mod 3 chp 10 Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminoloy > mod 3 chp 10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in mod 3 chp 10 Deck (213):
1

caus/o

burning, burn

2

cerebr/o

cerebrum, brain

3

concuss/o

shaken together,

4

contus/o

bruise

5

encephal/o

brain

6

-ethesia

sensation, feeling

7

esthet/o

feeling, nervous sensation, sense of perception

8

mening/o

meninges

9

phobia

abnormal fear

10

psych/o

mind

11

radicul/o

root or nerve root

12

tropic

having an affinity for

13

includes the brain and spinal cord

central nervous system

14

includes the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of peripheral spinal nerves

peripheral nervous system

15

one or more bundles of neurons that connect the brain and the spinal cord with other parts of the body

nerve

16

a bundle or group of nerve fibers located within the brain or spinal cord

tract

17

a nerve center made up of a cluster of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system

ganglion

18

supply of nerves to a specific body part

innervation

19

network of intersecting spinal nerves

plexus

20

sites in the sensory organs that receive external stimulation

receptors

21

anything that excites a nerve and causes an impulse

stimulus

22

an automatic, involuntary response to some change

reflex

23

aka sensory neurons

afferent neurons

24

aka associative neurons

connecting neurons

25

aka motor neuronsq

efferent neurons

26

basic cells of the nervous system

neurons

27

the root-like processes that receive impulses and conduct them to the cell body

dendrites

28

process that conducts impulses away from the nerve cell

axon

29

branching fibers at the end of the axon that lead the nervous impulse from the axon to the synapse

terminal end fibers

30

the space between two neurons or between a neuron and a receptor organ

synapse

31

chemical substances that make it possible for messages to cross from the synapse of a neuron to the target receptor

neurotransmitters

32

provide support and protection for neurons

glial cells

33

the protective covering made of glial cells

myelin sheath

34

the system of membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord

meinges

35

the thick, though, outermost membrane of the meninges

dura mater

36

resembles a spiderweb, the second layer of the meninges

arachnoid membrane

37

third layer of the meninges, located nearest the brain

pia mater

38

produced by special capillarries within the four ventricles. clear, colourless watery fluid that flows throughout the brain and around the spinal cord

cerebrospinal fluid

39

largest and uppermost portion of the brain

cerebrum

40

means pertaining to the cerebrum or brain

cerebral

41

made of gray matter, outer layer of the cerebrum

cerebral cortex

42

located below the cerebrum, relays sensory stimuli from the spinal cord and midbrain to the cerebral cortex

thalamus

43

located below the thalamus, controls vital body functions

hypothalamus

44

located in the lower back of the cranium below the cerebrum, controls balance, etc

cerebellum

45

located in the base of the brain and forms the connection between the brain and spinal cord

brainstem

46

cerebral hemispheres subdivided to create pairs of

cerebral lobes

47

provide conduction pathways to and from the higher and lower centers in the brain, also control reflexes for movements the eyes and head (2 structures)

midbrain and pos

48

located at the lowest part of the brainstem, is connected to the spinal cord. controls basic survival functions

medulla oblongata

49

long, tube-like structure that begins at the end of the brainstem and continues down to the bottom of the spinal column

spinal cord

50

12 pairs of nerve that originate from the undersurface of the brain

cranial nerves

51

31 pairs of peripheral nerves

peripheral spinal nerves

52

organized into two divisions, sympathetic and parasympathetic

autonomic nervous system

53

prepare the body for emergencies and stress

sympathetic nerves

54

return the body to normal after a response to stress

parasympathetic nerves

55

a physician who specializes in administering anesthetic agents

anesthesiologist

56

medical professional who specializes in administering anesthesia but is not a physician

anesthetist

57

physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases of the nervous system

neurologist

58

physician who specializes in surgery of the nervous system

neurologist

59

physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating chemical dependencies, emotional problems, and mental illness

psychiatrist

60

not an MD, evaluates and treats emotional problems and mental illness

psychologist

61

aka headache

cephalalgia

62

characterized by throbbing pain on one side of the head, sometimes accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light

migraine headache

63

intensely painful headaches that affect one side of the head and may be associated with tearing of the eyes and nasal congestion

cluster headaches

64

aka craniocele, congenital herniation of brain tissue through a gap in the skull

encephalocele

65

congenital herniation of the meninges through a defect in the skull or spinal column

meningocele

66

condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the ventricles

hydrocephalus

67

common, slow-growing usually benign tumor of the meninges

meningioma

68

inflammation of the menenges brain and spinal cord

meningitis

69

describes the mental activities associated with thinking, learning, and memory

cognition

70

slowly progressive decline in mental abilities

dementia

71

form of dementia caused by a stroke or other restrictions of the flow of blood to the brain

vascular dementia

72

an inflammation of the brain

encephalitis

73

potentially serious disorder in children that is characterized by vomiting and confusion

Reye's syndrome

74

aka lockjaw, infection of the central nervous system caused by a toxin produced by the tetanus bacteria

tetanus

75

complex neurological disorder characterized by involuntary tics

Tourette syndrome

76

umbrella term or disorders in which there is a progressive loss of the structure or function of the neurons

neurodegenerative disease

77

group of disorders involving the parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language

Alzheimer's disease

78

chronic, degenerative central nervous disorder characterized by fine muscle tremors, rigidity and slow gait

Parkinson's disease

79

memory disturbance characterized by total or partial inability to recall past experiences

amnesia

80

violent shaking up or jarring of the brain

concussion

81

bruising of brain tissue as the result of a head injury that causes the brain to bounce against the rigid bone of the skull

cerebral contussion

82

collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain

cranial hematoma

83

blow to the head or a penetrating head injury that damages the brain

traumatic brain injury

84

describes the results of child being violently shaken by someone

shaken baby syndrome

85

describes the measurement of response to arousal and stimulus

levels of consciousness

86

state of being awake and alert

conscious

87

state of being unaware and unable to respond

unconscious

88

lowered level of consciousness marked by listlessness, drowsiness and apathy

lethargy

89

unresponsive state from which a person can be aroused only briefly despite repeated attempts

stupor

90

aka fainting

syncope

91

deep state of unconsciousness

coma

92

type of coma in which the patient exhibits alternating sleep and wake cycles

persistent vegetative state

93

acute condition of confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, etc

delirium

94

abnormal growth located inside the skull

brain tumor

95

amount of pressure inside the skull

intracranial pressure

96

aka stroke

cerebrovascular accident

97

occurs when the flow of blood to the brain is blocked by the narrowing or blockage of a carotid artery

ischemic stroke

98

aka mini-stroke, temporary interruption in the blood supply to the brain

transient ischemic stroke

99

loss of the ability to speak, write or comprehend words

aphasia

100

occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks, damaging the brain

hemorrhagic stroke

101

abnormal connection between the arteries and veins in the brain, usually congenital and can rupture suddenly

arteriovenous malformation

102

prolonged or abnormal inability to sleep

insomnia

103

sleep disorder consisting of sudden and uncontrollable brief episodes of falling asleep during the day

narcolepsy

104

sufficient lack of restorative sleep over a cumulative period so as to cause problems

sleep deprivation

105

aka sleepwalking

somnambulism

106

inflammation of the spinal cord

myelitis

107

tumor of the spinal cord

myelosis

108

highly contagious viral infection of the brainstem and spinal cord that sometimes leads to paralysis. can be prevented though vaccination

poliomyelitis

109

aka pinched nerve, inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve that causes pain and numbness

radiculitis

110

nerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region

cervical radiculopathy

111

nerve pain in the lower back caused by muscle spasms or nerve root irritation from the compression of vertebral disks

lumbar radiculopathy

112

progressive autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation that causes demyelination of the myelin sheath

multiple sclerosis

113

aka Lou Gehrig's disease, rapidly progressive neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

114

temporary paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve that causes paralysis only of the affected side of the face

Bell's palsy

115

aka infection polyneuritis, an inflammation of the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves, characterized by rapidly worsening muscle weakness that can lead to temporary paralysis

Guillain-Barre syndrome

116

inflammation of a nerve accompanied by pain and sometimes loss of fuction

neuritis

117

inflammation of the sciatic nerve that results in pain, burning, and tingling along the course of the nerve

sciatica

118

characterized by severe lightning-like pain due to an inflammation of the fifth cranial nerve. affects the cheek, lips, and gums on one side of the face

trigeminal neuralgia

119

condition characterized by poor muscle control, spasticity, speech defects, and other neurologic deficiencies

cerebral palsy

120

chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent episodes of seizures

epilepsy

121

a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain that affects how a person feels or acts for a short time

seizure

122

aka grand mal seizure, involves the entire body

tonic-clonic seizure

123

aka petit mal seizure, brief disturbance in brain function in which there is loss of awareness

absence seizure

124

persistent, severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to the sensory nerve

causalgia

125

abnormal and excessive sensitivity to touch or other sensory stimuli

hyperesthesia

126

burning or prickling sensation that is usually felt in the hands, arms, legs, or feet. drugs

paresthesia

127

disorder of the peripheral nerves that carry information to and from the brain and spinal cord

peripheral neuropathy

128

neurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable feelings in the legs, producing a strong urge to move them

restless leg syndrom

129

detects changes in blood flow in the brain when the patient is asked to perform a specific task

functional MRI

130

ultrasound study of the carotid artery

carotid ultrasonography

131

the use of ultrasound imaging to create a detailed visual image of the brain for diagnositc purposes

echoencephalography

132

process of recording the electrical activity of the brain through the use of electrodes attached to the scalp

electroencephalography

133

radiographic study of the spinal cord after the injection of a contrast medium through a lumbar pucture

myelography

134

aka spinal tap, process of obtaining a sample of spinal fluid by inserting a needle into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region

lumbar puncture

135

depresses the central nervous system and usually produces sleep

hypnotic

136

adminestered to prevent seizures such as those associated with epilepsy

anticonvulsant

137

class of drugs who major action is the calming or depressing effect on the central nervous system

barbiturates

138

medication used to induce anesthesia

anesthetic

139

absence of normal sensation

anesthesia

140

regional anesthesia produced by injecting medication into the epidural space of the lumbar or sacral region of the spine

epidural anesthesia

141

regional anesthesia produced by injecting medication into the subarachnoid space

spinal anesthesia

142

neurosurgical procedure used in the treatment of dystonia, tremors, and Parkinson's disease. a device to stimulate the brain with mild electrical signals is implanted near the collar bone

deep brain stimulation

143

type of radiation treatment for brain tumors performed without a knife or incision

gamma knife surgery

144

aka electroshock therapy, small amounts of electric current are passed through the brain, deliberately triggering a brief seizure

electroconvulsive therapy

145

exposure to daylight to counteract seasonal affective disorder

light therapy

146

surgical removal of a portion of the brain

lobectomy

147

surgical incision into the thalamus

thalamotomy

148

surgical repair of a nerve or nerves

neuroplasty

149

suturing together the ends of a severed nerve

neurorrhaphy

150

surgical division or dissection of a nerve

neurotomy

151

mental conditions characterized by excessive, irrational dread of everyday situations or fear that is out of proportion to the situation

anxiety disorders

152

characterized by chronic, excessive worrying

generalized anxiety disorder

153

characterized by recurrent obsessions and/or compulsions

obsessive-compulsive disorder

154

characterized by a fear of panic attacks

panic disorder

155

unexpected, sudden experience or fear in the absence of danger, accompanied by physical symptoms

panic attack

156

may develop after an event involving actual or threatened death or injury to the individual or someone else

post-traumatic stress disorder

157

persistent irrational fear of a specific thing or situation

phobia

158

excessive fear of heights

acrophobia

159

excessive fear of environments where the person fears a panic attack may occur

agoraphobia

160

abnormal fear of being in small or enclosed spaces

claustrophobia

161

an excessive fear of social situations

social phobia

162

characterized by a short attention span and impulsive behaviour that is inappropriate for the child's age

attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

163

learning disability characterized by substandard reading due to the inability of the brain to process symbols

dyslexia

164

disorders found in children of normal intelligence who have difficulties learning specific skills such as processing language

learning disabilities

165

diagnosing of significant below-average intellectual and adaptive functioning present from birth

mental retardation/intellectual disability

166

describes a group of conditions in which a young child has difficulty developing normal social relationships

autistic spectrum disorders

167

a subgroup, children have developmental delays, including speech and language, have very minimal verbal skills and lack normal social relationships

autism

168

occur when normal thought is separated from consciousness

dissociative disorders

169

aka multiple personality disorder

dissociative identity disorder

170

a condition in which an individual acts as if he or she has a physical or mental illness when he or she is not really sick

factitious disorder

171

factitious disorder by proxy

a form of child abuse, mentally ill parent will falsify an illness in a child

172

group of psychiatric disorders characterized by a failure to resist and impulse despite potential negative consequences

impulse control disorders

173

condition characterized by cycles of severe mood changes

bipolar disorder

174

includes abnormally elevated mood state

manic behaviour

175

characterized by lethargy and sadness

depression

176

low-grade chronic depression with milder symptoms

dysthymia

177

seeasonal bout of depression associated with the decrease in hours of daylight

seasonal effective disorder

178

chronic pattern of inner experience and behavior that causes serious problems with relationships and work

personality disorder

179

characterized by loss of contact with reality and deterioration of normal social function

psychotic disorder

180

marked by a lack of responsiveness, stupor, and tendency to remain in a fixed posture

catatonic behaviour

181

false personal belief that is maintained despite obvious proof or evidence

delusion

182

a sensory perception experienced in the absence of external stimuli

hallucination

183

psychotic disorder characterized from withdrawal from reality, delusions, etc

schizophrenia

184

characterized by physical complaints or concerns about one's body that are out of proportion to any physical findings

somatofrom disorder

185

characterized by serious or temporary ongoing changes in function, such as paralysis or blindness, that are triggered by psychological factors

conversion disorder

186

fearing that one has a serious illness despite reassurance

hypochondriasis

187

intentional creation of false or exaggerated problems. motivated by incentives such as avoiding work

malingering

188

addictive use of tobacco, alcohol, meds, etc

substance abuse

189

chronic alcohol dependence with specific signs and symptoms upon withdrawal

alcoholism

190

disorder involving sudden and severe mental changes or seizures caused by abruptly stopping the use of alcohol

delirium tremens

191

excessive use of illegal or recreational drugs

drug abuse

192

accidental or intentional use of an illegal drug or prescription in high amount

drug overdose

193

acts primarily on the central nervous system, produces temporary changes affecting the mind, emotions, and behaviour. used as medication to control pain etc

psychotropic drug

194

administered to prevent or relieve depression

antidepressant

195

administered to treat symptoms of severe disorders of thinking and mood that are associated with neurological and psychiatric illnesses

antipsychotic drug

196

aka antiaxiety drug

anxiolytic drug

197

used to treat mood instability and bipolar disorders

mood-stabiizing drugs

198

increasing activity in certain areas of the brain to increase concentration and wakefulness

stimulant

199

based on the idea that mental disorders have underlying causes stemming from childhood and can only be overcome by gaining insight into one's feelings and patterns of behaviour

psychoanalyis

200

focuses on changing behaviour by identifying problem behaviours, replacing them with appropriate behaviours

behavioral therapy

201

focuses on changing cognitions or thoughts that are affecting a person's emotions and actions

cognitive therapy

202

use of hypnosis to produce an altered state of focused attention

hypnotherapy

203

AD

Alzheimer's disease

204

ALS

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

205

CP

cerebral palsy

206

CSF

cerebral spinal fluid

207

EEG

electroencephalography

208

ICP

intracranial pressure

209

LOC

loss of consciousness

210

LP

lumbar puncture

211

MS

multiple sclerosis

212

Sz

seizure

213

TIA

transient ischemic attack