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Flashcards in TO 9-1 Deck (151):
1

disperse verb
BrE /dɪˈspɜːs/ ; NAmE /dɪˈspɜːrs/

2) [transitive, intransitive] disperse (something) to spread or to make something spread over a wide area

synonym scatter

ex) Anyway, the American cities: lots of roads dispersed over large areas, almost no public transportation.

The seeds are dispersed by the wind.

2

운전비, 유지비, 운항비

running cost

ex) Now, one or two euros, that isn't really a lot of money, I mean compared to parking charges and running costs, etc., so you would probably expect that car drivers wouldn't really react to this fairly small charge.

3

time series

A time series is a series of data points listed (or graphed) in time order. Most commonly, a time series is a sequence taken at successive equally spaced points in time. 시계열

ex) But you see, there's an interesting gap here in the time series in 2007.

4

cordon noun
BrE /ˈkɔːdn/ ; NAmE /ˈkɔːrdn/

a line or ring of police officers, soldiers, etc. guarding something or stopping people from entering or leaving a place

ex) Which means that we are now in a position where we have reduced traffic across this toll cordon with 20 percent, and reduced congestion by enormous numbers, and people aren't even aware that they have changed, and they honestly believe that they have liked this all along.

Demonstrators broke through the police cordon.

5

slumber noun
BrE /ˈslʌmbə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈslʌmbər/

[uncountable, countable, usually plural] (literary) sleep; a time when somebody is asleep

ex) Chasing slumber

She fell into a deep and peaceful slumber.

The phone suddenly roused her from slumber.

I don’t want to wake him from his slumbers.

We could hear the breathing of someone in a deep slumber.

6

부두에 대려고 들어왔다.

At about 3:30 p.m., as the ferry Andrew J. Barberi came in for docking at the St. George terminal, it crashed into a concrete pier at full speed, killing 10 people and injuring 70 more.

7

incapacitate verb
BrE /ˌɪnkəˈpæsɪteɪt/ ; NAmE /ˌɪnkəˈpæsɪteɪt/

[usually passive] incapacitate somebody/something (formal) to make somebody/something unable to live or work normally

ex) The subsequent investigation by the NTSB found that the main cause of the accident was the "unexplained incapacitation" of the assistant captain -- exhausted, he'd passed out at the boat's controls.

He was incapacitated by old age and sickness.

mentally incapacitated people

8

AAA abbreviation
BrE /ˌeɪ eɪ ˈeɪ/ ; NAmE /ˌeɪ eɪ ˈeɪ/

1) NAmE especially /ˌtrɪpl ˈeɪ/ American Automobile Association (an American organization which provides services for car owners) 미국 자동차 서비스 협회

ex) In a recent AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety survey, over 40 percent of respondents reported having "fallen asleep or nodded off" while driving at least once.

9

졸음운전

drowsy driving; driving while drowsy

ex) Studies by the CDC, NTSB and other agencies estimate that drowsy driving may play a part in up to 6,000 fatal auto accidents annually.

10

갓길

shoulder noun
BrE /ˈʃəʊldə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈʃoʊldər/

6) [countable] (North American English) an area of ground at the side of a road where vehicles can stop in an emergency

ex) Those annoying "rumble strips" along the road's shoulder are there for good reason.

No shoulder for next 5 miles.

11

도로 위의 요철 처리 부분 (고속이나 추락을 방지하기 위해 도로 위나 옆의 표면을 거칠게 만들어 그 위로 자동차가 달리면 털털거리게 해 놓은 것)

rumble strip (informal)

a series of raised strips across a road or along its edge that make a loud noise when a vehicle drives over them in order to warn the driver to go slower or that he or she is too close to the edge of the road

cf) 과속방지턱: speed bump [hump]

ex) Those annoying "rumble strips" along the road's shoulder are there for good reason.

12

societal adjective
BrE /səˈsaɪətl/ ; NAmE /səˈsaɪətl/ [only before noun](specialist)

connected with society and the way it is organized
societal structure

ex) Unfortunately, societal exigencies such as overstuffed work schedules, family stress, and our constantly pinging smart phones conspire against our getting enough sleep.

Each of these stages is an element in a complex societal structure and cultural context.

Such a development seems unlikely within the context of current societal values.

13

exigency noun
BrE /ˈeksɪdʒənsi/ ; NAmE /ˈeksɪdʒənsi/ ; BrE /ɪɡˈzɪdʒənsi/ ; NAmE /ɪɡˈzɪdʒənsi/ [countable, usually plural, uncountable](pl. exigencies)(formal)

an urgent need or demand that you must deal with
synonym demand

ex) Unfortunately, societal exigencies such as overstuffed work schedules, family stress, and our constantly pinging smart phones conspire against our getting enough sleep.

the exigencies of war

financial exigencies

The political exigencies facing both leaders mean they must resume talks if violence is to be avoided.

14

ping verb
BrE /pɪŋ/ ; NAmE /pɪŋ/

1) [intransitive, transitive] ping (something) to make a short, high ringing sound; to make something produce this sound

ex) Unfortunately, societal exigencies such as overstuffed work schedules, family stress, and our constantly pinging smart phones conspire against our getting enough sleep.

He threw himself to the ground as bullets pinged off the metal behind him.

You have to ping the bell on the desk to get someone to come and attend to you.

15

all-important adjective

extremely important

ex) Fortunately, while studies increasingly underscore the problematic nature of our national sleep debt, a new science of sleep suggests critical steps we can take as individuals and a society to achieve that elusive, all-important shut-eye.

Posture is all-important when you are sitting at a desk.

Lack of parking space is affecting the town’s all-important tourist industry.

16

미터법

the metric system noun
[singular]

the system of measurement that uses the metre, the kilogram and the litre as basic units

ex) The U.S. is the only country in the world that's not using the metric system of measurement.

17

세계에서 미국만이 유일하게 아직도 미터법이 아닌 복잡한 단위들을 사용합니다. 다른 나라들은 모두 미터법을 도입해서 사용해 오고 있습니다.

ex) The U.S. is the only country in the world that's not using the metric system of measurement. Every other country has switched to it.

18

측정 단위

measurement unit

19

un-American adjective

against American values or interests 비미국적인, 반미국적인

ex) The metric system is un-American, they said.

20

adamant adjective
BrE /ˈædəmənt/ ; NAmE /ˈædəmənt/

determined not to change your mind or to be persuaded about something

ex) Then in 1975, the government officially decided to switched to the metric system, but the detractors were adamant.

Eva was adamant that she would not come.

The government remained adamant that there was no more money available.

21

아직도 변화를 받아들이지 못했다.

They still couldn't say yes to the change.

22

하지만 미국인들도 미국의 단위법이 국제 시대에 걸맞지 않는 걸 알고 있다. 때문에 2012년에 그에 관한 논쟁이 다시 불붙었고 지금까지도 계속되고 있다.

But they know theirs is incompatible in this global era. So the debate was reignited in 2012. And the debate still rages.

23

rage verb
BrE /reɪdʒ/ ; NAmE /reɪdʒ/

2) [intransitive] rage (on) (of a storm, a battle, an argument, etc.) to continue in a violent way

ex) But they know theirs is incompatible in this global era. So the debate was reignited in 2012. And the debate still rages.

The riots raged for three days.

The blizzard was still raging outside.

24

자살은 유전적 결함에서 비롯된다고 생각하는 경향이 사람들 사이에 점차 짙어지고 있다. 즉 자살이 하나의 질병이라는 것이다.

People increasingly believe that suicide comes from a genetic defect in people. That is, suicide is a medical condition.

25

돌연변이 (현상 / 개체)

mutation 현상

ex) In fact, scientists have found a genetic mutation in people with bipolar disorder.

mutant 개체

26

brave adjective
BrE /breɪv/ ; NAmE /breɪv/ (braver, bravest)

3) brave new (sometimes ironic) new in an impressive way

ex) a vision of a brave new Britain

* (a) brave new world

a situation or society that changes in a way that is meant to improve people’s lives but is often a source of extra problems

ex) the brave new world of technology

27

intervening adjective
BrE /ˌɪntəˈviːnɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˌɪntərˈviːnɪŋ/ [only before noun]

coming or existing between two events, dates, objects, etc.

ex) Next year will mark the 60th anniversary of the first satellite, Sputnik. The intervening decades have brought wonders.

Little had changed in the intervening years.

28

need modal verb
BrE /niːd/ ; NAmE /niːd/

(need not, needn’t BrE /ˈniːdnt/ ; NAmE /ˈniːdnt/ ) used to state that something is/was not necessary or that only very little is/was necessary; used to ask if something is/was necessary

ex) The satellites of America's Global Positioning System (GPS) have created a world in which no one need ever be lost again -- changing the human experience of place rather as a wristwatch changed the experience of time.

You needn't bother asking Rick—I know he's too busy.

I need hardly tell you (= you must already know) that the work is dangerous.

If she wants anything, she need only ask.

All you need bring are sheets.

You needn't have worried (= it was not necessary for you to worry, but you did)—it all turned out fine.

Need you have paid so much?

29

trundle verb
BrE /ˈtrʌndl/ ; NAmE /ˈtrʌndl/

터덜터덜~ (트런들트런들)

1) [intransitive, transitive] trundle (something) + adv./prep. to move or roll somewhere slowly and noisily; to move something slowly and noisily, especially something heavy, with wheels

ex) A train trundled across the bridge.

2) [intransitive] + adv./prep. (of a person) to walk slowly with heavy steps

ex) Robots have trundled across the plains of Mars and swooped through the rings of Saturn.

30

swoop verb
BrE /swuːp/ ; NAmE /swuːp/

수~~웁! (독수리가 먹이 낚아채러 슉) 급강하

1) [intransitive] (+ adv./prep.) (of a bird or plane) to fly quickly and suddenly downwards, especially in order to attack somebody/something

synonym dive

ex) Robots have trundled across the plains of Mars and swooped through the rings of Saturn.

The aircraft swooped down over the buildings.

A hawk swooped low over the field.

31

of late

(formal) recently

ex) Even so, space has of late become a bit dull.

I haven't seen him of late.

The situation has become more confusing of late.

32

bathos noun
BrE /ˈbeɪθɒs/ ; NAmE /ˈbeɪθɑːs/ [uncountable](formal)

(in writing or speech) a sudden change, that is not always intended, from a serious subject or feeling to something that is silly or not important 점강법 (진지하고 중요한 주제나 어조에서 갑자기 우스꽝스럽거나 평이한 내용이나 어조로 바뀌는 것. 반드시 의도적이지 않을 수도 있음)

ex) But there is an undeniable bathos to the fact that the biggest business in a realm once synonymous with human transcendence is providing viewers on Earth with umpty-seven channels of satellites TV.

a serious play with moments of comic bathos

33

umpty adjective
\ˈəm(p)tē, -ti\

such and such (often used in combination)

ex) But there is an undeniable bathos to the fact that the biggest business in a realm once synonymous with human transcendence is providing viewers on Earth with umpty-seven channels of satellites TV.

umpty percent of all new houses — Kansas City Star, Missouri

the umpty-fifth regiment

34

별자리, 성좌

constellation noun
BrE /ˌkɒnstəˈleɪʃn/ ; NAmE /ˌkɑːnstəˈleɪʃn/

1) a group of stars that forms a shape in the sky and has a name

ex) A generation of entrepreneurs forged in Silicon Valley -- and backed by some of its venture capitalists -- are launching highly capable new devices ranging in size from shoe boxes to fridges and flying them in constellations of dozens of hundreds.

The Little Bear constellation is still used by navigators at sea.

2) (formal) a group of related ideas, things or people

ex) A generation of entrepreneurs forged in Silicon Valley -- and backed by some of its venture capitalists -- are launching highly capable new devices ranging in size from shoe boxes to fridges and flying them in constellations of dozens of hundreds.

ex) a constellation of Hollywood talent

35

brass hat

noun (slang)
a person in a high position, especially a top-ranking army or navy officer.

ex) Today's entrepreneurs at companies like Planet, BlackSky and Spire are hoping to sell not just snapshots of places that brass hats want to peer at.

36

거기에다가 작고 똑똑한 몇 백 개, 아니 몇 천 개의 위성들을 쏘아 너무 가난하고 외진 곳에 있어서 아직까지 전화기 혁명의 혜택도 받고 있지 못하는 사람들을 연결해 줄 수 있을 가능성을 한 번 생각해 보세요. 아니면 "사물 인터넷"에 쓰이는 몇 조개의 장치들을 생각해 보세요. 그러면 이러한 새로운 우주 시대가 그 아래 세상에 어느 때보다도 많을 것을 가져다 줄 것입니다.

Add the potential of small, smart satellites in their hundreds or even thousands to connect the billions of people too poor and remote to have yet been reached by the phone revolution, or the trillions of devices in the "internet of things," and this new space age will bring more than ever to the world below.

37

서안 지구

* 가자 지구

The West Bank shares boundaries (demarcated by the Jordanian-Israeli armistice of 1949) to the west, north, and south with Israel, and to the east, across the Jordan River, with Jordan. The West Bank also contains a significant section of the western Dead Sea shore.

ex) Twelve years ago, I picked up a camera for the first time to film the olive harvest in a Palestinian village in the West Bank.

* Gaza Strip

The Gaza Strip (/ˈɡɑːzəˈstrɪp/;[4]Arabic: قطاع غزة‎‎ Qiṭāʿ Ġazzah [qɪˈtˤɑːʕ ˈɣazza]), or simply Gaza, is a small self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for 11 kilometers (6.8 mi) and Israel on the east and north along a 51 km (32 mi) border. Gaza, together with the West Bank, comprise the Palestinian territories claimed by the Palestinians as the State of Palestine. The territories of Gaza and the West Bank are separated from each other by Israeli territory. Both fall under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority, but Gaza has since June 2007 been governed by Hamas, a Palestinian Islamic organization which came to power in free elections in 2006. It has been placed under an Israeli and U.S.-led international economic and political boycott from that time onwards.

38

go up in flames/go up in smoke

1) Lit. to burn up completely.

ex) But every time we turn our attention to the news, it seems like one more country has gone up in flames.

The entire forest went up in flames!

The expensive house went up in smoke.

39

glean verb
BrE /ɡliːn/ ; NAmE /ɡliːn/

glean something (from somebody/something) to obtain information, knowledge, etc., sometimes with difficulty and often from various different places

ex) I wondered whether these variables held across cases, and if they did, what lessons we could glean for waging constructive conflict, in Palestine, Israel and elsewhere.

These figures have been gleaned from a number of studies.

40

square something with something | square with something

to make two ideas, facts or situations agree or combine well with each other; to agree or be consistent with another idea, fact or situation

ex) The research squared up with my own documentation of political organizing in Israel and Palestine.

The interests of farmers need to be squared with those of consumers.

How can you square this with your conscience?

Your theory does not square with the facts.

What she was being asked to do did not square with her political beliefs.

41

grove noun
BrE /ɡrəʊv/ ; NAmE /ɡroʊv/

2) a small area of land with fruit trees of particular types on it

ex) The proposed route would require the destruction of this community's olive groves, their cemeteries and would ultimately close the village from all sides.

an olive grove

42

상황은 그들한테 엄청나게 불리했습니다.

The odds were massively stacked up against them.

43

uproot verb
BrE /ˌʌpˈruːt/ ; NAmE /ˌʌpˈruːt/

1) [transitive] uproot something to pull a tree, plant, etc. out of the ground

ex) But they had a secret weapon: a 15-year-old girl who courageously jumped in front of a bulldozer which was about to uproot an olive tree, stopping it.

The storms uprooted a number of large trees.

44

acumen noun
BrE /ˈækjəmən/ ; NAmE /ˈækjəmən/ ; BrE /əˈkjuːmən/ ; NAmE /əˈkjuːmən/ [uncountable]

the ability to understand and decide things quickly and well

ex) And so it was that the women of Budrus went to the front lines day after day, using their creativity and acumen to overcome multiple obstacles they faced in a 10-month unarmed struggle.

business/commercial/financial acumen

He had demonstrated considerable business acumen.

She has great financial acumen.

45

indomitable adjective
BrE /ɪnˈdɒmɪtəbl/ ; NAmE /ɪnˈdɑːmɪtəbl/ (formal, approving)

not willing to accept defeat, even in a difficult situation; very brave and determined

ex) The separation barrier was changed completely to the internationally recognized green line, and the women of Budrus came to be known across the West Bank for their indomitable energy.

an indomitable spirit

an indomitable campaigner for human rights

46

surreptitiously adverb
BrE /ˌsʌrəpˈtɪʃəsli/ ; NAmE /ˌsɜːrəpˈtɪʃəsli/

in a quick or secret way so that other people do not notice

ex) Having had to navigate being in the less powerful position in multiple aspects of their lives, women are often more adept at how to surreptitiously pressure for change against large, powerful actors.

Martin glanced surreptitiously about him.

47

Intifada

Intifada (انتفاضة intifāḍah) is an Arabic word literally meaning, as a noun, "tremor", "shivering", "shuddering". It is derived from an Arabic term nafada meaning "to shake", "shake off", "get rid of", as a dog might shrug off water, or as one might shake off sleep, or dirt from one's sandals, and is a key concept in contemporary Arabic usage referring to a legitimate uprising against oppression. It is often rendered into English as "uprising", "resistance", or "rebellion".

In the Palestinian context, with which it is particularly associated, the word refers to attempts to "shake off" the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip in the First and Second Intifadas, where it was originally chosen to connote "aggressive nonviolent resistance", a meaning it bore among Palestinian students in struggles in the 1980s and which they adopted as less confrontational than terms in earlier militant rhetoric since it bore no nuance of violence. The most wide-scale events described as Intifada.

ex) In the late 1980s, an uprising started in Gaza, and quickly spread to the West Bank and East Jerusalem. It came to be known as the First Intifada, and people who have any visual memory of it generally conjure up something like this: Palestinian men throwing rocks at Israeli tanks.

48

파벌, 파당, 당파, 분파

faction noun
BrE /ˈfækʃn/ ; NAmE /ˈfækʃn/

1) [countable] a small group of people within a larger one whose members have some different aims and beliefs to those of the larger group

ex) During the First Intifada, whole sectors of the Palestinian civilian population mobilized, cutting across generations, factions and class lines.

rival factions within the administration

49

call the shots/tune

(informal) to be the person who controls a situation

ex) For 18 months in the Intifada, women were the ones calling the shots behind the scenes: Palestinian women from all walks of life in charge of mobilizing hundreds of thousands of people in a concerted effort to withdraw consent from the occupation.

50

give something↔up (to somebody)

to hand something over to somebody else

ex) The law also says, if someone's life is at stake, you are to give up that information.

We had to give our passports up to the authorities.

He gave up his seat to a pregnant woman (= stood up to allow her to sit down).

51

cash cow noun
BrE ; NAmE (business)

the part of a business that always makes a profit and that provides money for the rest of the business

ex) Medical hotels could serve as a great cash cow when we're having 12 million foreign visitors every year.

52

(공공 기관, 병원 등이) 영리의, 이익을 추구하는

A for-profit corporation is an organization which aims to earn profit through its operations and is concerned with its own interests and not those of the public (non-profit corporation). A for-profit corporation is usually an organization operating in the private sector which sets aims that eventually help the organization itself.

ex) Hospitals should not be for-profit businesses.

53

imperceptible adjective
BrE /ˌɪmpəˈseptəbl/ ; NAmE /ˌɪmpərˈseptəbl/ (formal)

very small and therefore unable to be seen or felt;

opposite perceptible

ex) It was often in the twilight hours, between the moment of lying down and the imperceptible instant of slipping off to sleep, that the terror would arise.

imperceptible changes in temperature

The differences were imperceptible to all but the most trained eye.

There was an almost imperceptible pause as she gathered her breath to speak.

The slight change in the taste was imperceptible to most people.

54

devoid adjective
BrE /dɪˈvɔɪd/ ; NAmE /dɪˈvɔɪd/

devoid of something completely lacking in something

ex) It was not simply that I would no longer be there. It was that reality itself would collapse, devoid of any point of apprehension.

The letter was devoid of warmth and feeling.

The land is almost devoid of vegetation.

55

petrified adjective
BrE /ˈpetrɪfaɪd/ ; NAmE /ˈpetrɪfaɪd/

1) extremely frightened, especially so that you cannot move or decide what to do

synonym terrified

ex) Petrified before a void so vast that it could not be contained within thought, let alone a thinking being, it was impossible to know how long it would take to drift off into the abyss that silently beckoned me.

a petrified expression

I'm petrified of snakes.

They were petrified with fear (= so frightened that they were unable to move or think).

She was petrified that the police would burst in at any moment.

2) [only before noun] petrified trees, insects, etc. have died and been changed into stone over a very long period of time

ex) a petrified forest

56

beckon verb
BrE /ˈbekən/ ; NAmE /ˈbekən/

1) [intransitive, transitive] to give somebody a signal using your finger or hand, especially to tell them to move nearer or to follow you

synonym signal

ex) Petrified before a void so vast that it could not be contained within thought, let alone a thinking being, it was impossible to know how long it would take to drift off into the abyss that silently beckoned me.

He beckoned to the waiter to bring the bill.

He beckoned her over with a wave.

The boss beckoned him into her office.

She beckoned him to come and join them.

57

stave something↔off (staved, staved)

to prevent something bad from affecting you for a period of time; to delay something

ex) Even to my young mind, they struck me as fantasies that had been elaborately constructed and forcefully imposed in order to stave off the horror.

to stave off hunger

The company managed to stave off bankruptcy for another few months.

58

vertiginous adjective
BrE /vɜːˈtɪdʒɪnəs/ ; NAmE /vɜːrˈtɪdʒɪnəs/ (formal)

causing a feeling of vertigo

synonym dizzying

* vertigo noun
BrE /ˈvɜːtɪɡəʊ/ ; NAmE /ˈvɜːrtɪɡoʊ/ [uncountable]

the feeling of dizziness and fear, and of losing your balance, that is caused in some people when they look down from a very high place

ex) As I grew older, the appeal of philosophy was that it opened vantage points to stare into the vertiginous face of death, and to ponder the meaning of living in an uncertain world precariously perched on the absolute certainty of death.

From the path there was a vertiginous drop to the valley below.

59

perch verb
BrE /pɜːtʃ/ ; NAmE /pɜːrtʃ/

1) [intransitive] perch (on something) (of a bird) to land and stay on a branch, etc.

ex) A robin was perching on the fence.\

2) [intransitive, transitive] (informal) to sit or to make somebody sit on something, especially on the edge of it

ex) As I grew older, the appeal of philosophy was that it opened vantage points to stare into the vertiginous face of death, and to ponder the meaning of living in an uncertain world precariously perched on the absolute certainty of death.

We perched on a couple of high stools at the bar.

She perched herself on the edge of the bed.

My father used to perch me on the front of his bike.

60

chisel verb
BrE /ˈtʃɪzl/ ; NAmE /ˈtʃɪzl/

present simple I / you / we / they chisel BrE /ˈtʃɪzl/ ; NAmE /ˈtʃɪzl/
he / she / it chisels BrE /ˈtʃɪzlz/ ; NAmE /ˈtʃɪzlz/
past simple chiselled BrE /ˈtʃɪzld/ ; NAmE /ˈtʃɪzld/
past participle chiselled BrE /ˈtʃɪzld/ ; NAmE /ˈtʃɪzld/
(especially US English) past simple chiseled BrE /ˈtʃɪzld/ ; NAmE /ˈtʃɪzld/
(especially US English) past participle chiseled BrE /ˈtʃɪzld/ ; NAmE /ˈtʃɪzld/
-ing form chiselling BrE /ˈtʃɪzlɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˈtʃɪzlɪŋ/
(especially US English) -ing form chiseling BrE /ˈtʃɪzlɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˈtʃɪzlɪŋ/

1) [transitive, intransitive] chisel (something) (+ adv./prep.) to cut or shape wood or stone with a chisel (끌)

ex) Growing up on a farm brought with it, moreover, the omnipresence of death, from raccoon and coyote attacks to trips to the slaughterhouse, or winter diseases that had my brother and me chiseling shallow graves for animals into frozen earth as young children.

A name was chiselled into the stone.

She was chiselling some marble.

a temple chiselled out of solid rock

61

imbue verb
BrE /ɪmˈbjuː/ ; NAmE /ɪmˈbjuː/

present simple I / you / we / they imbue BrE /ɪmˈbjuː/ ; NAmE /ɪmˈbjuː/
he / she / it imbues BrE /ɪmˈbjuːz/ ; NAmE /ɪmˈbjuːz/
past simple imbued BrE /ɪmˈbjuːd/ ; NAmE /ɪmˈbjuːd/
past participle imbued BrE /ɪmˈbjuːd/ ; NAmE /ɪmˈbjuːd/
-ing form imbuing BrE /ɪmˈbjuːɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ɪmˈbjuːɪŋ/

[often passive] imbue somebody/something (with something) (formal) to fill somebody/something with strong feelings, opinions or values

synonym infuse

ex) Life was imbued with death.

Her voice was imbued with an unusual seriousness.

He was imbued with a desire for social justice.

62

be/fall prey to something(formal)

2) (of a person) to be harmed or affected by something bad

ex) Today, my eldest child, at the age of 6, has fallen prey to these same fears.

Since the attack, she had fallen prey to irrational fears.

63

lodge verb
BrE /lɒdʒ/ ; NAmE /lɑːdʒ/

4) [intransitive, transitive] to become fixed or stuck somewhere; to make something become fixed or stuck somewhere

ex) With two fingers lodged in his mouth, he pulls down on his lower jaw as if he were trying to hold onto some self-supporting ledge of meaning.

One of the bullets lodged in his chest.

She lodged the number firmly in her mind.

64

ledge noun
BrE /ledʒ/ ; NAmE /ledʒ/

1) a narrow flat piece of rock that sticks out from a cliff

ex) With two fingers lodged in his mouth, he pulls down on his lower jaw as if he were trying to hold onto some self-supporting ledge of meaning.

seabirds nesting on rocky ledges

65

potion noun
BrE /ˈpəʊʃn/ ; NAmE /ˈpoʊʃn/ (literary)

a drink of medicine or poison; a liquid with magic powers

ex) He wants to know when the scientists will develop a potion that will allow us to live forever.

a magic/love potion

(humorous) I've tried all sorts of drugs, creams, pills and potions.

66

interject verb
BrE /ˌɪntəˈdʒekt/ ; NAmE /ˌɪntərˈdʒekt/

[transitive, intransitive] + speech | interject (something) (formal) to interrupt what somebody is saying with your opinion or a remark

ex) Then he interjects that even his awkward sums might not add up because there could be an accident causing him to die before me.

‘You're wrong,’ interjected Susan.

67

recede verb
BrE /rɪˈsiːd/ ; NAmE /rɪˈsiːd/

2) [intransitive] (especially of a problem, feeling or quality) to become gradually weaker or smaller

ex) He returns me to those terrors, which have surprisingly receded with the years.

The prospect of bankruptcy has now receded (= it is less likely).

The pain was receding slightly.

68

immanent adjective
BrE /ˈɪmənənt/ ; NAmE /ˈɪmənənt/ (formal)

present as a natural part of something; present everywhere

ex) In looking back from this immanent afterlife on my earlier terrors, and how they have been slowly buried over time, I see now that they were overly fixated on my own biological death.

God is immanent in the world.

69

fixated adjective
BrE /fɪkˈseɪtɪd/ ; NAmE /fɪkˈseɪtɪd/

[not before noun] fixated (on somebody/something) always thinking and talking about somebody/something in a way that is not normal

ex) In looking back from this immanent afterlife on my earlier terrors, and how they have been slowly buried over time, I see now that they were overly fixated on my own biological death.

He is fixated on things that remind him of his childhood.

70

instantaneous adjective
BrE /ˌɪnstənˈteɪniəs/ ; NAmE /ˌɪnstənˈteɪniəs/

happening immediately

ex) Since I recognized eternal transcendence as nothing more than a comforting illusion, the only thing left was my finite life in the here and now, which was destined to disappear forever in an instantaneous blackout.

an instantaneous response

Death was almost instantaneous.

71

stratum noun
BrE /ˈstrɑːtəm/ ; NAmE /ˈstreɪtəm/ (pl. strata BrE /ˈstrɑːtə/ ; NAmE /ˈstreɪtə/ )

2) (formal) a class in a society

ex) The biological stratum, which I naively took to mean life in general, is in certain ways a long process of demise -- we are all dying all the time, just at different rhythms.

people from all social strata

72

demise noun
BrE /dɪˈmaɪz/ ; NAmE /dɪˈmaɪz/ [singular]

1) the end or failure of an institution, an idea, a company, etc.

2) (formal or humorous) death

ex) The biological stratum, which I naively took to mean life in general, is in certain ways a long process of demise -- we are all dying all the time, just at different rhythms.

his imminent/sudden/sad demise

73

artefact noun
(also artifact especially in North American English)
BrE /ˈɑːtɪfækt/ ; NAmE /ˈɑːrtɪfækt/ (specialist)

an object that is made by a person, especially something of historical or cultural interest

ex) The artifacts that we have produced also persevere, which can range from our physical imprint on the world to objects we have made or writings like this one.

74

wake noun
BrE /weɪk/ ; NAmE /weɪk/

1) an occasion before or after a funeral when people gather to remember the dead person, traditionally held the night before the funeral to watch over the body before it is buried (초상집에서의) 경야

2) the track that a boat or ship leaves behind on the surface of the water 항적

ex) In living, we trace a wake in the world.

75

intertwine verb
BrE /ˌɪntəˈtwaɪn/ ; NAmE /ˌɪntərˈtwaɪn/ [usually passive]

2) [transitive, usually passive, intransitive] intertwine (something) to be or become very closely connected with something/somebody else

ex) They intertwine and merge with the broader world out of which we are woven.

Their political careers had become closely intertwined.

76

finitude noun
[fáinətjù:d,fín-] [fáinitjù:d]

(very formal) a limited state or quality 유한성

ex) Authentic existence is perhaps less about boldly confronting the inevitable reality of our own finitude than about recognizing and cultivating the multiple dimensions of our lives.

77

vestige noun
BrE /ˈvestɪdʒ/ ; NAmE /ˈvestɪdʒ/ (formal)

1) a small part of something that still exists after the rest of it has stopped existing

synonym trace

ex) They carry on in the physical world, in the material and cultural vestiges we leave, as well as in the psychological and social effects we have on those around us.

the last vestiges of the old colonial regime

78

orator noun
BrE /ˈɒrətə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈɔːrətər/ , /ˈɑːrətər/ (formal)

a person who makes formal speeches in public or is good at public speaking

ex) He wasn't the only man who suffered in pre-civil rights America, and he certainly wasn't the only great orator of the day.

a fine political orator

79

USP noun
BrE /ˌjuː es ˈpiː/ ; NAmE /ˌjuː es ˈpiː/ (business)

the abbreviation for ‘unique selling proposition’ or ‘unique selling point’ (a feature of a product or service that makes it different from all the others that are available and is a reason for people to choose it)

ex) Some know how they do it, whether you call it your differentiated value proposition or your proprietary process or your USP.

You need to come up with a USP.

Your USP has to tell people why they should do business with you.

Their USP was that they guaranteed delivery in 30 minutes or less.

80

DVR noun
BrE /ˌdiː viː ˈɑː(r)/ ; NAmE /ˌdiː viː ˈɑːr/

a device that records video onto a hard disk or other memory device, using digital technology (the abbreviation for ‘digital video recorder’)

synonym PVR the abbreviation for ‘personal video recorder’ (a device that records video onto a hard disk or other memory device, using digital technology)

ex) But we're also perfectly comfortable buying an MP3 player from Apple, or a phone from Apple, or a DVR from Apple.

81

(두뇌의) 신피질 [새겉질]

neocortex noun
BrE /ˌniːəʊˈkɔːteks/ ; NAmE /ˌniːoʊˈkɔːrteks/ (anatomy)

part of the brain that controls sight and hearing

ex) The neocortex is responsible for all of our rational and analytical thought and language.

82

대뇌 변연계

limbic system noun
BrE /ˈlɪmbɪk sɪstəm/ ; NAmE /ˈlɪmbɪk sɪstəm/ (biology)

a system of nerves in the brain involving several different areas, concerned with basic emotions such as fear and anger and basic needs such as the need to eat and to have sex

ex) The middle two sections make up our limbic brains, and our limbic brains are responsible for all of our feelings like trust and loyalty.

83

early majority

The early majority is a group of people who purchase or try new products -- typically technology -- after a much smaller population of innovators and early adopters have done so.

ex) So it's this here, this little gap that you have to close, as Jeffrey Moore calls it, "Crossing the Chasm" -- because, you see, the early majority will not try something until someone else has tried it first.

84

laggard noun
BrE /ˈlæɡəd/ ; NAmE /ˈlæɡərd/ (old-fashioned)

a slow and lazy person, organization, etc.

ex) The next 34% are your early majority, your late majority and your laggards.

85

rotary dial

a disk with finger holes that is affixed to a telephone and rotated to match up the finger holes with the letters and digits of a telephone number.

ex) The only reason these people buy touch-tone phones is because you can't buy rotary phones anymore.

86

chasm noun
BrE /ˈkæzəm/ ; NAmE /ˈkæzəm/

1) [countable] (literary) a deep crack or opening in the ground

2) [singular] chasm (between A and B) (formal) a very big difference between two people or groups, for example because they have different attitudes

synonym gulf

ex) So it's this here, this little gap that you have to close, as Jeffrey Moore calls it, "Crossing the Chasm" -- because, you see, the early majority will not try something until someone else has tried it first.

the yawning chasm of the generation gap

87

substandard adjective
BrE /ˌsʌbˈstændəd/ ; NAmE /ˌsʌbˈstændərd/

not as good as normal; not acceptable

synonym inferior

ex) These are the people who spent 40,000 dollars on flat-screen TVs when they first came out, even though the technology was substandard.

substandard goods

88

양형 정책

sentencing policy

ex) This is partly the result of saner sentencing policies for nonviolent drug offenders, who are more likely to be given probation and drug treatment than in the past.

89

revisit verb
BrE /ˌriːˈvɪzɪt/ ; NAmE /ˌriːˈvɪzɪt/

2) revisit something to return to an idea or a subject and discuss it again

ex) The zealous pursuit of these sentences began in the 1970s, becoming something of a fad; it is past time to revisit the practice.

It's an idea that may be worth revisiting at a later date.

90

lifer noun
BrE /ˈlaɪfə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈlaɪfər/ (informal)

a person who has been sent to prison for their whole life

ex) Many of these lifers were convicted of nonviolent crimes or of crimes that occurred before they turned 18.

There are many more lifers in jail than there used to be.

91

(사형에 처할 만한) 중죄

capital crime [offense]

A crime, such as murder or betrayal of one's country, that is treated so seriously that death may be considered an appropriate punishment.

ex) Harsher sentences once reserved for people convicted of capital crimes were expanded to include robbery, assault and nonviolent drug offenses.

92

관용, 관대한 처분

clemency noun
BrE /ˈklemənsi/ ; NAmE /ˈklemənsi/ [uncountable](formal)

kindness shown to somebody when they are being punished; willingness not to punish somebody so severely

synonym mercy

ex) States restricted the use of parole and governors who feared being portrayed as soft on crime began to deny virtually all clemency requests.

a plea for clemency

He was executed by firing squad despite widespread pleas for clemency.

His lawyers appealed for clemency on the grounds of ill health.

93

노인병학

* 노인학

geriatric noun
BrE /ˌdʒeriˈætrɪk/ ; NAmE /ˌdʒeriˈætrɪk/

1) geriatrics [uncountable] the branch of medicine concerned with the diseases and care of old people

ex) But these long sentences are turning prisons into geriatric centers where the cost of care is prohibitively high.

2) [countable] (informal, offensive) an old person, especially one with poor physical or mental health

ex) I'm not a geriatric yet, you know!

* gerontology noun
BrE /ˌdʒerɒnˈtɒlədʒi/ ; NAmE /ˌdʒerənˈtɑːlədʒi/ [uncountable]

the scientific study of old age and the process of growing old

94

(대통령, 주지사에 의한) 사면(권)

executive clemency

the power (usually of a president or governor) to pardon or commute the sentence of someone convicted in that jurisdiction

ex) States need to encourage more rational sentencing, restore the use of executive clemency and bring parole back in the corrections process.

95

pole position noun
BrE ; NAmE [uncountable, countable]

the leading position at the start of a race involving cars or bicycles

ex) In the short term Uber is in pole position to lead the revolution because of its dominance of chauffeured ride-hailing, a part of the transport market that will see some of the fastest growth.

96

haulage noun
BrE /ˈhɔːlɪdʒ/ ; NAmE /ˈhɔːlɪdʒ/ [uncountable](British English)

the business of transporting goods by road or railway; money charged for this

ex) It is also branching out into new areas, such as food delivery and long-distance cargo haulage using autonomous trucks.

the road haulage industry

a haulage firm/contractor

How much is haulage?

97

pile verb
BrE /paɪl/ ; NAmE /paɪl/

3) [intransitive] + adv./prep. (informal) (of a number of people) to go somewhere quickly without order or control

ex) As more firms pile into ride-sharing, and autonomous vehicles become part of the mix, the business may prove to be less lucrative than expected.

The coach finally arrived and we all piled on.

Children were piling out of the school bus.

98

the lion’s share (of something)

the largest or best part of something when it is divided

ex) By matching riders with drivers, Uber can offer transport services without owning a single vehicle, and keep the lion's share of the profits.

99

fleet noun
BrE /fliːt/ ; NAmE /fliːt/

4) [countable] fleet (of something) a group of planes, buses, taxis, etc. travelling together or owned by the same organization

ex) In a self-driving world, Uber might also have to own and operate its own fleet, undermining its "asset-light" model.

the company’s new fleet of vans

100

singularly adverb
BrE /ˈsɪŋɡjələli/ ; NAmE /ˈsɪŋɡjələrli/ (formal)

very; in an unusual way

ex) Unlike Apple or Google, it is singularly focused on transport; unlike incumbent carmakers, it does not have a legacy car-manufacturing business to protect.

singularly beautiful

He chose a singularly inappropriate moment to make his request.

101

war chest noun

an amount of money that a government or an organization has available to spend on a particular plan, project, etc.

ex) Its recent rapprochement with Didi, its main rival in China, has removed a major distraction, allowing it to devote its $9 billion war chest to developing new technology.

102

buttress verb
BrE /ˈbʌtrəs/ ; NAmE /ˈbʌtrəs/

buttress somebody/something (formal) to support or give strength to somebody/something

ex) Today's students are amazing, but they bathe one another in oceans of affirmation and praise, as if buttressing one another against some insecurity.

The sharp increase in crime seems to buttress the argument for more police officers on the street.

The galleries were well buttressed by huge timbers.

103

emanate from something
BrE /ˈeməneɪt/ ; NAmE /ˈeməneɪt/

to come from something or somewhere

synonym issue from

ex) Whatever one thinks of the campus protests, the desire for trigger warnings and safe spaces does seem to emanate from a place of emotional fragility.

The sound of loud music emanated from the building.

The proposal originally emanated from the UN.

104

난초

orchid noun
BrE /ˈɔːkɪd/ ; NAmE /ˈɔːrkɪd/

a plant with brightly coloured flowers of unusual shapes. There are many different types of orchid and some of them are very rare.

ex) And if you hang around the middle aged, you hear a common story line to explain the rise of the orchid generation.

105

gruelling adjective(especially British English)
(usually North American English grueling)
BrE /ˈɡruːəlɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˈɡruːəlɪŋ/

very difficult and tiring, needing great effort for a long time

synonym punishing

ex) Then they went off to do grueling work in the factory or they learned toughness and grit in the military.

a gruelling journey/schedule

I've had a gruelling day.

106

wall something↔off

[usually passive] to separate one place or area from another with a wall

ex) There was a greater tendency in years gone by to wall off emotions, to put on a thick skin -- for some men to be stone-like and uncommunicative and for some women to be brittle, brassy and untouchable.

107

brassy adjective
BrE /ˈbrɑːsi/ ; NAmE /ˈbræsi/

2) (informal, disapproving) (of a woman) dressing in a way that makes her sexual attraction obvious, but without style

ex) There was a greater tendency in years gone by to wall off emotions, to put on a thick skin -- for some men to be stone-like and uncommunicative and for some women to be brittle, brassy and untouchable.

the brassy blonde behind the bar

108

steadfast adjective
BrE /ˈstedfɑːst/ ; NAmE /ˈstedfæst/ (literary, approving)

not changing in your attitudes or aims

synonym firm

ex) Mother Teresa may not have been intrinsically steadfast, but she was steadfast in the name of God.

steadfast loyalty

He remained steadfast in his determination to bring the killers to justice.

109

telos

A telos (from the Greek τέλος for "end", "purpose", or "goal") is an end or purpose, in a fairly constrained sense used by philosophers such as Aristotle. It is the root of the term "teleology," roughly the study of purposiveness, or the study of objects with a view to their aims, purposes, or intentions.

the end term of a goal-directed process; especially, the Aristotelian final cause. 목적인

ex) People are much stronger than they think they are when in pursuit of their telos, their purpose for living.

110

corrosive adjective
BrE /kəˈrəʊsɪv/ ; NAmE /kəˈroʊsɪv/

2) (formal) tending to damage something gradually

ex) It's caused by the ethos of the modern university, which in the name of "critical thinking" encourages students to be detached and corrosively skeptical.

Unemployment is having a corrosive effect on our economy.

111

with gay abandon

without thinking about the results or effects of a particular action

ex) We are all fragile when we don't know what our purpose is, when we haven't thrown ourselves with abandon into a social role, when we haven't committed ourselves to certain people, when we feel like a swimmer in an ocean with no edge.

112

tough cookie

(informal) someone who is strong enough to deal with difficult or violent situations

ex) We live in an age when it's considered sophisticated to be disenchanted. But people who are enchanted are the real tough cookies.

113

aghast adjective
BrE /əˈɡɑːst/ ; NAmE /əˈɡæst/ [not before noun]

filled with horror and surprise when you see or hear something

synonym horrified

ex) In the 1920s, people were aghast at the phenomenon of young people living alone in rooming houses and apartments.

Erica looked at him aghast.

He stood aghast at the sight of so much blood.

114

room verb
BrE /ruːm/ ; NAmE /ruːm/ ; BrE /rʊm/ ; NAmE /rʊm/

[intransitive] room (with somebody) | room (together) (North American English) to rent a room somewhere; to share a rented room or flat/apartment with somebody

ex) In the 1920s, people were aghast at the phenomenon of young people living alone in rooming houses and apartments.

She and Nancy roomed together at college.

115

vice noun
BrE /vaɪs/ ; NAmE /vaɪs/

2) [uncountable, countable] evil or immoral behaviour; an evil or immoral quality in somebody’s character

ex) Removal from family supervision was an invitation to vice and moral chaos.

The film ended most satisfactorily: vice punished and virtue rewarded.

Greed is a terrible vice.

(humorous) Cigarettes are my only vice.

116

correlate noun
BrE /ˈkɒrələt/ ; NAmE /ˈkɔːrələt/ , /ˈkɑːrələt/ (formal)

one of two or more facts, figures, etc. that are closely connected and affect or depend on each other

ex) Senetor Daniel Patrick Moynihan issued a report identifying single parenthood as a major correlate of serious crimes.

Drug use is a significant correlate of property crime.

117

cushion verb
BrE /ˈkʊʃn/ ; NAmE /ˈkʊʃn/

2) cushion somebody/something (against/from something) to protect somebody/something from being hurt or damaged or from the unpleasant effects of something

ex) In that natural experiment, single mothers were cushioned from poverty by generous child support provisions of the welfare state.

The south of the country has been cushioned from the worst effects of the recession.

He broke the news of my brother's death to me, making no effort to cushion the blow (= make the news less shocking).

Homeowners will be cushioned from any tax rises.

118

passé adjective
BrE /ˈpæseɪ/ , /ˈpɑːseɪ/ ; NAmE /pæˈseɪ/ [not usually before noun](from French, disapproving)

no longer fashionable

synonym outmoded

ex) Given that children do not need their parents to marry and that women are no longer dependents of their husbands, there is a growing impression that marriage is passé.

Her ideas on food are distinctly passé.

119

crystallize verb
(British English also -ise)
BrE /ˈkrɪstəlaɪz/ ; NAmE /ˈkrɪstəlaɪz/

1) [intransitive, transitive] (of thoughts, plans, beliefs, etc.) to become clear and fixed; to make thoughts, beliefs, etc. clear and fixed

ex) This impression crystallizes in rising single parenthood ratios.

Our ideas began to crystallize into a definite plan.

The final chapter crystallizes all the main issues.

120

anaemic adjective(British English)
(North American English anemic)
BrE /əˈniːmɪk/ ; NAmE /əˈniːmɪk/

2) weak and not having much effect

synonym feeble

ex) If marriage no longer serves the functions that it fulfilled in the past, should we care that it has become so anemic?

an anaemic performance

121

proverbial adjective
BrE /prəˈvɜːbiəl/ ; NAmE /prəˈvɜːrbiəl/

1) [only before noun] used to show that you are referring to a particular proverb or well-known phrase

ex) Children of such marriages are born with the proverbial silver spoon in their mouth.

Let's not count our proverbial chickens.

He drinks like the proverbial fish.

122

death duty noun
[usually plural](old-fashioned, British English)

inheritance tax noun
BrE ; NAmE
(North American English also estate tax)
[uncountable]

tax that you must pay on the money or property that you receive from somebody when they die

ex) That role for marriage is more relevant in highly unequal societies with a lot of inherited wealth than in more egalitarian countries where death duties discourage hoarding of wealth.

123

두 사람이 결혼을 하느냐 마느냐가 그들의 자식이 받을 복지 수준에 차이를 만들지는 않습니다. 결국 자식들은 그들 부모의 혼인 여부와는 관계 없이 생활에 필요한 것들을 보장 받게 되기 때문입니다.

Whether a couple marries or not makes little difference for the welfare of their children who are, after all, guaranteed the necessities for living independent of the marital status of their parents.

124

comprise verb
BrE /kəmˈpraɪz/ ; NAmE /kəmˈpraɪz/ (not used in the progressive tenses)(formal)

1) (also be comprised of) comprise something to have somebody/something as parts or members

synonym consist of

ex) However, the study did show that children living in urban areas reported significantly higher levels of screen time, with screen time comprised of television, DVDs, the internet or computer games.

The collection comprises 327 paintings.

The committee is comprised of representatives from both the public and private sectors.

125

row2 noun
BrE /raʊ/ ; NAmE /raʊ/ (informal, especially British English)

1) [countable] row (about/over something) a serious disagreement between people, organizations, etc. about something

ex) A row over Mylan's EpiPen allergy medicine raises fresh questions about how drugs are priced.

A row has broken out over education.

126

ire noun
BrE /ˈaɪə(r)/ ; NAmE /ˈaɪər/ [uncountable](formal or literary)

anger

synonym wrath

ex) Over the past week their ire engulfed Mylan, a generic-drug firm, which had raised the price of its EpiPen, an injectable medicine that fends off deadly allergic reactions, to $608, from about $100 in 2007.

to arouse/raise/provoke the ire of local residents

(US English) to draw the ire of local residents

The plans provoked the ire of the conservationists.

127

brawl noun
BrE /brɔːl/ ; NAmE /brɔːl/

a noisy and violent fight involving a group of people, usually in a public place

ex) The brawl is far from over.

a drunken brawl

Police officers were injured in a mass brawl outside a nightclub.

128

여러 가지 항암제의 평균 출시 가격이, 물가 상승과 건강상의 이익 등을 고려하더라도, 1995년에서 2013년 사이에 매년 10%씩 올랐습니다.

The average launch price of a range of cancer drugs, adjusted for inflation and health benefits, grew by 10% each year between 1995 and 2013, according to a recent paper from the Journal of Economic Perspectives.

129

about adverb
BrE /əˈbaʊt/ ; NAmE /əˈbaʊt/

6) (especially British English) able to be found in a place

ex) Since there is now little general inflation about, he says, "it's price gouging."

There was nobody about.

There's a lot of flu about.

She’s somewhere about—I saw her a few minutes ago.

130

그거 바가지야.

It's price gouging.

131

간염

hepatitis noun
BrE /ˌhepəˈtaɪtɪs/ ; NAmE /ˌhepəˈtaɪtɪs/ [uncountable]

a serious disease of the liver. There are three main forms: hepatitis A (the least serious, caused by infected food), hepatitis B and hepatitis C (both very serious and caused by infected blood).

ex) Some new medicines are impressive, such as Gilead's $84,000 cure for Hepatitis C, Sovaldi, but others are not.

Have you had your hepatitis B vaccination?

132

brand verb
BrE /brænd/ ; NAmE /brænd/ [often passive]

1) to describe somebody/something as being something bad or unpleasant, especially unfairly

ex) Many in the industry branded its boss, Martin Shkreli, and evil anomaly.

They were branded as liars and cheats.

The newspapers branded her a hypocrite.

133

소들이 풀을 뜯어 먹는다.

I also used to think that all of our food came from these happy, little farms where pigs rolled in mud and cows grazed on grass all day.

* graze verb
BrE /ɡreɪz/ ; NAmE /ɡreɪz/

1) [intransitive, transitive] (of cows, sheep, etc.) to eat grass that is growing in a field

ex) There were cows grazing beside the river.

The horses were grazing on the lush grass.

The field had been grazed by sheep.

134

irradiate verb
BrE /ɪˈreɪdieɪt/ ; NAmE /ɪˈreɪdieɪt/

1) irradiate something (specialist) to treat food with gamma radiation in order to preserve it (전문 용어) (식품을 저장하기 위해) 방사능 처리를 하다[방사선을 쬐다]

ex) Then they irradiate our food, trying to make it last longer, so it can travel thousands of miles from where it's grown to the supermarkets.

2) irradiate something (with something) (literary) to make something look brighter and happier

ex) faces irradiated with joy

135

sparkling adjective
BrE /ˈspɑːklɪŋ/ ; NAmE /ˈspɑːrklɪŋ/

less frequent, informal sparkly BrE /ˈspɑːkli/ ; NAmE /ˈspɑːrkli/ )

1) (less frequent, informal sparkly BrE /ˈspɑːkli/ ; NAmE /ˈspɑːrkli/ ) shining and flashing with light

ex) My little cousin told his dad that he would rather have the organic Toasted O's cereal because Birke said he shouldn't eat sparkly cereal.

the calm and sparkling waters of the lake
sparkling blue eyes

136

거의 모든 정신 질환을 둘러싼 엄청난 편견이 존재하고 있고, 우울증도 예외는 아닙니다.

Incredible stigma exists around almost all mental health conditions, and depression is no different.

137

tout verb
BrE /taʊt/ ; NAmE /taʊt/

1) [transitive] tout somebody/something (as something) to try to persuade people that somebody/something is important or valuable by praising them/it

ex) Over centuries a diverse group of thinkers from economists to scientists have all touted theories that would blame the individual for the depression and difficulties they're experiencing and leave it at that.

She's being touted as the next leader of the party.

Their much-touted expansion plans have come to nothing.

138

leave it at that

(informal) to say or do nothing more about something

ex) Over centuries a diverse group of thinkers from economists to scientists have all touted theories that would blame the individual for the depression and difficulties they're experiencing and leave it at that.

We'll never agree, so let's just leave it at that.

139

뇌척수액

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [cerebral spinal fluid] is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spine. It is produced in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain. It acts as a cushion or buffer for the brain's cortex, providing basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull.

cerebral adjective
BrE /ˈserəbrəl/ ; NAmE /səˈriːbrəl/

ex) Researchers found that by isolating specific metabolic deficiencies determined through an analysis of a patient's cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), specific metabolic and neurotransmitter deficiencies can be identified and implemented with almost miraculously positive results.

140

remission noun
BrE /rɪˈmɪʃn/ ; NAmE /rɪˈmɪʃn/ [uncountable, countable]

1) a period during which a serious illness improves for a time and the patient seems to get better

ex) In the case of one patient whose depression was so severe that no previous medical or therapeutic intervention was effective, an analysis and subsequent treatment based off specific neurological deficiencies found in his CSF led to a complete remission of his depression.

The patient has been in remission for the past six months.

The symptoms reappeared after only a short remission.

a period of remission

141

dead weight noun
BrE /ˌded ˈweɪt/ ; NAmE /ˌded ˈweɪt/ [usually singular]

1) a thing that is very heavy and difficult to lift or move

ex) Free from the deadweight of hopelessness and feelings of worthlessness and inadequacy, the man in the study enrolled in college and ultimately graduated with honors.

The sleeping child was a dead weight in her arms.

142

trial and error

the process of solving a problem by trying various methods until you find a method that is successful
Children learn to use computer programs by trial and error. 시행착오법

ex) While some people with the mos severe and chronic forms of depression will find relief in new treatment options like CSF analysis, traditional talk therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and even the trial-and-error method of identifying helpful medications all have been found to decrease depression symptoms and improve the patient's overall well-being on a case-by-case basis.

143

음주운전

drunk driving
drinking and driving
driving under the influence (of alcohol) (DUI)
driving while intoxicated (DWI)

ex) But the developers maintain that the app will rather discourage people from driving under the influence.

144

소비자가 알아서 조심해라! (매수자 위험 부담 원칙)

Buyer beware.
Caveat emptor.

caveat emptor noun
BrE /ˌkæviæt ˈemptɔː(r)/ ; NAmE /ˌkæviæt ˈemptɔːr/ (from Latin)

the principle that a person who buys something is responsible for finding any faults in the thing they buy

ex) The sale is subject to the caveat emptor principle.

145

pootle verb
BrE /ˈpuːtl/ ; NAmE /ˈpuːtl/

[intransitive] + adv./prep. (British English, informal) to move or travel without any hurry

ex) In a research park in Culham, a sleepy village south of Oxford, a driverless car pootles around a short track.

She pootled along in her old car.

146

Whitehall noun
BrE /ˈwaɪthɔːl/ ; NAmE /ˈwaɪthɔːl/

1) [uncountable] a street in London where there are many government offices

ex) The changes will affect a number of Whitehall departments.

2) [singular + singular or plural verb] a way of referring to the British Government

ex) It is the sort of ambition Whitehall policymakers applaud.

Whitehall are/is refusing to comment.

147

최근까지만 하더라도 영국 대학들은 학술지 논문 발표 내용을 이용해서 돈을 버는 일에 있어서는 미국 대학들에 비해 엄청 뒤처졌었다.

Until quite recently, British universities lagged behind their foreign counterparts when it came to turning journal articles into cash.

148

상위 5위권에서 3자리를 차지했다.

Cambridge, Oxford and Imperial College London took three of the top five spots in rankings of the universities most supportive of technological development.

149

don noun
BrE /dɒn/ ; NAmE /dɑːn/

1) (British English) a teacher at a university, especially Oxford or Cambridge

ex) One-third of dons now work with private companies.

an Oxford don

150

inculcate verb
BrE /ˈɪnkʌlkeɪt/ ; NAmE /ɪnˈkʌlkeɪt/ (formal)

to cause somebody to learn and remember ideas, moral principles, etc., especially by repeating them often

ex) From the late 1990, the government sought to inculcate the entrepreneurial spirit found in leading American universities, particularly Stanford and MIT.

to inculcate a sense of responsibility in somebody

to inculcate somebody with a sense of responsibility

151

dearth noun
BrE /dɜːθ/ ; NAmE /dɜːrθ/

[singular] dearth (of something) a lack of something; the fact of there not being enough of something

synonym scarcity

ex) Cambridge, Oxford and Imperial have set up investment funds to put money into early-stage funding for business spin-offs, of which there is a relative dearth in Britain.

There was a dearth of reliable information on the subject.