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Medical Terminoloy > Module 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 1 Deck (486):
1

ab-

away from

2

ad-

toward or in the direction of

3

dys-

difficulty, bad, painful

4

endo-

within

5

eu-

good, normal

6

hyper-

excessive or increased

7

hypo-

deficient or decreased

8

inter-

between or among

9

intra-

within or inside

10

neo-

new

11

peri-

surrounding

12

post-

after

13

pre-

before

14

sub-

under, less of below

15

super-

above

16

supra-

excessive

17

abdomin/o

abdomen

18

angi/o

blood vessel

19

append/o

appendix

20

appendic/o

appendix

21

arteri/o

artery

22

arthr/o

joint

23

ather/o

fatty substance or plaque

24

cardi/o

heart

25

col/o

colon

26

chondr/o

cartilage

27

crani/o

skull

28

cyan/o

blue

29

enter/o

small intestine

30

erthr/o

red

31

gastr/o

stomach

32

geront/o

old age

33

hepat/o

liver

34

hem/o

blood

35

laryng/o

throat, larynx

36

leuk/o

white

37

melan/o

black

38

my/o

muscle

39

myc/o

fungus

40

myel/o

bone marrow or spinal cord

41

nat/o

birth

42

nephr/o

kidney

43

neur/o

nerve

44

ot/o

ear

45

poli/o

gray

46

py/o

pus

47

pyel/o

renal pelvis

48

pyr/o

fever (fire)

49

rhin/o

nose

50

tonsill/o

tonsils

51

-ac

pertaining to

52

-al

pertaining to

53

-algia

pain

54

-centesis

surgical puncture to remove fluid

55

-cyte

cell

56

-derma

skin

57

-dia

through

58

-dynia

pain

59

-ectomy

surgical removal

60

-graphy

producing a picture or record

61

-gram

a picture or record

62

-ic

pertaining to

63

-itits

inflammation

64

-osis

conditions

65

-malacia

abnormal softening

66

-megaly

enlargement

67

-necrosis

tissue death

68

-ologist

specialist

69

-ology

study of

70

-oma

tumor

71

-ostomy

surgically creating an artificial opening

72

-otomy

cutting into or surgical incision

73

-pathy

disease

74

-plasty

surgical repair

75

-rrhage

bleeding or excessive flow

76

-rrhagia

bleeding or exessive flow

77

-rrhexis

rupture

78

-sclerosis

abnormal hardening

79

-scopy

visual examination

80

-stenosis

abnormal narrowing

81

-rrhaphy

surgical suturing

82

-osis

abnormal condition

83

-rrhea

flow or discharge

84

dextr/o

right side

85

sinistr/o

left side

86

ex-

out of, outside, away from

87

in-

in, into, not, without

88

mega, megal/o

large, great

89

olig/o

scanty, few

90

A blue discoloration of the skin caused by a lack of adequate oxygen in the blood

cyanosis

91

A mature red blood cell

erythrocyte

92

white blood cell

leukocyte

93

any condition of unusual deposits of black pigment in body tissues or organs

melanosis

94

viral infection of the gray matter of the spinal cord

poliomyelitis

95

inflammation of the stomach and small intestine

gastroenteritis

96

surgical repair of a nerve

neuroplasty

97

suturing together the ends of a severed nerve

neurorrhaphy

98

inflammation of the tonsils

tonsillitis

99

surgical removal of the tonsils

tonsillectomy

100

portion of the skull that encloses the brain

cranium

101

pertaining to the heart

cardiac

102

any disease of the stomach

gastrosis

103

study of all aspects of diseases

pathology

104

pain in the stomach

gastrodynia

105

enlargement of the liver

hepatomegaly

106

softening of arteries

arteriomalacia

107

tissue death of the arteries

arterionecrosis

108

hardening of the walls of the arteries

arteriosclerosis

109

abnormal narrowing of the arteries

arteriostenosis

110

puncture to remove fluid from the abdomin

abdominocentesis

111

surgical repair of a muscle

myoplasty

112

visual examination of joint structure

arthroscopy

113

loss of a large amount of blood

hemorrhage

114

surgical suturing of a muscle wound

myorrhaphy

115

rupture of a muscle

myorrhexis

116

normal or easy breathing

eupnea

117

below the ribs

subcostal

118

above or outside the ribs

supracostal

119

study of the ears nose and throat

otorhinolaryngology

120

lithotomy

examination position

121

inflammation of the appendix

appendicitis

122

bones of the fingers or toes

phalanges

123

pertaining to the interior or lining of an artery

endarterial

124

fatty deposit within the wall of an artery

atheroma

125

pain in joints

arthralgia

126

creation of an artificial opening between the colon and the body surface

colostomy

127

surgical incision into the colon

colotomy

128

sign

objective evidence of disease

129

symptom

subjective evidence only measurable by the patient

130

syndrome

a set of signs and symptoms that occur together as part of a specific disease process

131

diagnosis

identification of a disease DX

132

prognosis

a prediction of the probably course of a disease

133

acute

condition that has a rapid onset, severe, short

134

chronic

long duration, rarely cured

135

eponym

anything named after the person who discovered or described it.

136

fistula

abnormal passage, usually two internal organs or to the surface of the body

137

ileum

last part of the small intestine

138

ilium

part of the hip bone

139

infection

invasion by a pathogen

140

malaise

a general feeling of discomfort or uneasiness, often the first indication of disease

141

exudate

fluid, pus

142

inflammation

erythema, hyperthermia, edema (swelling), pain

143

laceration

torn or jagged wound

144

lesion

pathologic change of the tissues

145

mucous

specialized membranes that line the body cavities (adj)

146

mucus

secreted by mucous membranes (noun)

147

any disease caused by fungus

mycosis

148

any disease in the spinal cord

myelopathy

149

palpation

technique where examiners hands are used

150

pus forming skin infection

pyoderma

151

heartburn

pyrosis

152

supination

rotating the arm so the palm of the hand is forward or upward

153

suppuration

formation of pus

154

virile

having properties of an adult male

155

adenéo

gland

156

adip/o

fat

157

anter/o

before, front

158

caud/o

lower part of the body

159

cephal/o

head

160

cyt/o, cyte

cell

161

end-

inside

162

exo-

outside

163

hist/o, histi/o

tissue

164

plas/i, plas/o, -plasia

growth, formation

165

poster/o

behind, towards back

166

-stasis, -static

control, maintenance of a constant level

167

anatomy

study of the stuctures of the body

168

physiology

study of the functions of the structures of the body

169

anatomic position

body standing in the standard position, facing forward, arms to the side, palms facing front

170

body planes

divide the body into sections

171

vertical plane that divides the body into unequal left and right portions

sagittal plane

172

vertical plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves

midsagittal plane

173

vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterio

frontal plane

174

horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior positions

transverse plane

175

front side, forward

ventral, anterior

176

back side, towards the back

dorsal, posterior

177

upper, towards the head

superior, cephalic

178

lowermost, towards the tail

inferior, caudal

179

situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure

proximal

180

situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure

distal

181

the direction towards the midline

medial

182

the direction away from the midline

lateral

183

dorsal cavity

located along the back of the body and head, contains organs of the nervous system

184

cranial cavity

located within the skull, surrounds and protects the brain

185

spinal cavity

located within the spinal column, surrounds and protects spinal cord

186

ventral cavity

located along the front of the body, contains organs that sustain homeostasis. includes the thoracic abdominal and pelvic cavity

187

thoracic cavity

surrounds the heart and lungs

188

abdominal cavity

major organs of digestion

189

pelvic cavity

reproductive and excretory systems

190

joint term for the abdominal and pelvic cavities

abdominopelvic cavity

191

inguinal

relating to the groin, refers to the entire lower area of the abdomen

192

Label the regions of the thorax and abdomen

right hypochondriac region, epigastic region, left hypochondriac region, right lumbar region, umbilical region, left lumbar region, right iliac region, hypogastric region, left iliac region

193

Label the quadrants of the abdomen

RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ

194

peritoneum

multilayered membrane that protects and holds organs in place in the abdominal cavity

195

parietal peritoneum

outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal wall

196

mesentary

fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall

197

visceral peritoneum

inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity

198

retroperitoneal

located behind the peritoneum.

199

cystic fibrosis

genetic, affects respiratory and digestive systems

200

hemophilia

hereditary bleeding disorders

201

huntington's disease

degenerative hereditary nerve disease

202

muscular dystrophy

group of genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakening of the skeletal muscles

203

phenylketonuria

genetic disorder, certain digestive enzyme missing

204

Tay-Sachs disease

fatal genetic disorder, fatty tissues build up

205

histology

study of tissues

206

epithelium

epithelial tissue that is on the outside

207

endothelium

epitelial tissues line most internal organs

208

connective tissues

support and connect organs

209

dense connective tissue

bone and cartilage

210

adipose tissue

fat

211

loose connective tissue

surrounds organs, supports nerve and blood vessles

212

liquid connective tissue

blood and lymph

213

aplasia

defective development or absence of organ or tissue

214

hypoplasia

incomplete development of tissue or organ usually due to a lack of cells

215

anaplasia

change of structure and orientation of cells, usually caner

216

dysplasia

abnormal development or growth of cells

217

hyperplasia

enlargement of an organ or tissue due to more cells

218

hypertrophy

general increase in the bulk of the body due to increase in size of cells but not number

219

exocrine glands

ducts, secrete things

220

endocrine glands

ductless, create hormones

221

adenitis

inflammation of a glands

222

adenocarcinoma

malignant tumour originating in a gland

223

adenoma

benign tumour originating in a gland

224

adenomalacia

softening of gland

225

adenosclerosis

hardening of gland

226

etiology

study of the causes of diseases

227

endemic

ongoing presence of a disease

228

functional disorder

produces symptoms for which no physical cause can be identified, ex panic attaks

229

iatrogenic illness

unfavorable response to prescribed medical treatment

230

idiopathic disorder

illness without a known cause

231

nosocomical infection

disease acquired in a hospital setting

232

organic disorder

produces symptoms caused by detectable physical changes in the body.

233

congenital disorder

present at birth

234

developmental disorder

birth defect, extra toe

235

atresia

congenital absence of a normal body opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular

236

internist

physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating things of the internal organs and body systems.

237

hospitalist

focuses of patient care in hospital setting

238

A & P

Anatomy and Physiology

239

CD

communicable disease

240

CH, ch

chromosome

241

epid

epidemic

242

GP

general practitioner

243

HD

huntingtons disease

244

PKU

phenylketonuria

245

transports blood through the body

cardiovascular system

246

transports hormones through the blood

endocrine system

247

breaks down food

digestive system

248

helps us fight diseases

immune system

249

provides protection for the body against bacteria

integumentary system

250

provides support for the body and allows for movement

musculoskeletal system

251

carries electrical messages to and from the brain

nervous system

252

allows for breathing

respiratory system

253

functions to produce new life

reproductive system

254

helps maintain fluid balance

urinary system

255

gen/o or gene

producing

256

-crine

secrete

257

-plasm

material of cells

258

burs/o

bursa

259

cervic/o

neck

260

chondr/o

cartilage

261

crani/o

head

262

ili/o

ilium or hip

263

hemat/o

blood

264

lumb/o

lower back

265

mandibul/o

lower jaw

266

oste/o

bone

267

pelv/o

pelvis

268

pod/o

feet

269

sacr/o

sacrum

270

stern/o

chest

271

synov/o

synovial fluid

272

synovi/o

synovial fluid

273

tars/o

tarsal bones in the feet

274

vertebr/o

vertebra

275

-poietic

pertaining to formation

276

ankly/o

crooked, bent, stiff

277

-desis

bind, tie together

278

kyph/o

bent, hump

279

lord/o

curve, swayback, bent

280

-lysis

loosening r setting free

281

scoli/o

curved, bent

282

spondyl/o

vertebrae

283

process of turning bone into bone

ossification

284

tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone

periosteum

285

dense, hard and very strong bone that forms the protective layer of bones

compact bone

286

lighter and not as strong as compact bone, found at the ends, contains red marrow

spongy bone

287

the cavity located in the shaft of long bones where it is surrounded by compact bone. Here red and yellow bone marrow are stored.

medullary cavity

288

the tissue that lines the medullary cavity

endosteum

289

located within the spongy bone, hemopoietic

red bone marrow

290

pertaining to the formation of blood

hemopoietic

291

smooth, rubbery connective tissue that acts a shock absorber between bones and makes up the flexible parts of the skeleton

cartilage

292

functions as a fat storage area in bones

yellow bone marrow

293

covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints. This cartilage makes smooth joint movements possible

articular cartilage

294

curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints, such as the knee

meniscus

295

the shaft of long bone

diaphysis

296

the wider ends of long bones such as the femurs

epiphyses

297

an opening through which blood vessels etc go in the bone

foramen

298

normal projection on the surface of a bone that commonly serves as an attachement for a muscle or tendon

process

299

the union place of one or more bones

joints

300

inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, hold the bones tightly together. In adults these joints do not allow movements. aka sutures

fibrous joints

301

aka soft spots normally present on skull of a newborn

fontanelles

302

joints that llow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage.

cartilaginous joints

303

allows some movement during childbirth. this joint is located between the pubic bones in the anterior of the pelvis

pubic symphysis

304

joint created where two bones articulate to permit a variety of motions.

synovial joints

305

the outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve that surrounds synovial joints

synovial capsule

306

lines the synovial capsule and secretes synovial fluid

synovial membrane

307

flows within the synovial cavity, acts as a lubricant

synovial fluid

308

bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another or to cartilage

ligaments

309

a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction

bursa

310

protects the major organs or the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems. consists of 80 bones

axial skeleton

311

makes body movement possible and protects organs of digestion, excretion and reproduction. 126 bones

appendicular skeleton

312

the portion of the skull that encloses the brain

cranium

313

the anterior portion of the cranium that forms the forehead.

frontal bone

314

two of the largest bones in the skull that form most of the roof and upper sides of the cranium

parietal bones

315

forms the back part of the skull

occipital bone

316

two bones that form the sides and base of the cranium

temporal bones

317

the opening of the external auditory canal of the outer ear. located within the temporal bone on each side of the skull

external auditory meatus

318

an irregular wedge shaped bone at the base of the skull. Makes contact with all other cranial bones

sphenoid bone

319

light, spongy bone located at the roof and sides of the nose. separates the nasal cavity from the brain

ethmoid bone

320

three tiny bones located in each middle ear

auditory ossicles

321

two bones that make up the upper part of the bridge of the nose

nasal bones

322

aka cheekbones

zygomatic bones

323

form the upper jaw

maxillary bones

324

two bones that form the anterior part of the hard palate of the mouth and floor of the nose

palatine bones

325

two bones that make up part of the orbit (eye socket) at the inner angle

lacrimal bones

326

two thin, scroll-like bones that form part of the interior of the nose

inferior conchae

327

forms the base for the nasal septum

vomer bone

328

aka the jawbone, only movable bone in the skull

mandible

329

where the mandible is attached to the skull

temporomandibular joint

330

aka the rib cage

thoracic cavity

331

aka the breast bone

sternum

332

the bony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum

manubrium

333

the bony structure that forms the middle portion of the sternum

body of the sternum

334

the structure made of cartilage that forms the lower portion of the sternum

xiphoid process

335

what the shoulders form which supports the arms and hands. aka shoulder girdle

pectoral girdle

336

aka collar bone, connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scapula

clavicle

337

aka shoulder blade

scapula

338

an extension of the scapula that forms the high point of the shoulder

acromion

339

the bone of the upper arm

humerus

340

the smaller and shorter bone in the forearm. runs up the thumb side of the forearm

radius

341

the larger and longer bone of the forearm. proximal end of the ulna articulates with the distal end of the humerus to form the eelbow joint

ulna

342

aka funny bone, large projection on the upper end of the ulna. forms the point of the elbow and exposes a nerve that tingles

olecranon process

343

8 bones that form the wrist

carpals

344

five bones that form the palm of the hand

metacarpals

345

14 bones of the fingers

phalanges

346

protects the spinal cord and supports the head and body. 26 vertebrae

spinal column

347

the posterior portion of a vertebra

lamina

348

made of cartilage, seperate and cushion the vertebrae from each other

intervertebral disks

349

the first set of 7 vertebrae, form the neck

cervical vertebrae

350

12 vertebrae in the middle, form the outward curve of the spine

thoracic vertebrae

351

5 vertebrae form the inward curve of the spine. largest and strongest, bear most of the body's weight

lumbar vertebrae

352

slightly curved, triagular bone ear the base of the spine that forms the lower portion of the back.

sacrum

353

aka tailbone

coccyx

354

protects internal organs and supports the lower extremities, commonly known as the pelvis or hips

pelvic girdle

355

broad blade shaped bone that forms the back and sides of the pubic bone

ilium

356

the slightly movable articulation between the sacrum and posterior portion of the ilium

sacroiliac

357

forms the lower posterior portion of the pubic bone, bears the weight of the body when sitting

ischium

358

the cartilaginous joint that unites the left and right pubic bones

pubic symphysis

359

aka hip socket, large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint

acetabulum

360

largest bones in the body

femurs

361

aka kneecap

patella

362

describes the posterior space behind the knee where the ligaments, vessels, and muscles related to this joint are located

popliteal

363

ligaments that make possible the movements of the knee

cruciate ligaments

364

aka shinbone, larger anterior weight bearing bone of the lower leg

tibia

365

smaller of the two bones of the lower leg

fibula

366

joints that connect the lower leg and foot

ankles

367

7 short bones in the ankles

tarsal bones

368

rounded bony projection on the tibia and fibula on the sides of each ankle joint

malleolus

369

the ankle bone that articulates with the tibia and fibula

talus

370

aka heel bone, largest of the tasal bones

calcaneus

371

5 bones that form the part of the foot to which the toes are attached

metatarsals

372

bones of the toes

phalanges

373

doctor that specialized in manipulative treatment of disorders of disorders misalighnment of the spine

chiropractor

374

physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles

orthopedic surgeon

375

uses traditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation

osteopath

376

specializes in feet

podiatrist

377

specializes in arthritis, osteporosis

rheumatologist

378

loss of absence of mobility in a joint

ankylosis

379

stiffness of the joints, especially elderly

arthrosclerosis

380

inflammtion of a bursa

bursitis

381

softening of cartilage

chondromalacia

382

benign tumor from cartilage

chondroma

383

inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum

costochondritis

384

aka bunion, abnormal enlargemnt of the joint at the base of the big toe

Hallux vagus

385

blood within a joint

hemarthrosis

386

a geriatric inflammatory disorder of the muscles and joints characterized by pain and stiffness is the neck, shoulders, upper arms, and hips and thighs.

polymyalgia rheumatica

387

inflammation of the synovial membrane

synovitis

388

total displacement of a bone from its joint

dislocation

389

the partial displacement of a bone from its joint

subluxation

390

wear and tear artritis

osteoarthritis

391

bone spurs

osteophytes

392

type of arthritis charachterized by deposits of uric acid in the joints

gouty arthritis

393

spinal osteoarthritis, degenerative disorder

spondylosis

394

autoimmune disorder that attacks the joints

rheumatoid arthritis

395

form of rheumatoid arthritis that causes inflammation in the joints of the vertebrae

ankylosing spondylitis

396

slipped disk, breaking apart of an intervertebral disk

herniated disk

397

low back pain

lumbago

398

forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum below it

spondylolisthesis

399

congenital defect when the spinal canal fails to close arroundthe spinal cord

spina bifidia

400

abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine

kyphosis

401

abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine, swayback

lordosis

402

abnormal lateral curvature of the spine

scoliosis

403

malformation of the skull due to the premature close of the cranial sutures

craniostenosis

404

bonde disoder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous tissue. leads to deformity

fibrous dysplasia

405

pain in the bone

ostealgia

406

inflammation of the bone

osteitis

407

abnormal softening of the bone in adults

osteomalacia

408

inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone

osteomyelitis

409

death of bone tissue

osteonecrosis

410

bone disease of unknown cause characterized by the excessive breakdown of bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation. New bone is enlarged and filled with few blood vessels

Paget's disease

411

inflammation of the periosteum

periostitis

412

deficiency disease occuring in children, defectie bone growth

Rickets

413

drawfism, failure of bones to grow to appropriate length

short stature

414

clubfoot, any deformity of the foot involving the talus

talipes

415

primary bone cancer

starts in bones, rare

416

secondary bone cancer

metastasizes to the bones

417

type of cancer that occurs in blood aking cells found in red bone marrow

myeloma

418

benign bony projection covered in cartilage

osteochondroma

419

loss of bone density

osteoporosis

420

tinner than average bone densisty

osteopenia

421

occurs when bone is compresed on itself, often caused by spontaneous collapse of a weaken vertebrae

compression fracture

422

fracture that occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his or her hands

Colles' fracture

423

broken hip caused by osteoporosis

osteoporotic hip fracture

424

complete/simple fracture, no open wound

closed fracture

425

bone and skin is broken

open fracture

426

bone is crushed or splintered

comminuted fracture

427

bone is bent or partially broken, children

greenstick fracture

428

fracture occurs at an angle across the bone

oblique fracture

429

occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain

pathologic fracture

430

fracture in which the bone has been twisted apart

spiral fracture

431

overuse injury, small crack from chronic excessive impact

stress fracture

432

fracture occurs straight across the bone

transverse fracture

433

form whena long bone is fractured and fat cells from the yellow bone marrow are released

fat embolus

434

the grating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move together

crepitation

435

as a bone heals, this forms as a bulging deposit around the area of the break

callus

436

aka xray

radiograph

437

visual examination of the interrnal structure of a joint

arthroscopy

438

diagnostic test that may be necessary after abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells are found ina complete blood count test

bone marrow biopsy

439

used to image soft tissue structures usuch as the interior of complex joints.

magnetic resonance imaging

440

used to determine losses or changes in bone density. test used to diagnose osteoporosis

bone density testing

441

screening test for osteoporosis using sound waves

ultrasonic bone density testing

442

low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density

dual x-ray absorptiometry

443

bone marow transplant from a compatiable donor

allogenic bone marrow transplant

444

bone marrow transplant where the donor recieves thier own bone marrow

autologous bone marrow transplant

445

a mechanical appliance such a s a splint that is designed to compensate for impared limb function

orthotic

446

a substitute for a missing body part

prosthesis

447

the surgical fusion of two bones to stiffen a joint

arthrodesis

448

surgical loosening or an ankylosed joint

arthrolysis

449

minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of a joint

arthroscopic surgery

450

the surgical repair of damaged cartilage

chondroplasty

451

the surgical removal of synovial membrane from a joint

synovectomy

452

injections used to add a preparation of stuff into a joint to ease friction

viscosupplementation

453

surgical placement of an artificial joint

arthroplasty

454

all parts of the knew=e are replaced

total knee replacement

455

only part of the knee is relaced

partial knee replacement

456

performed to restore a damaged hip to full function. head of the femur is replaced with metal

total hip replacement

457

function is restored to the hip by placing a metal cap over the head of teh femur

hip resurfacing

458

the replacement of a worn or fiailed implant

revision surgery

459

perfomed to treat a herniated disk. A thin tube is inserted thorugh the skin of the back to suction out the ruptured diskt or vaporize it

percutaneous diskectomy

460

performed to treat osteoporosis related compresion fractures. Bone cement is injected to stabilize the fracture in the spinal column

percutaneous vertroplasty

461

the surcgical removal of a lamina or posterior portion of a vertebrae

laminectomy

462

technique to immobilize part of the spine by joining two or more vertebrae

spinal fusion

463

the surgical removal of a portion of the skull

craniectomy

464

surgical incision into the skull

craniotomy

465

surgical repair of the skull

cranioplasty

466

surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity

osteoclasis

467

the surgical removal of a bone

ostectomy

468

surgical repair of a bone

osteoplasty

469

surgical suturing of bones

osteorrhaphy

470

surgical cutting of a bone

osteotomy

471

incision through the periosteum to the bone

periosteotomy

472

attempted realignment of the boone involved in a fracture or dislocation. manually applied force then immobilized

closed reduction

473

aka stabilization

immobilization

474

pulling force exered on a limb in a distal direction in an effort to return the bone or joint to normal alignment

traction

475

fracture treatment procedure where pins are placed throught the soft tissues and and external appliance is used to hold the pieces together

external fixation

476

plate or pins are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place

internal fixation

477

BDT

bone density testing

478

CR

closed reduction

479

Fx

fracture

480

OA

osteoarthritis

481

OP

osteoporosis

482

PKR

partial knee replacement

483

PMR

polymyalgia rheumatica

484

RA

rheumatoid arthritis

485

THA

total hip arthroplasty

486

TKA

total knee arthroplasty