What are the names of the two distinct glands that make up the pituitary gland?
Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) and posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
Gland that exerts more influence over by processes than any other gland
Type of tissue making up the anterior pituitary
Type of tissue making up the posterior pituitary
Substance from which steroid hormones are made
Chemical messengers secreted by the endocrine system
This hormone is made by the beta cells of the pancreas, has the opposite effect of glucagon, and decreases the blood glucose levels
These glands release their products into ducts, and they empty onto a surface or into a cavity
Cells with more of these are more sensitive to hormones influence
What are the 6 hormones released by the hypothalamus
Gonadotropin–releasing hormone Thyrotropin-releasing hormone Corticotropin-releasing hormone Prolactin-releasing hormone Prolactin-inhibiting hormone Growth hormone-releasing hormone
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone promotes secretion of
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus promotes secretion of what hormone and what does this hormone stimulate?
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the anterior pituitary, Stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone
Prolactin stimulates what?
Milk production in the memory glands in females. In males, it may make the testes is more sensitive to luteinizing hormone
Growth hormone (GH), or somatotropin, is released by which gland and acts on the entire body to promote what?
The anterior pituitary - Promote protein synthesis, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and bone and skeletal muscle growth
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is released by what gland and what does it stimulate?
Anterior pituitary, stimulates the production of eggs in the ovaries of females and sperm in the testes of males
Luteinizing hormone is released by which gland, and what does it stimulate?
Anterior pituitary, stimulates ovulation and estrogen and progesterone synthesis in females and the secretion of testosterone by the testes in males
The posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) releases what hormones, and what are their functions?
Oxytocin - Stimulates contraction of the uterus during childbirth and triggers the release of milk from the breast during lactation Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (or vasopressin) - Acts on the kidneys to reduce urine volume and prevent dehydration
Where is the thymus located?
Lies in the Mediastinum just beneath the sternum
What is the largest endocrine gland?
The thyroid gland consists of two large lobes connected by
A narrow band of tissue called that isthmus
Thyroid tissue is made of tiny sacs called thyroid follicles. The cells lining the sacs secrete which two main thyroid hormones?
Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)
Self between the thyroid follicles, called parafollicular cells, secrete another hormone called
TSH Released from the anterior pituitary stimulates the release of what hormone from the thyroid gland? What role does this for hormone play?
Thyroid hormone - Increases the body’s metabolic rate, which increases heat production
Parathyroid glands or in the posterior surface of the thyroid. What hormone do they secrete in response to low blood levels of calcium?
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Each adrenal gland is two distinct glands. What are the names of the two glands?
Adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex
The inner portion of the adrenal gland - adrenal medulla - Consists of what? And what hormones does it secrete?
Consist of modified neurons called chromaffin cells (functions as part of the sympathetic nervous system) - secretes catecholamines (specifically epinephrin and norepinephrine)
The outer portion - adrenal cortex - consists of three layers of what type of tissue? And what does it secrete?
Glandular tissue - each layer secretes a different corticosteroid
What are the three classes of hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex? And what principal hormone do they secrete?
Mineralcorticoids (outermost layer) - aldosterone Glucocorticoids (middle layer) - cortisol Sex steroids (innermost layer) - Include a weak form of androgen that is converted to the more potent androgen testosterone. And small amounts of estrogen
What is the role of catelcholamines secreted by the adrenal medulla?
Prepare body for physical activity and boost glucose levels
What is your body’s primary stress hormone?
*The pancreas contains both endocrine and exocrine tissues. What is the difference between the endocrine gland and exocrine gland?
Endocrine gland secretes its products directly into the bloodstream – it’s ductless
Exocrine gland had ducts, don’t go directly into bloodstream
Exocrine cells, called acini, secrete what into ducts that drain into the small intestine
Interspersed with the exocrine cells are clusters of endocrine cells called pancreatic islets, or the islets of Langerhans. What are the three main cells contained in the pancreatic islets?
Alpha cells, beta cells, delta cells
What hormone do the alpha cells secrete?
What hormone do the beta cells secrete?
What hormone does the delta cells secrete?
Steroid hormones are derived from?
What two hormones does the thymus secrete?
Thymosin and thymopoietin
What gland develops the immune system?