지 모르겠다.

Some might say that's how the world works.


bonhomie noun
BrE /ˈbɒnəmi/ ; NAmE /ˌbɑːnəˈmiː/ [uncountable](from French, formal)

a feeling of cheerful friendship

ex) Local etiquette also creates a sense of obligation among relatives (however distant), former schoolmates or even people from the same home town, another source of bonhomie.

There was a casual bonhomie between the actors at rehearsals.


하지만 예의를 차리는 것과 뇌물 수수를 구분짓는 것은 좀 애매모호할 수 있습니다.

But the distinction between courtesy and bribery can be fuzzy.


stump verb
BrE /stʌmp/ ; NAmE /stʌmp/

1) [transitive, usually passive] stump somebody (informal) to ask somebody a question that is too difficult for them to answer or give them a problem that they cannot solve

synonym baffle

ex) The new anti-corruption law does away with the need to prove an explicit link between a gift and a favour, which had often stumped prosecutors.

I'm stumped. I don't know how they got here before us.

Farmers are aware of the problem but are stumped by what to do about it.

Kate was stumped for words (= unable to answer).


부정행위를 한 사람들에게는 벌금 및 징역이 처해질 것입니다.

Fines and jail time await wrongdoers.


languish verb
BrE /ˈlæŋɡwɪʃ/ ; NAmE /ˈlæŋɡwɪʃ/ (formal)

1) [intransitive] languish (in something) to be forced to stay somewhere or suffer something unpleasant for a long time

ex) It had languished in parliament until the fatal overloading of a ferry in 2014 prompted outrage over cosy ties between businessmen and bureaucrats, which were thought to have contributed to the disaster.

She continues to languish in a foreign prison.


압력 단체

pressure group

an organized group of people who try to persuade people and influence political decisions about a particular issue; a group of people who try to influence the government and ordinary people’s opinions in order to achieve the action they want, for example a change in a law

ex) Though South Korea is Asia's fourth-largest economy and a healthy democracy, it ranks 27th out of 34 rich countries in an index of perceived levels (지각 수준) of corruption compiled by Transparency International, a pressure group.

the environmental pressure group ‘Greenpeace’

an anti-smoking pressure group



something that most people do not approve of

ex) Officials and journalists are being encouraged to "go Dutch" on bills, hitherto a cultural no-no; restaurants have devised special menus that squeak under the new spending limit.


shady adjective
BrE /ˈʃeɪdi/ ; NAmE /ˈʃeɪdi/ (shadier, shadiest)

3) [usually before noun] (informal) seeming to be dishonest or illegal

ex) These, introduced to the public sector in 2005, block payments at lavish or shady venues, such as nightclubs, massage parlours, casinos and room salons.

a shady businessman/deal

a shady character


deviant adjective
BrE /ˈdiːviənt/ ; NAmE /ˈdiːviənt/

different from what most people consider to be normal and acceptable

ex) Already private institutes are offering courses to a fleet of amateur detectives, known as "ranparazzi," to instruct them on hunting for discarded receipts and filming deviant officials with hidden cameras, for rewards of up to 200m won.

deviant behaviour/sexuality


squeak verb
BrE /skwiːk/ ; NAmE /skwiːk/

3) [intransitive] + adv./prep. to only just manage to win something, pass a test, etc.

ex) Officials and journalists are being encouraged to "go Dutch" on bills, hitherto a cultural no-no; restaurants have devised special menus that squeak under the new spending limit.

We squeaked into the final with a goal in the last minute.

The gun control measures narrowly squeaked through Congress.

The socialist party squeaked home with a majority of just two seats.


woolliness noun
BrE /ˈwʊlinəs/ ; NAmE /ˈwʊlinəs/ [uncountable]

2) (disapproving) the quality of not being clear or definite

ex) Chung Jae-won of Kookmin University in Seoul says that the law's woolliness means it might apply differently to those in power.

She could not abide woolliness of thought or expression.


뇌물 수수

graft noun
BrE /ɡrɑːft/ ; NAmE /ɡræft/

4) [uncountable] (especially North American English) the use of illegal or unfair methods, especially bribery, to gain advantage in business, politics, etc.; money obtained in this way

ex) He notes that local media have reported on low-level graft involving lunches and gifts, but not the darker room-salon culture controlled by cartels "at the core of high-level bribery."

He promised an end to graft and corruption in public life.


cartel noun
BrE /kɑːˈtel/ ; NAmE /kɑːrˈtel/ [countable + singular or plural verb]

a group of separate companies that agree to increase profits by fixing prices and not competing with each other

ex) He notes that local media have reported on low-level graft involving lunches and gifts, but not the darker room-salon culture controlled by cartels "at the core of high-level bribery."

to operate an illegal cartel


scrappy adjective
BrE /ˈskræpi/ ; NAmE /ˈskræpi/ (scrappier, scrappiest)

2) (especially British English) not tidy and often of poor quality

ex) Outing the most toxic deals at big secretive firms will depend on insiders, not scrappy "ranparazzi."

The note was written on a scrappy bit of paper.

The garden was empty apart from a few scrappy shrubs.


dormant adjective
BrE /ˈdɔːmənt/ ; NAmE /ˈdɔːrmənt/

not active or growing now but able to become active or to grow in the future

synonym inactive

opposite active

ex) My big idea is a very, very small idea that can unlock billions of big ideas that are at the moment dormant inside us.

a dormant volcano

During the winter the seeds lie dormant in the soil.

The seeds may lie dormant for hundreds of years.


Type A personality (+Type B)

Type A and Type B personality theory describes two contrasting personality types. In this theory, personalities that are more competitive, outgoing, ambitious, impatient and/or aggressive are labeled Type A, while more relaxed personalities are labeled Type B.

The two cardiologists who developed this theory came to believe that Type A personalities had a greater chance of developing coronary heart disease. Following the results of further studies and considerable controversy about the role of the tobacco industry funding of early research in this area, some reject, either partially or completely, the link between Type A personality and coronary disease. Nevertheless, this research had a significant effect on the development of the health psychology field, in which psychologists look at how an individual's mental state affects their physical health.

* Type A
The theory describes Type A individuals as ambitious, rigidly organized, highly status-conscious, sensitive, impatient, anxious, proactive, and concerned with time management. People with Type A personalities are often high-achieving "workaholics." They push themselves with deadlines, and hate both delays and ambivalence.

In his 1996 book dealing with extreme Type A behavior, Type A Behavior: Its Diagnosis and Treatment, Friedman suggests that dangerous Type A behavior is expressed through three major symptoms: (1) free-floating hostility, which can be triggered by even minor incidents; (2) time urgency and impatience, which causes irritation and exasperation usually described as being "short-fused"; and (3) a competitive drive, which causes stress and an achievement-driven mentality. The first of these symptoms is believed to be covert and therefore less observable, while the other two are more overt.

* Type B
The theory describes Type B individuals as a contrast to those of Type A. Type B personality, by definition, are noted to live at lower stress levels. They typically work steadily, and may enjoy achievement, although they have a greater tendency to disregard physical or mental stress when they do not achieve. When faced with competition, they may focus less on winning or losing than their Type A counterparts, and more on enjoying the game regardless of winning or losing. Unlike the Type A personality's rhythm of multi-tasked careers, Type B individuals are sometimes attracted to careers of creativity: writer, counselor, therapist, actor or actress. However, network and computer systems managers, professors, and judges are more likely to be Type B individuals as well. Their personal character may enjoy exploring ideas and concepts. They are often reflective, and think of the "outer and inner world".

ex) This is a room of type-A women. This is a room of sleep-deprived women.


우리는 문자 그대로 잠을 자면서 정상을 향해 나아갑니다.

We are literally going to sleep our way to the top, literally.

He hacked his way through the thickets.


virility noun
BrE /vəˈrɪləti/ ; NAmE /vəˈrɪləti/ [uncountable]

1) sexual power in men

ex) displays of male virility

a need to prove his virility

2) strength or energy

ex) Because unfortunately for men, sleep deprivation has become a virility symbol.

economic virility


one-upmanship noun
BrE /wʌn ˈʌpmənʃɪp/ ; NAmE /wʌn ˈʌpmənʃɪp/ [uncountable](disapproving)

the skill of getting an advantage over other people

ex) There is now a kind of sleep deprivation one-upmanship.


get something↔in

3) to manage to do or say something

ex) Eight o'clock is too late for me, but that's okay, I can get a game of tennis in and do a few conference calls and meet you at eight.

I got in an hour's work while the baby was asleep.

She talks so much it's impossible to get a word in.


cut corners

(disapproving) to do something in the easiest, cheapest or quickest way, often by ignoring rules or leaving something out

ex) Hospitals cut corners by assigning nurses unsafe patient loads.

To be competitive, they paid low wages and cut corners on health and safety.


extraneous adjective
BrE /ɪkˈstreɪniəs/ ; NAmE /ɪkˈstreɪniəs/ (formal)

not directly connected with the particular situation you are in or the subject you are dealing with

synonym irrelevant

ex) Meanwhile, the same hospital recently funded extraneous patient amenities such as flat-screen TVs, a gazebo patio for smoke breaks, monogrammed towels, a fancy gym, a pool and espresso machines (none of which the exhausted nurses are allowed to use).

We do not want any extraneous information on the page.

Coughs and extraneous noises can be edited out.

We shall ignore factors extraneous to the problem.

factors extraneous to the case


gazebo noun
BrE /ɡəˈziːbəʊ/ ; NAmE /ɡəˈziːboʊ/ (pl. gazebos)

a small building with open sides in a garden/yard, especially one with a view

ex) Meanwhile, the same hospital recently funded extraneous patient amenities such as flat-screen TVs, a gazebo patio for smoke breaks, monogrammed towels, a fancy gym, a pool and espresso machines (none of which the exhausted nurses are allowed to use).


or razzmatazz /ˈræzmətæz/

a lot of lively and noisy activity that is intended to be impressive and exciting

ex) Hospitals are acting like amateur magicians, razzle-dazzling patients with slick patter and shiny baubles to distract them from the real problem: they undervalue their nurses, who are often stretched too thin to provide optimal care.


patter noun
BrE /ˈpætə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈpætər/

2) [uncountable, singular] fast continuous talk by somebody who is trying to sell you something or entertain you

ex) Hospitals are acting like amateur magicians, razzle-dazzling patients with slick patter and shiny baubles to distract them from the real problem: they undervalue their nurses, who are often stretched too thin to provide optimal care.

sales patter


bauble noun
BrE /ˈbɔːbl/ ; NAmE /ˈbɔːbl/

1) a piece of jewellery that is cheap and has little artistic value

ex) It was a $50 000 antique diamond ring—not a mere ‘bauble’ as the judge said.

2) (British English) a decoration for a Christmas tree in the shape of a ball

ex) Hospitals are acting like amateur magicians, razzle-dazzling patients with slick patter and shiny baubles to distract them from the real problem: they undervalue their nurses, who are often stretched too thin to provide optimal care.


stretch[spread] sb too thin

Fig. to do so many things at one time that you can do none of them well; When something is stretched too thin, it is unbearable or uncomfortable. Stretch too thin is also said of a person who tries to do many things at the same time and cannot give enough time or attention to any of them

ex) Hospitals are acting like amateur magicians, razzle-dazzling patients with slick patter and shiny baubles to distract them from the real problem: they undervalue their nurses, who are often stretched too thin to provide optimal care.

I'm burdened with my solitude, stretched too thin to bear.

I realized I've been spreading myself too thin, so I resigned as secretary of the golf club

It's a good idea to get involved in a lot of activities, but don't spread yourself too thin.

I'm too busy these days. I'm afraid I've spread myself too thin.


ancillary adjective
BrE /ænˈsɪləri/ ; NAmE /ˈænsəleri/

ancillary (to something)

1) providing necessary support to the main work or activities of an organization

synonym auxiliary

ex) A current nurse at Henry Ford West Bloomfield in Detroit (the hospital featured in The Times report about hospitals emulating hotels) told me recently that the hospital doesn't have enough nurses or ancillary staff, which obligates some nurses to perform secretarial duties in addition to managing patients.

ancillary staff/services/equipment

ancillary workers in the health service such as cooks and cleaners


no-brainer noun
BrE ; NAmE (informal)

a decision or a problem that you do not need to think about much because it is obvious what you should do

ex) The tradeoff seems like a no-brainers.

The question of who to support in this election should be a no-brainer.

Providing a survivor benefit for a spouse is a no-brainer for most people.


숨이 모자라고, 좀 어지러울 수도 있고, 심장은 어느 때보다도 심하게 두근거릴 것입니다. 그리고 그냥 지금 미쳐가고 있다고 느낄 것입니다.

You feel short of breath, maybe even dizzy, your heart is pounding harder than it's ever pounded and you feel like you might just being going crazy.


jolt verb
BrE /dʒəʊlt/ ; NAmE /dʒoʊlt/

1) [intransitive, transitive] to move or to make somebody/something move suddenly and roughly

synonym jerk

ex) The truck jolted and rattled over the rough ground.

We were jolting along at about five miles an hour.

The bus jolted to a halt.

(figurative) Her heart jolted when she saw him.

He was jolted forwards as the bus moved off.

2) [transitive] to give somebody a sudden shock, especially so that they start to take action or deal with a situation

ex) It was crazy sensation that jolted me out of be in the middle of the night, and I thought my heart was going to burst out of my chest.

His remark jolted her into action.

The sound jolted my memory, and I suddenly remembered what had happened.

a method of jolting the economy out of recession

I was suddenly jolted awake.



the abbreviation for‘emergency medical technician’(a person who is trained to provide emergency medical treatment to people who are not in a hospital)

ex) My dad, an EMT in our small town, calmed me down enough to convince me that I wasn't having a heart attack or about to die.

The EMTs arrived less than ten minutes after the highway accident.


glimmer noun
BrE /ˈɡlɪmə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈɡlɪmər/

1) a faint unsteady light

ex) We could see a glimmer of light on the far shore.

2) (also glimmering) a small sign of something

ex) Still I see a glimmer of hope there.

a glimmer of hope

I caught the glimmer of a smile in his eyes.

the glimmering of an idea


alpha male noun

1) [usually singular] the man or male animal in a particular group who has the most power

ex) The alpha male was a large black wolf.

2) a man who tends to take control in social and professional situations

ex) Most alpha males need to control the women in their lives.

* alpha girl (alpha female)

a teenage girl who is the most important and powerful member of a group of girls who regularly spend time together. Alpha girls are typically confident, attractive, and determined to be successful. Often used humorously.


내가 치안이 불안한 나라에서 일하는 것에 대해 사람들은 걱정을 한다.

People are worried about me working in a country that's not considered safe.


노년기, 인생의 말년

the twilight years
the waning years
the late years


예비 엄마

would-be mother
prospective mother


부모님께 그런 부담을 안겨 드리지 않기로 했다.

We decided not to burden our parents with that.



daycare center
(day) nursery


직장맘의 72%가 육아휴직에 대해 고민한다고 한다. 하지만 실제 육아휴직 이용률은 41%에 그치고 있다.

Some 72% of working moms want to take a maternity leave, but only 41% actually do take one.


남성 육아 휴직자수는 전체 육아 휴직자의 7%에 불과하다.

And get this. Of all those leaves, paternity leaves take up only 7%.


남자의 경우 휴가를 쓰게 되면 많은 위험 부담을 감수해야 하는데, 왜냐하면 직장에서 일정 기간 떠나있게 되면 승진 가능성이 현저히 줄어들게 되기 때문이다.

As men you've got to take a lot of risks to take a leave of absence because once you leave the workplace for some time, the chance of you getting promoted dramatically decreases.


기업 이사회에서의 더 나은 성비

better gender ratio in corporate boardrooms.


유리 천장에 금이 가고 있다.

The glass ceiling is getting cracks on it, so to speak.


프랑스와 이탈리아에서는 최근 여성 시장들이 당선되었다.

France and Italy recently saw [had] female mayors elected.


올해 우리나라는 최하위권에 머물렀다.

This year, our number stayed at the rock bottom.


여성들이 부당한 대우를 받는 것은 우리 모두에게 지는 게임이다.

When women get a raw deal, all of us lose [that's not in our interest].


실력을 기르기 위해 열심히 노력해야 하고 포기해서는 안 된다.

They must work hard to hone their skills and must not give up.


듀켄씨 근이영양증 (듀켄씨 근육위축병)

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe type of muscular dystrophy. The symptom of muscle weakness usually begin around the age of four in boys and worsens quickly. Typically muscle loss occurs first in the upper legs and pelvis followed by those of the upper arms. This can result in trouble standing-up. Most are unable to walk by the age of twelve. Affected muscles may look larger due to increased fat content. Scoliosis is also common. Some may have intellectual disability. Females with a single copy of the defective gene may show mild symptoms.

ex) Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a horrible disease.


bode well/ill (for somebody/something)
BrE /bəʊd/ ; NAmE /boʊd/

(formal) to be a good/bad sign for somebody/something

synonym augur

ex) Nonetheless, the decision bodes ill for drug discovery in America.

These figures do not bode well for the company's future.

The look on her face boded ill for anyone who crossed her path that day.


reap verb
BrE /riːp/ ; NAmE /riːp/

1) [transitive] reap something to obtain something, especially something good, as a direct result of something that you have done

ex) Shareholders in Sarepta do not have to wait that long to reap the benefits.

They are now reaping the rewards of all their hard work.

2) [intransitive, transitive] reap (something) to cut and collect a crop, especially wheat, from a field

synonym harvest


be/look a picture

to look very beautiful or special

ex) Sarepta looks a picture of corporate health: it has been doing deals, securing the rights to another anti-Duchenne drug on October 4th, and issuing new shares.

The garden looks a picture in the summer.


pernicious adjective
BrE /pəˈnɪʃəs/ ; NAmE /pərˈnɪʃəs/ (formal)

having a very harmful effect on somebody/something, especially in a way that is gradual and not easily noticed

ex) Weakening the FDA's standards for approval has two pernicious effects.

the pernicious influence of TV violence on children

Ageism is equally as offensive and pernicious as sexism.


castigate verb
BrE /ˈkæstɪɡeɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈkæstɪɡeɪt/

castigate somebody/something/yourself (for something) (formal) to criticize somebody/something/yourself severely

ex) Politicians in America routinely castigate the pharmaceutical industry for charging too much for its products.

He castigated himself for being so stupid.

The minister castigated schools for falling standards in education.


post hoc adverb
BrE /ˌpəʊst ˈhɒk/ ; NAmE /ˌpoʊst ˈhɑːk/ (from Latin, formal)

Post hoc (sometimes written as post-hoc) is a Latin phrase, meaning "after this" or "after the event". It may refer to:

Formulated after the fact (e.g., a post hoc rationalization, a post hoc justification, a post hoc explanation, post hoc reasoning)
Post hoc analysis (or post hoc test), a form of statistical analysis
Post hoc theorizing, generating hypotheses based on data already observed

ex) And now Sarepta's post-hoc testing programme will, in effect, be paid for by the American government and by insurers.


conundrum noun
BrE /kəˈnʌndrəm/ ; NAmE /kəˈnʌndrəm/

1) a confusing problem or question that is very difficult to solve

ex) Payers ought to dump this conundrum back into Sarepta's lap and insist on a rebate arrangement if the drug proves to be ineffective.

The role of clouds is one of the big conundrums of climatology.


come/spring to mind

if something comes/springs to mind, you suddenly remember or think of it

ex) When Samsung Electronics announced on October 11th that it would discontinue its flagship smartphone, the Galaxy Note 7, one crucial event in the history of the world's second-biggest technology company by revenues (after Apple) sprang to mind.

When discussing influential modern artists, three names immediately come to mind.


auto-da-fé noun
BrE /ˌɔːtəʊ dɑː ˈfeɪ/ ; NAmE /ˌɔːtoʊ dɑː ˈfeɪ/ [uncountable, countable](from Portuguese)(pl. autos-da-fé BrE /ˌɔːtəʊz dɑː ˈfeɪ/ ; NAmE /ˌɔːtoʊz dɑː ˈfeɪ/ )

the practice of burning people who did not accept the religious beliefs of the Spanish Inquisition

ex) The South Korean auto-da-fé is said to have helped create a culture of permanent crisis at the firm, which drives employees to work incredibly hard.


ignominious adjective
BrE /ˌɪɡnəˈmɪniəs/ ; NAmE /ˌɪɡnəˈmɪniəs/ (formal)

that makes, or should make, you feel ashamed

synonym disgraceful, humiliating

ex) Now the question is how the ignominious end of the Galaxy Note 7 handset, which some hardware aficionados had called the best "phablet" (or large smartphone) ever made, will chance Samsung, which is going through a leadership transition.

an ignominious defeat

He made one mistake and his career came to an ignominious end.


aficionado noun
BrE /əˌfɪʃəˈnɑːdəʊ/ ; NAmE /əˌfɪʃəˈnɑːdoʊ/ (pl. aficionados)

a person who likes a particular sport, activity or subject very much and knows a lot about it

ex) Now the question is how the ignominious end of the Galaxy Note 7 handset, which some hardware aficionados had called the best "phablet" (or large smartphone) ever made, will chance Samsung, which is going through a leadership transition.

a ballet aficionado/an aficionado of ballet

This coffee is regarded by aficionados as one of the world’s finest.

He’s an aficionado of the history of the game.

Jazz aficionados gathered at the Hollywood Bowl last night for a tribute concert.


debilitate verb
BrE /dɪˈbɪlɪteɪt/ ; NAmE /dɪˈbɪlɪteɪt/ (formal)

1) debilitate somebody/something to make somebody’s body or mind weaker

ex) In the midst of the crisis, the firm announced that Lee Jae-yong, the son of Mr Lee, would joint the board of Samsung Electronics later this year, taking another step towards succeeding his father, who two years ago suffered a debilitating heart attack.

a debilitating disease

The troops were severely debilitated by hunger and disease.

She found the heat debilitating.

2) debilitate something to make a country, an organization, etc. weaker

ex) Prolonged strike action debilitated the industry.

The economy is now strengthening after a long and debilitating recession.


conflagration noun
BrE /ˌkɒnfləˈɡreɪʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌkɑːnfləˈɡreɪʃn/ (formal)

a very large fire that destroys a lot of land or buildings

ex) It had swiftly recalled 2.5m of the phones after the batteries in some had caught fire (the result of one such conflagration is pictured).

The fire services were not adequate to deal with major conflagrations.


combustion noun
BrE /kəmˈbʌstʃən/ ; NAmE /kəmˈbʌstʃən/ [uncountable]

1) the process of burning

ex) But earlier this month it emerged that the replacement unites, which came with different batteries, were also prone to combustion.

Poisonous gases are produced during fossil fuel combustion.

2) (specialist) a chemical process in which substances combine with the oxygen in the air to produce heat and light

ex) The ratio must be correct in order to achieve complete combustion.


innards noun
BrE /ˈɪnədz/ ; NAmE /ˈɪnərdz/ [plural](informal)

1) the organs inside the body of a person or an animal, especially the stomach

synonym entrails, guts

ex) turkey innards

Fear twisted her innards in knots.

2) the parts inside a machine

ex) The resulting pressure can damage batteries' innards, causing them to short-circuit and release densely stored energy in the form of excessive heat.


short-circuit verb
BrE ; NAmE
(informal short)

1) [intransitive, transitive] short-circuit (something) to have a short circuit; to make something have a short circuit 합선 되다, 합선을 일으키다

ex) The resulting pressure can damage batteries' innards, causing them to short-circuit and release densely stored energy in the form of excessive heat.

The wires had short-circuited and burnt out.

2) [transitive] short-circuit something to succeed in doing something more quickly than usual, without going through all the usual processes

ex) The process of becoming a politician can be short-circuited if you are already a well-known public figure.


push the envelope

(informal) to go beyond the limits of what is allowed or thought to be possible

ex) Commercial forces encourage Samsung to push the envelope.

He is a performer who consistently pushes the envelope of TV comedy.


replete adjective
BrE /rɪˈpliːt/ ; NAmE /rɪˈpliːt/

1) [not before noun] replete (with something) (formal) filled with something; with a full supply of something

ex) The Note 7, which sold for more than $800, is replete with all kinds of features, including a super-high-resolution camera, an iris scanner (to unlock the phone) -- and an especially powerful battery.

literature replete with drama and excitement


convoluted adjective
BrE /ˈkɒnvəluːtɪd/ ; NAmE /ˈkɑːnvəluːtɪd/

1) extremely complicated and difficult to follow

ex) Another contributing factor, albeit an indirect one, is Samsung's convoluted corporate structure, which features cross- and even circular shareholdings.

a convoluted argument/explanation

a book with a convoluted plot

I had to negotiate an amazingly convoluted one-way system.



* Cross shareholding

Minority stakes held by two companies in each other; this is often done to help strengthen long term business relationships, and is particularly prevalent in RELATIONSHIP MODEL countries such as Germany and Japan.

* Circular shareholding or circular investment (순환출자/循環出資) refers to cross shareholding by three or more companies. In other words, A Company invests in B Company, which invests in C Company, and then C Company invests in A Company making circle shaped investments.
Generally speaking, affiliates in a group of companies invest each other to increase the nominal capital base and solidify the ownership of the group without actual payment of cash.

ex) Another contributing factor, albeit an indirect one, is Samsung's convoluted corporate structure, which features cross- and even circular shareholdings.


take something public

1) tv. to make something known to the public.

ex) You gotta take it public—put it on the street—even when it’s none of your business.

Don’t take it public. You’ll just get talked about.

2) tv. to sell shares in a company to the general public. (Securities markets.)

ex) In November the firm plans to take public its subsidiary BioLogics, a drugmaker, hoping to raise more than $2 billion.

We’re going to take it public whenever the market looks good.


inextricably adverb
BrE /ˌɪnɪkˈstrɪkəbli/ ; NAmE /ˌɪnɪkˈstrɪkəbli/ ; BrE /ɪnˈekstrɪkəbli/ ; NAmE /ɪnˈekstrɪkəbli/

if two things are inextricably linked, etc., it is impossible to separate them

ex) I would imagine that would happen much more often if someone shared a major life passion with their partner, like going to jam band shows, literary readings, or basketball games, things that you consider central to your life and identity and now are inextricably linked with a former partner.

Europe's foreign policy is inextricably linked with that of the US.

She had become inextricably involved in the campaign.


prosper verb
BrE /ˈprɒspə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈprɑːspər/ [intransitive]

to develop in a successful way; to be successful, especially in making money

synonym thrive

ex) If a relationship prospers and endures, shared interests may enhance the experience, but should not be central to it -- there are more important qualities, such as affection, attention, and respect, that most people want and need in a partner more than common activities or hobbies.

The economy prospered under his administration.

She seems to be prospering since she moved out of the city.


faltering adjective
BrE /ˈfɔːltərɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˈfɔːltərɪŋ/

1) becoming weaker or less effective

ex) And if your relationship is faltering, don't rely on shared interests to hold it together -- in the end, you'll lose your partner and possibly also your passion for the interest that was important to you long before the other person was.

the faltering peace talks


allot verb
BrE /əˈlɒt/ ; NAmE /əˈlɑːt/

to give time, money, tasks, etc. to somebody/something as a share of what is available

ex) Most recently, on Monday, Hungarian citizens cast their votes on whether Hungary should accept its European Union-allotted proportion of asylum seekers.

I completed the test within the time allotted.

How much money has been allotted to us?

How much money have we been allotted?


plebiscite noun
BrE /ˈplebɪsɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈplebɪsɪt/ ; BrE /ˈplebɪsaɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈplebɪsaɪt/

plebiscite (on something) (politics) a vote by the people of a country or a region on an issue that is very important

synonym referendum

ex) The majority of national plebiscites are not generated from a groundswell of citizen support, but rather, as in the case of Hungary, imposed by seated representatives in an effort to rubber stamp controversial policies.

to hold a plebiscite on the country’s future system of government


groundswell noun
BrE /ˈɡraʊndswel/ ; NAmE /ˈɡraʊndswel/

[singular] groundswell (of something) (formal) the sudden increase of a particular feeling among a group of people

ex) The majority of national plebiscites are not generated from a groundswell of citizen support, but rather, as in the case of Hungary, imposed by seated representatives in an effort to rubber stamp controversial policies.

a groundswell of support

There was a groundswell of opinion that he should resign.


rubber-stamp verb

rubber-stamp something (often disapproving) to give official approval to a law, plan, decision, etc., especially without considering it carefully

ex) The majority of national plebiscites are not generated from a groundswell of citizen support, but rather, as in the case of Hungary, imposed by seated representatives in an effort to rubber stamp controversial policies.

The council just rubber-stamps decisions made by a higher authority.


데이터가 완벽하진 못하더라도, 그 오차가 2-3%pt를 넘지는 않는다.

While the productivity data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics is not perfect, it is not off by 2-3 percentage points.


look to something

(formal) to consider something and think about how to make it better

ex) In principle we should look to strong productivity growth, like what we had in past decades, as helping workers and increasing prosperity.

We need to look to ways of improving our marketing.


결혼 시키다, 시집 [장가] 보내다

marry somebody↔off (to somebody)

(disapproving) to find a husband or wife for somebody, especially your daughter or son

ex) There was an old saying that goes, you sell your house to marry off your daughter (=get your daughter married).


이러한 경향이 더 나은 쪽으로 바뀌어서 돈 때문에 결혼을 하거나 못하는 일이 없길 바란다.

I hope the trends change for the better so that money doesn't make or break your wedding.


뉴스를 보면서 왜 그쪽 지역을 중동이라고 칭하는지 의문이 생겼다.

While hearing the news I've come to wonder why they refer to the region as the Middle East.


God/goodness/Heaven knows(informal)

1) used to emphasize that you do not know something

ex) They're English, French, Italian or even some other languages of God knows where.

God knows what else they might find.

‘Where are they?’ ‘Goodness knows.’


stub something↔out

to stop a cigarette, etc. from burning by pressing the end against something hard

ex) And you may come in contact with those particles minutes or even hours after the smoker stubbed out the cigarette.

He stubbed out his cigarette in the ashtray.


self-perpetuating adjective

continuing without any outside influence

ex) Because women have historically been paid less than men (for reasons both lawful and unlawful), that pay disparity perpetuates itself when employers base current salary on prior salary.

Revenge leads to a self-perpetuating cycle of violence.


catch-all adjective
BrE ; NAmE [only before noun]

including several different things without stating clearly what is included or not

ex) And it doesn't give employers the catch-all defense contained in the Equal Pay Act -- that a pay differential between men and women for equal work is not unlawful if it is based on "any other factor other than sex."

a catch-all label/phrase/term


preclude verb
BrE /prɪˈkluːd/ ; NAmE /prɪˈkluːd/ (formal)

to prevent something from happening or somebody from doing something; to make something impossible

ex) Because it forbids employers only from seeking prior salary information, it does not preclude applicants from voluntarily disclosing that information and then using it to negotiate a higher salary.

Lack of time precludes any further discussion.

Your failure to become a member this year does not preclude the possibility of your applying next year.

My lack of interest in the subject precluded me from gaining much enjoyment out of it.

His religious beliefs precluded him/his serving in the army.

We cannot have a system that precludes people from seeking independent legal advice.


bear out somebody | bear out something | bear somebody out | bear something out

(especially British English) to show that somebody is right or that something is true

ex) Women's experience often bears out this belief, as many experience resentment or even withdrawn offers when they do try to negotiate for a better compensation package.

The other witnesses will bear me out.

The other witnesses will bear out what I say.


man-hour noun
BrE ; NAmE [usually plural]

the amount of work done by one person in one hour

ex) There continues to be debate over whether policies such as raising the minimum wage actually raise incomes because higher wages may be offset by employers using less employee time, so that incomes don't actually rise in the end.

It will take them 2 000 man-hours to get the aircraft flying again.


empirical adjective
BrE /ɪmˈpɪrɪkl/ ; NAmE /ɪmˈpɪrɪkl/ [usually before noun]

(formal) based on experiments or experience rather than ideas or theories

opposite theoretical

ex) While the weight of the empirical evidence points to the conclusion that there have been little or no employment effects from minimum wage increases around the nation, some argue that it hampers employment for some groups or that the "Fight for $15" is a step too far.

empirical evidence/knowledge/research

an empirical study


uptick noun
BrE /ˈʌptɪk/ ; NAmE /ˈʌptɪk/ (economics, North American English)

a small increase in the level or value of something

opposite downtick

ex) What the recent upticks in income and decline in poverty tell us is that we have to seriously consider that raising the minimum wage has done more good than harm.

The futures market is showing an uptick.


tabulate verb
BrE /ˈtæbjuleɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈtæbjuleɪt/

tabulate something to arrange facts or figures in columns or lists so that they can be read easily

ex) When we combine the income date with the fact that we continue to be amid the longest job-creating recovery since the end of World War II -- when the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics first began tabulating this data -- it's hard to argue that improving the lives of workers is a bad thing.

The survey results are tabulated in section 9 of Appendix 1.


off (your) guard

not careful or prepared for something difficult or dangerous

ex) Seven years ago this autumn, practically the entire mainstream economics profession was caught off guard by the global financial crash and the "worst panic since the 1930s" that followed.

The lawyer’s apparently innocent question was designed to catch the witness off (his) guard.


lend itself to something

to be suitable for something

ex) A Nobel prize in economics implies that the human world operates much like the physical world: that it can be described and understood in neutral terms, and that it lends itself to modelling, like chemical reactions or the movement of the stars.

Her voice doesn't really lend itself well to blues singing.


허비되다, 버려지다, 쓸모없게 되다

go[run] to waste

In the U.S., more than 70 billion pounds of food go to waste each year while 42 million people face hunger.


물부족 국가

water-stressed country (광범위한 표현)
water-scarce country (양적인 표현)

I don't think this should be happening in a water-stressed country like ours.




ex) I headed to the washstand and saw the cleaning lady emptying dozens of water bottles there.


회의를 주재하다

preside verb
BrE /prɪˈzaɪd/ ; NAmE /prɪˈzaɪd/ [intransitive](formal)

to lead or be in charge of a meeting, ceremony, etc.

ex) you see people using disposable paper cups even at meetings presided over by the president.

the presiding judge

They asked if I would preside at the committee meeting.

(figurative) The party presided over one of the worst economic declines in the country's history (= it was in power when the decline happened).


공익 광고

public service announcement[advertisement]

ex) That's kind of ironical given that they spend hundreds of thousands of dollars on public service announcements urging people to reuse disposable cups and chopsticks.


개찰구를 통과하다

pass through the ticket gate (turnstile)


그냥 걔한텐 그게 자연스러운 거였다.

It just comes natural to her.


내가 그러면 걔는 완전 짜증을 낸다.

She gets all cranky when I do that.


우리 사회의 각종 것들이 오른손잡이인 사람들에게만 맞도록 되어있다.

When you look around, things are set in ways that fit right-handed people.


심지어 변기 손잡이까지 오른쪽에 있다.

Even the toilet knob is on the right side.


senility noun
BrE /səˈnɪləti/ ; NAmE /səˈnɪləti/ [uncountable]

the condition of being senile (= behaving in a confused or strange way, and being unable to remember things, because you are old) 노망

ex) It most commonly strikes elderly people and used to be referred to as "senility."

an old man on the verge of senility

* senile dementia noun
BrE ; NAmE [uncountable] 노인성 치매


Alzheimer’s disease noun
BrE /ˈæltshaɪməz dɪziːz/ ; NAmE /ˈæltshaɪmərz dɪziːz/
(also Alzheimer’s)

a serious disease, especially affecting older people, that prevents the brain from functioning normally and causes loss of memory, loss of ability to speak clearly, etc.

* senile dementia noun
BrE ; NAmE [uncountable] 노인성 치매


Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease noun
BrE /ˌkrɔɪtsfelt ˈjækɒb dɪziːz/ ; NAmE /ˌkrɔɪtsfelt ˈjækɔːb dɪziːz/ [uncountable]
(abbreviation CJD)

a brain disease that causes gradual loss of control of the mind and body and, finally, death. It is believed to be caused by prions and is linked to BSE in cows. 크로이츠펠트 야곱법, 인간광우병

ex) Other diseases that can lead to dementia include Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.


shunt noun
BrE /ʃʌnt/ ; NAmE /ʃʌnt/

2) (medical) a small tube put in your body in a medical operation to allow the blood or other fluid to flow from one place to another

ex) Another treatable form of dementia is a condition known as normal pressure hydrocephalus (정상뇌압수두증), which is caused by a buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain that can be relieved by surgically implanting a shunt to drain off excess fluid.

If the artery is too narrow, a small 4mm shunt is inserted to widen it.


incontinence noun
BrE /ɪnˈkɒntɪnəns/ ; NAmE /ɪnˈkɑːntɪnəns/ [uncountable]

the lack of ability to control the bladder and bowels 실금

opposite continence

ex) This type of dementia is often preceded or accompanied by difficulty walking and incontinence.


take a firm line/stand (on/against something)

to make your beliefs known and to try to make others follow them

ex) This isn't surprising, since having an addiction generally means feeling out of control and leads people to the idea that they should finally take a stand to regain control of their lives.

We need to take a firm line on tobacco advertising.

They took a firm stand against drugs in the school.


precipitous adjective
BrE /prɪˈsɪpɪtəs/ ; NAmE /prɪˈsɪpɪtəs/ (formal)

3) done very quickly, without enough thought or care

synonym hasty

ex) This can lead to more impossible-to-keep promises, or to precipitous and poorly-thought-through changes in treatment plans, such as suddenly pulling people out of otherwise good outpatient therapy, or sending them away to expensive and nearly always useless rehabilitation treatment.

a precipitous action


notwithstanding preposition
BrE /ˌnɒtwɪθˈstændɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˌnɑːtwɪθˈstændɪŋ/ ; BrE /ˌnɒtwɪðˈstændɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˌnɑːtwɪðˈstændɪŋ/

(formal) (also used following the noun it refers to) without being affected by something; despite something

ex) Notwithstanding Hawking's gloomy predictions, I'm very excited about the development of AI, even though there is a long way to go before we can produce general AI.

Notwithstanding some major financial problems, the school has had a successful year.

The bad weather notwithstanding, the event was a great success.


radiology noun
BrE /ˌreɪdiˈɒlədʒi/ ; NAmE /ˌreɪdiˈɑːlədʒi/ [uncountable]

the study and use of different types of radiation in medicine, for example to treat diseases 방사선학

ex) For example, many diagnosis errors are made in radiology and psychiatry, and political scientists are victims from hindsight biases and overconfidence, among other biases.


die away

to become gradually weaker or fainter and finally disappear

ex) Scientists are finding new species -- 53 since 2000 -- but too often finding a new species simply means having a chance to watch it die away.

The sound of their laughter died away.


~라는 ~의 말을 인용하다.

quote as saying

to report or say (the exact words) of (someone) —usually used in the form be quoted as

ex) Students in rural districts, who are mainly Malay, suffered the most because their English proficiency was low, The Associated Press quoted Education Minister Muhyiddin Yassin as saying.

He quoted Mr Polay as saying that peace negotiations were already underway.


buckle under something

to collapse under or from the weight of something; to succumb to or be adversely affected by some pressure

ex) He says they decided to buckle under the pressure from the Malay nationalists who argue that by teaching students in English you are neglecting the position of the national language.

The bridge buckled under the weight of the truck and collapsed.

The table finally buckled under.

Some schools have buckled under the strain of having too many new students.

I had fought very hard against their ideas but finally buckled under to them.


model something after something | model something on something

to make something so that it looks, works, etc. like something else

ex) Some irresponsible toymakers model toy guns after the real thing.

The country's parliament is modelled on the British system.


the real thing

(informal) the genuine thing

ex) We have children's toy guns that look almost exactly like the real things used by soldiers.

Are you sure it's the real thing (= love), not just infatuation?


가장 큰 책임은 ~에게 있다.

So the prime responsibility lies in[with] the government to make sure toys are safe.

falls on
lies with


먹을 수 있는, 마실 수 있는


potable BrE /ˈpəʊtəbl/ ; NAmE /ˈpoʊtəbl/ (formal)


근거 없는



쇠 맛이 나다

have a metallic taste
taste/smell metallic
the rusty taste


하지만 불신이 무지에서 비롯된 것이라고 생각하지 않는다.

But I don't think the distrust comes from ignorance.


jitters noun
BrE /ˈdʒɪtəz/ ; NAmE /ˈdʒɪtərz/
(also the jitters)

feelings of being anxious and nervous, especially before an important event or before having to do something difficult

ex) The government says we just have some vague jitters about the water, but the reality is very different.

I always get the jitters before exams.

Louise had pre-wedding jitters.


유독 성분이 발견되었다는 소식이 계속 들려오는 마당에 누가 수돗물을 마시려고 하겠습니까?

Who would want to drink tap water when they constantly hear news about some toxins found in it?



휠체어를 타는 장애인

the disabled
the physically disabled
people with disabilities
disabled people


A group of wheelchair-bound people formed a play group and has been performing before the public.


한국에 사는 장애인들은 비장애인들이 당연시 여기는 것들을 누리지 못한다.

Disabled people in Korea are not allowed to enjoy what their healthier neighbors take for granted.


그래서 (장애인들이) 스스로 그런 문제를 해결하려고 나선 것 같다.

So they seem to have decided to take matters into their own hands.


이런 몇몇 사례들이 일반화 되어야 한다.

A society-wide campaign is needed to make sure the few instances become a trend.

~ the few instances become the norm.
~ the few instances don't become an exception.


outsize adjective
BrE /ˈaʊtsaɪz/ ; NAmE /ˈaʊtsaɪz/
(also outsized BrE /ˈaʊtsaɪzd/ ; NAmE /ˈaʊtsaɪzd/ )
[usually before noun]

1) larger than the usual size

ex) Although most of us like to think of ourselves as rational decision makers, ample research shows that emotions play an outsized role in negotiations.

an outsize desk


impassive adjective
BrE /ɪmˈpæsɪv/ ; NAmE /ɪmˈpæsɪv/

not showing any feeling or emotion

synonym emotionless

ex) To the average observer, they often appear neutral, impassive.

her impassive expression/face

The two men remained impassive throughout the trial.


flit verb
BrE /flɪt/ ; NAmE /flɪt/

1) [intransitive] to move lightly and quickly from one place or thing to another

ex) The secret is to pay attention to the spontaneous and involuntary microexpressions that rapidly flit across everyone's faces at times of intense emotion.

Butterflies flitted from flower to flower.

He flits from one job to another.

A smile flitted across his face.

A thought flitted through my mind.



* 서수

cardinal number (1, 2, 3...)

* ordinal number (1st, 2nd, 3rd...)


show (a lot of) promise

to seem likely to be successful in the future

ex) While some studies of alternative treatments show promise, there is little solid research to guide parents.

a young artist who shows (a lot of) promise


St John’s Wort noun
BrE /snt ˌdʒɒnz ˈwɜːt/ ; NAmE /seɪnt ˌdʒɑːnz ˈwɜːrt/ [uncountable, countable]

a herb with yellow flowers, used in medicines 고추나물, 성요한초

* wort = plant; especially : an herbaceous plant — usually used in combination as in lousewort (송이풀)

ex) Last week, The Journal of the American Medical Association reported that the first study of the herb St. John's wort worked no better than a placebo to counter ADHD.


cite verb
BrE /saɪt/ ; NAmE /saɪt/ (formal)

3) cite somebody (for something) (law) to order somebody to appear in court; to name somebody officially in a legal case

ex) More than 90 percent of nursing homes were cited for violations of U.S. health and safety standards last year, and for-profit homes were more likely to have problems than other types of nursing homes, federal investigators say in a report issued on Monday.

He was cited for contempt of court.

She was cited in the divorce proceedings.


bedsore noun
BrE /ˈbedsɔː(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈbedsɔːr/

a painful and sometimes infected place on a person’s skin, caused by lying in bed for a long time

ex) Problems included infected bedsores, medication mix-ups, poor nutrition and abuse and neglect of patients.


neglect VS negligence

Personally, I'd interpret neglect as "willful negligence". Meaning negligence can be unintended, but neglect is an active decision to ignore something. This is a somewhat subjective interpretation though.

For the most part, they are synonymous. However, especially in legal terms, there is a difference in definition.

When used in legal terms, according to Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of Law, neglect means ‘a disregard of duty resulting from carelessness, indifference, or willfulness; especially : a failure to provide a child under one’s care with proper food, clothing, shelter, supervision, medical care, or emotional stability.’

According to the same dictionary, negligence, when used in a legal sense means ‘failure to exercise the degree of care expected of a person of ordinary prudence in like circumstances in protecting others from a foreseeable and unreasonable risk of harm in a particular situation.’ it often refers to neglect of a building. So when it comes to legal terms, neglect is usually used in reference to people, and negligence is usually used in reference to things.


neglect noun
BrE /nɪˈɡlekt/ ; NAmE /nɪˈɡlekt/

[uncountable] neglect (of something/somebody) the fact of not giving enough care or attention to something/somebody; the state of not receiving enough care or attention

ex) The law imposes penalties for the neglect of children.

The buildings are crumbling from years of neglect.

The place smelled of decay and neglect.

* negligence noun
BrE /ˈneɡlɪdʒəns/ ; NAmE /ˈneɡlɪdʒəns/ [uncountable](law or formal)

the failure to give somebody/something enough care or attention

ex) The accident was caused by negligence on the part of the driver.

The doctor was sued for medical negligence.


punishable adjective
BrE /ˈpʌnɪʃəbl/ ; NAmE /ˈpʌnɪʃəbl/

punishable (by/with something) (of a crime) that can be punished, especially by law

ex) Treason is punishable by death.

Lying to the nation is punishable by impeachment.

a crime punishable by/with imprisonment

Giving false information to the police is a punishable offence.


rant noun
BrE /rænt/ ; NAmE /rænt/ rant (about/against/on something)(disapproving)

an act of speaking or complaining about something in a loud and/or angry way

ex) Officers often don't take online threats seriously -- dismissing them as "just talk" or silly "rants" -- because they lack training to understand the devastating impact of this speech.

He launched into a long rant about the unfairness of it all.


pick-up game

In sports, a pick-up game is a game that has been spontaneously started by a group of players. Players are generally invited to show up beforehand, but unlike exhibition games there is no sense of obligation or commitment to play. Pick-up games usually lack officials and referees, which makes them more disorganized and less structured than regular games but the total number of players in such games globally is likely to be greater than the number playing in formal competitions and leagues.

ex) Inventing games, building forts or just playing a pick-up game of soccer are all ways to not only increase their imagination, creativity and social skills, but also their critical thinking skills.


체불 임금

unpaid wages | overdue wages | wages arrears (BrE /əˈrɪəz/ ; NAmE /əˈrɪrz/) | late wages

I have wages yet to be paid.


회사에서 체불 당한 금액의 총액은 5천억원을 넘는다. 이것은 지난해보다 20% 증가한 금액이다.

And the amount their companies owe them is over 500 billion won. Now, that's up 20% from last year.


수그러들 기미가 안 보인다.

The recession shows no sing of abating (=letting up).

The angers shows no sing of abating.


정부는 근본적인 문제가 무엇인지 그 속을 들여다 봐야 한다.

I believe the government must get to the bottom of the problem.


올해는 놀랄 만큼 규모가 줄었다 (기부 물품의 양이).

We've got a lot less this year.



living under the poverty line
living at the bottom of the income bracket

But the pain is the most severe when you're living under the poverty line.


심지어 불황 때문에 서민들이 아주 힘들어 하고 있다.

Even worse, the recession is taking a toll on ordinary citizens.


매년 이맘 때 쯤이면 가난한 이웃에게 나누어 달라며 본회에 생필품과 의류가 들어오곤한다.

This time of year, people send us a lot of things so we could give them out to the needy.


공중파 방송

network TV
public TV (network)

They are even on public TV networks and on prime time.


내 생각에는, 내가 보기엔

From my perspective
As I see it
As I understand
It is my understanding that
As far as I'm concerned