Mod 2 chp 4 Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminoloy > Mod 2 chp 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mod 2 chp 4 Deck (165):
1

fasci/o

fascia

2

ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o

tendons

3

-cele

hernia, tumor, swelling

4

fibr/o

fibrous tissue, fiber

5

-ia

abnormal condition, plural of -ium

6

kines/o, kinesi/o

movement

7

-plegia

paralysis, stroke

8

tax/o

coordination, order

9

ton/o

tone, stretching, tension

10

long slender cells that make up muscles

muscle fibers

11

a band of connective tissue that envelops, separates, or binds together muscles

fascia

12

pertaining to the muscle tissue and fascia

myofascial

13

a narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone.

tendon

14

are attached to the bones of the skeleton and make body motions possible

skeletal muscles

15

located in the walls of internal organs such as the digestive tract, move and control the flow of fluids through these structures

smooth muscles

16

form the muscular walls of the heart

myocardial muscles

17

the stimulation of a muscle by an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve

muscle innervation

18

means pertaining to the relationship between a nerve and muscle

neuromuscular

19

tightening of a muscle

contraction

20

occurs when a muscle returns to its original form

relaxation

21

the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body

abduction

22

the movement of a limb toward the midline

adduction

23

the act of raising or lifting a body part.

elevation

24

the act of lowering a body part

depression

25

a circular movement around an axis such as the shoulder joint

rotation

26

the circular movement at the far end of a limb

circumduction

27

decreasing the angle between two bones by bending a limb at a joint

flexion

28

increasing the angle between two bones or the straightening out of a limb

extension

29

extreme or over extension of a limb or body part beyond its normal limit

hyperextension

30

the act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is turned downward or backward

pronation

31

the movement that bends the foot upwards at the ankle

dorsiflexion

32

the movement that bends the foot downward at the ankle

plantar flexion

33

where the muscle begins, located nearest the midline or on a less movable part of the skeleton

origin

34

where the muscle ends by attaching to a bone or tendon

insertion

35

inserts at one point of insertion into the mastoid process

mastoid

36

thick, fan-shaped muscle situated on the anterior chest wall

pectoralis major

37

toward the side (pertaining to muscle)

lateralis

38

the muscle toward the outer side of the leg

vastus lateralis

39

toward the midline (of muscle)

medialis

40

muscle toward the midline of the leg

vastus medialis

41

slanted or at an angle

oblique

42

straight alignment with the vertical axis of the body

rectus

43

ring line muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway

sphincter

44

in a crosswise direction

transverse

45

aka biceps, muscle with two divisions

biceps brachii

46

aka triceps, three division

triceps brachii

47

largest muscle of the buttock

gluteus maximus

48

located on the shoulder, shaped like an inverted triangle

deltoid muscle

49

located at the back of the upper leg, consists of three separate muscles

hamstring group

50

muscle in the forehead, raises and lowers the eyebrows

frontalis

51

moves the lower jaw up and back to close the mouth

temporalis

52

one of the strongest muscles, moves the lower jaw up to close the mouth when chewing

masseter

53

in males, makes up the bulk of the chest muscles

pectoralis major

54

in the abdomen, flex and rotate the vertebral column, flex the torso and compress the abdomin

external oblique

55

in the abdomen, flex the spine, support the abdominal contents, help breathe, rotate the spine

internal oblique

56

moves the head and shoulder blade

trapezius

57

flexes the elbow, anterior upper arm

biceps brachii

58

posterior upper arm, extends the elbow

triceps brachii

59

extends the leg at the knee

rectus femoris

60

four muscles which flex and extend the leg at the knee

quadriceps femoris

61

involved in knee flexion and hip extension

hamstring group

62

the calf muscle that flexes the knee and bends the foot downward

gastrocnemius

63

a specialist who works under th supervision of a physician to develop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness

exercise physiologist

64

a physician who specializes in treating the causes of paralysis and similar muscular disorders

neurologist

65

a physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehab with the focus on restoring function

physiatrist

66

specializes in treating sports related injuries of the bones joints and muscles

sports medicine physician

67

inflammation of a fascia

fasciitis

68

a debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain

fibromyalgia syndrome

69

an inflammation of the sheath surrounding a tendon

tenosynovitis

70

inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use

tendinitis

71

a disorder characterized by profound fatigue

chronic fatigue syndrome

72

a band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally

adhesion

73

weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures

atrophy

74

pain in the muscles

myalgia

75

the herniation of muscl substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it

myocele

76

the degeneration of muscle tissue

myolysis

77

rupture of a muscle

myorrhexis

78

muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body

polymyositis

79

the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that come with agin

sarcopenia

80

the state of balanced muscle tension that makes normal posture, coordination and movement possible

muscle tone

81

lacking normal muscle tone or strength

atonic

82

a condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement

dystonia

83

a condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles

hypotonia

84

the lack of muscle coordination during voluntary movement

ataxia

85

the permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissues

contracture

86

pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest

intermittent claudication

87

sudden, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles

spasm

88

painful localized muscle spasm often named for its cause

cramp

89

aka wryneck, stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected sie

spasmodic torticollis

90

extreme slowness in movement

bradykinesia

91

the distortion or impairment of voluntary movement such as a tic or spasm

dyskinesia

92

aka hyperactivity, abnormally increased muscle function or activity

hyperkinesia

93

sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle

myoclonus

94

the jerking of limbs that can normally occur as a person is falling asleep

nocturnal myoclonus

95

aka hiccups, myoclonus of the diaphram

singultus

96

a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces severe weakness of voluntary muscles

myasthenia gravis

97

general term that describes a group of genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement without affecting the skeletal system

muscular dystrophy

98

a variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work

repetitive stress disorders

99

the compression of nerves and blood vessels due to swelling within the enclosed space created by the fascia that separates groups of muscles. can be caused by trauma, tight bandages or casts

compartment syndrome

100

minor tissue injuring that have not been given time to heal

overuse injuries

101

inflammation of tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of a joint

overuse tendinitis

102

a chronic pain disorder that affects muscles and fascia throughout the body. caused by the development of trigger points, produces local and referred muscle pain

myofascial pain syndrome

103

occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint

impingement syndrome

104

an inflammation of the tendons or the rotator cuff. aka tennis shoulder

rotator cuff tendinitis

105

develops when rotator cuff tendinitis is left untreated or if overuse continues

ruptured rotator cuff

106

occurs when the tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflammed and swollen

carpal tunnel syndrome

107

the surgical enlargement of the carpal tunnel or cutting of the carpal ligament to relieve the pressure on tendons and nerves

carpal tunnel release

108

a harmless fluidfilled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist

ganglion cyst

109

inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow

epicondylitis

110

a calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to the heel

heel spur

111

an inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot. causes foot or heel pain when walking or running

plantar fasciitis

112

an injury to a joint, which usually occurs when a ligament is wrenched or torn

sprain

113

an injury to the body of the muscle or to the attachment of a tendon

strain

114

a painful condition caused by the tibialis anterior muscle tearing away from the tibia

shin splint

115

a strain or tear on any of the three hamstring muscles

hamstring injury

116

a painful inflammation of the Achilles tendon caused by excessive stress

Achilles tendinitis

117

overuse injury. caused by the iliotibial band rubbing against bone, often in the area of the knee

iliotibial syndrome

118

the loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle

paralysis

119

weakness or slight muscular paralysis

myoparesis

120

a slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body

hemiparesis

121

total paralysis of one side of the body

hemiplegia

122

paralysis of both legs and lower part of the body

paraplegia

123

paralysis of all four extremities

quadriplegia

124

paralysis of the heart muscle

cardioplegia

125

tested with a reflex hammer that is used to strike a tendon

deep tendon reflexes

126

a diagnostic procedure to evaluate joint mobility and muscle strength

range-of-motion testing

127

a diagnostic test that measures the electric activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation

electromyography

128

involves removal of a plug of tissue for examination

muscle biopsy

129

administered to suppress smooth muscle contractions of the stomach, intestine, or bladder

antispasmodic

130

administered to relax certain muscles and to relieve the stiffness, pain, and discomfort caused by strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries

skeletal muscle relaxant

131

a drug that causes temporary paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve stimuli to the muscles

neuromuscular blocker

132

the study of the human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment

ergonomics

133

a specialized soft-tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions sucha s fibromyalgia

myofascial release

134

activities to promote recovery and rehab to assist patients in performing activities of daily living

occupational therapy

135

treatment to prevent disability or restore function

physical therapy

136

uses high-frequency sound waves to treat muscle injuries by generating heat deep within muscle tissue. This heat eases pain, etc

therapeutic ultrasound

137

uses a device that delivers electrical impulses through the skin, which causes changes in muscles

transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

138

RICE

rest, ice, compression, elevation

139

a surgical incision though the fascia to relieve tension or pressure

fasciotomy

140

the surgical repair of a fascia

fascioplasty

141

the surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone

tenodesis

142

the release of a tendon from adhesions

tenolysis

143

the surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon

tenorrhaphy

144

surgical suturing a muscle

myorrphaphy

145

surgical incision into a muscle

myotomy

146

ADL

activities of daily living

147

CTS

carpal tunnel syndrome

148

EMG

electromyography

149

FMS

fibromyalgia syndrome

150

hemi

hemiplegia

151

IC

intermittent claudication

152

MD

muscular dystrophy

153

MG

myasthenia gravis

154

OT

occupational therapist

155

PM

polymyositis

156

quad

quadriplegia

157

RSD

repetitive stress disorder

158

duct/o

to lead

159

dorsi/ dors/o

back of body

160

flex/o

to bend

161

tens/o

to stretch out

162

-ion

action

163

-paresis

partial or incomplete paralysis

164

-plegia

total paralysis

165

para-

along side of