Anything that has mass and occupies space is called
They can’t be broken down or decomposed into two or more substances.
Part of the periodic table
Chemical combination of two or more elements are called
What are the four elements that makes up 96% of the body? (Elements of life) How many bonds do each have?
Hydrogen (1 bond), Oxygen (2 bonds), Nitrogen (3 bonds) , Carbon (4 bonds)
What is the name of the bond formed when one atom TRANSFERS to another?
Bond formed between two atoms when the atoms SHARE one or more pairs of electrons
A weak attraction between slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a slightly negative oxygen or nitrogen atom in another
What is synthesis?
Two or more substances combined to form a different more complex substance
(A + B -> AB)
What is decomposition?
A complex substance breaks down into two or more simpler substances
(AB -> A + B)
What is exchange?
Two molecules exchange atoms or groups of atoms which form two new compounds
(AB + CD -> AC + BD)
The sum of all the chemical reactions in the body is called
Metabolic activity: constructive phase of metabolism during which cells use nutrients and energy for growth and repair
(Needs energy/builds up)
Metabolic activity: phase of metabolism during which complex substances are converted to simpler ones, resulting in release of chemical energy
Inorganic molecules essential to human life include
Water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide as well as acids and bases
What is the main energy source of the body?
What is the primary form of sugar used by cells?
What is the stored form of glucose?
What does ATP consist of? How is it used for energy?
A base, sugar, and 3 phosphate groups. When one of the high-energy connected bonds break through a chemical reaction, energy is released
What is acid?
Any substance that releases hydrogen ions in solution
What is a base?
Any substance that combines with hydrogen ions
An atomic number is defined by
The number of protons in the nucleus of an element
The atomic weight is described as
The number of protons and neutrons added together
Composed mostly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, lipids (aka fats) are large and diverse group. What is one characteristic these organic molecules have in common?
They’re insoluble in water
What is the most abundant lipid?
What is the most important steroid – the one from which all other steroids are made
What are the four major groups of organic substances in the human body?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
What is the most abundant, and most important, organic compounds in the body?
What do proteins consist of?
Essential amino acids obtained through food, and nonessential amino acids that the body creates
What is an atom?
The smallest part of an element; consist of a nucleus containing protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons
What is a molecule?
A combination of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
What is a solvent?
A substance that dissolves a solute resulting in a solution.
Must be clear - no particles visible. Usually a liquid
Solutions with a pH less than 7 are
Solutions with a pH greater than 7 are
Basic or alkaline
When acidic solutions are dissolved in water, they release ________ ions
Hydrogen (H+) ions
Alkaline solutions release _______ ions when dissolved in water