Mod 2: Chemistry Of Life Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mod 2: Chemistry Of Life Deck (35)
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1
Q

Anything that has mass and occupies space is called

A

Matter

2
Q

Pure substance

They can’t be broken down or decomposed into two or more substances.
Part of the periodic table

A

Elements

3
Q

Chemical combination of two or more elements are called

A

Compounds

4
Q

What are the four elements that makes up 96% of the body? (Elements of life) How many bonds do each have?

A

Hydrogen (1 bond), Oxygen (2 bonds), Nitrogen (3 bonds) , Carbon (4 bonds)
*HONC

5
Q

What is the name of the bond formed when one atom TRANSFERS to another?

A

Ionic bond

6
Q

Bond formed between two atoms when the atoms SHARE one or more pairs of electrons

A

Covalent bond

7
Q

A weak attraction between slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a slightly negative oxygen or nitrogen atom in another

A

Hydrogen bond

8
Q

What is synthesis?

A

Two or more substances combined to form a different more complex substance
(A + B -> AB)

9
Q

What is decomposition?

A

A complex substance breaks down into two or more simpler substances
(AB -> A + B)

10
Q

What is exchange?

A

Two molecules exchange atoms or groups of atoms which form two new compounds
(AB + CD -> AC + BD)

11
Q

The sum of all the chemical reactions in the body is called

A

Metabolism

12
Q

Metabolic activity: constructive phase of metabolism during which cells use nutrients and energy for growth and repair
(Needs energy/builds up)

A

Anabolism

13
Q

Metabolic activity: phase of metabolism during which complex substances are converted to simpler ones, resulting in release of chemical energy
(Breaks down)

A

Catabolism

14
Q

Inorganic molecules essential to human life include

A

Water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide as well as acids and bases

15
Q

What is the main energy source of the body?

A

Carbohydrates

16
Q

What is the primary form of sugar used by cells?

A

Glucose

17
Q

What is the stored form of glucose?

A

Glycogen

18
Q

What does ATP consist of? How is it used for energy?

A

A base, sugar, and 3 phosphate groups. When one of the high-energy connected bonds break through a chemical reaction, energy is released

19
Q

What is acid?

A

Any substance that releases hydrogen ions in solution

20
Q

What is a base?

A

Any substance that combines with hydrogen ions

21
Q

An atomic number is defined by

A

The number of protons in the nucleus of an element

22
Q

The atomic weight is described as

A

The number of protons and neutrons added together

23
Q

Composed mostly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, lipids (aka fats) are large and diverse group. What is one characteristic these organic molecules have in common?

A

They’re insoluble in water

24
Q

What is the most abundant lipid?

A

Triglycerides

25
Q

What is the most important steroid – the one from which all other steroids are made

A

Cholesterol

26
Q

What are the four major groups of organic substances in the human body?

A

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

27
Q

What is the most abundant, and most important, organic compounds in the body?

A

Proteins

28
Q

What do proteins consist of?

A

Essential amino acids obtained through food, and nonessential amino acids that the body creates

29
Q

What is an atom?

A

The smallest part of an element; consist of a nucleus containing protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons

30
Q

What is a molecule?

A

A combination of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds

31
Q

What is a solvent?

A

A substance that dissolves a solute resulting in a solution.
Must be clear - no particles visible. Usually a liquid

32
Q

Solutions with a pH less than 7 are

A

Acidic

33
Q

Solutions with a pH greater than 7 are

A

Basic or alkaline

34
Q

When acidic solutions are dissolved in water, they release ________ ions

A

Hydrogen (H+) ions

35
Q

Alkaline solutions release _______ ions when dissolved in water

A

Hydroxide (OH+)