mod 4 chp 13 Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminoloy > mod 4 chp 13 > Flashcards

Flashcards in mod 4 chp 13 Deck (137):
1

acr/o

extremities

2

adren/o

adrenal glands

3

crin/o

secrete

4

-dipsia

thirst

5

glyc/o

glucose, sugar

6

gonad/o

gonad

7

pancreat/o

pancrease

8

parathyroid/o

parathyroid gland

9

pineal/o

pineal gland

10

somat/o

body

11

thym/o

thymus

12

thyr/o, thyroid/o

thyroid gland

13

pea sized gland that is divided into two parts, the anterior and posterior lobes. these lobes hang from a stalk like structure located below the hypothalamus

pituitary gland

14

stimulates the growth and secretions of the adrenal cortex

adrenocorticotropic hormone

15

stimulates the secretion of estrogen and the growth of a ova

follicle-stimulating hormone

16

regulates the growth of bone, muscle and other body tissues

growth hormone

17

stimulates ovulation in the female or secretion of testosterone

interstitial cell-stimulating hormone

18

aka prolactin, stimulates and maintains the secretion of breast milk in the mother after childbirth

lactogenic hormone

19

increases the production of melanin in melanocytes

melanocyte-stimulating hormone

20

stimulates the secretion of hormones by the thyroid gland

thyroid-stimulating hormone

21

secreted by the hypothalamus and stored and released in the pituitary gland, helps control blood pressure by reducing the amount of water that is excreted through the kidneys

antidiuretic hormone

22

stimulates uterine contractions

oxytocin

23

very small endocrine gland located in the central portion of the brain

pineal gland

24

influences the sleep-walking portions of the circadian cycle

melatonin

25

butterfly shaped gland lies on either side of the larynx

thyroid

26

two primary thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism

thyroxine, triiodothyronine

27

produced by the thyroid gland, decrease calcium levels in the blood and tissues by moving calcium into storage in the bones and teeth

calcitonin

28

four glands embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland

parathyroid glands

29

works with calcitonin to control calcium levels, produced by parathyroid, increases calcium levels

parathyroid hormone

30

located near the midline in the anterior portion of the thoracic cavity, behind the sternum and above the heart

thymus

31

plays an important part in the immune system by stimulating the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells

thymosin

32

those parts of the pancreas that have endocrine functions

panreatic islets

33

hormone secreted by alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in response to low levels of glucose

glucagon

34

hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets in response to high levels of glucose

insulin

35

aka suprarenals, located with one on top of each kidney

adrenal glands

36

mineral substances that are normally found in the blood

electrolytes

37

sex hormones secreted by the gonads the adrenal cortex and fat cells

androgens

38

the steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex

corticosteroids

39

corticosteroid that regulates the salt and water levels in the body by increasing sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion by the kidneys

aldosterone

40

corticosteroid that has an antiinflammatory action

cortisol

41

aka adrenaline

epinephrine

42

both a hormone and neurohormone, released as a hormone by the adrenal medulla

norepinephrine

43

gamete producing flands

gonads

44

the process of physical changes by which a child's body becomes capable before reproducing

puberty

45

hormone secreted by the ovaries that is important in the development and maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics

estrogen

46

hormone released during the second half of the menstual cycle by the corpus luteum in the ovary

progesterone

47

reproductive cell

gamete

48

any hormone that stimulates the gonads

gonadotropin

49

sex hormones, primarily testosterone, secreted by the gonads, the adrenal cortex, and fat cells

androgens

50

steroid hormones secreted by the testicles and the adrenal cortex to stimulate the development of male secondary sex characteristics

testosterone

51

large family of hormone like substances that share the same fat soluble chemical structure

steroids

52

man-made substances that are chemically related to male sex-hormones, used to replace muscle mass

anabolic steroids

53

protein hormone secreted by fat cells that is involved in the regulation of appetite

leptin

54

produced and released by neurons in the brain, rather than by the endocrine glands, and delivered to organs and tissues through the bloodstream

neurohormones

55

physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and malfunctions of the endocrine glands

endocrinologist

56

health care professional qualified to teach people with diabetes how to manage their disease

certified diabetes educator

57

rare chronic disease characterized by abnormal enlargement of the exterminites

acromegaly

58

abnormal growth of the entire body that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone before puberty

gigantism

59

excess secretion of growth hormone that causes acromegaly and gigantism

hyperpituitarism

60

aka dwarfism

short stature

61

aka pituitary tumor

pituitary adenoma

62

condition in which an excess of prolactin causes the breasts to produce milk spontaneously

galactorrhea

63

benign tumor of the pituitary gland

prolactinoma

64

caused by an insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone

diabetes insipidus

65

caused by the overproduction of the antidiuretic hormone, often a result of cancer or its treatment

syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone

66

tumor of the pineal gland that can disrupt the production of melatonin

pinealoma

67

most common cancer of the endocrine system

thyroid carcinoma

68

aka chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, autoimmune disease in which the body's own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland

Mashimoto's disease

69

aka underactive thyroid

hypothyroidism

70

congenital form of hypothyroidism, causes arrested physical and mental development

cretinism

71

aka adult hypothyroidism

myxedema

72

relatively rare, life-threatening condition caused by exaggerated hyperthyroidism

thyroid storm

73

aka thyrotoxicosis, overproduction of thyroid hormones

hyperthyroidism

74

disorder of unknown cause in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland and stimulates it to make excessive amounts of thyroid hormone

Graves' disease

75

aka thyromegaly, abnormal nonmalignant enlargement of the thyroid gland

goiter

76

abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit

exophthalmos

77

overproduction of the parathyroid hormone, causes the condition known as hypercalcemia

hyperparathyroidism

78

characterized by abnormally high concentrations of calcium circulating in the blood instead of being stored in the bones and teeth

hypercalcemia

79

caused by an insufficient or absent secretion of the parathyroid hormone

hypoparathyroidism

80

characterized by abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood

hypocalcemia

81

inflammation of the thymus gland

thymitis

82

benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin

insulinoma

83

inflammation of the pancreas

pancreatitis

84

abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood

hyperglycemia

85

excessive thirst

polydipsia

86

excessive hunger

polyphagia

87

excessive urination

polyuria

88

condition of excessive secretion of insulin in the bloodstream

hyperinsulinism

89

abnormally low concentration of glucose in the blood

hypoglycemia

90

group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion

diabetes mellitus

91

autoimmune insulin deficiency disorder caused by the destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells

type 1 diabetes

92

insulin resistance disorder

type 2 diabetes

93

condition in which the blood sugar level is higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes

prediabetes

94

type 1.5 diabetes, condition where type 1 diabetes develops in adults

latent autoimmune diabetes in adults

95

form of diabetes meilltus that occurs during some pregnancies

gestational diabetes mellitus

96

caused by very high blood surgar

diabetic coma

97

caused by very low blood sugar

insulin shock

98

occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina

diabetic retinopathy

99

occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone

Addison's disease

100

inflammation of the adrenal glands

adrenalitis

101

an abnormality of the electrolyte balance that is caused by the excessive secretion of aldosterone

aldosteronism

102

disorder of the adrenal glands that is caused by the excessive production of aldosterone

Conn's syndrome

103

rare, benign tumor of the adrenal gland that causes too much release of epinephrine and norepinephrine

pheochromocytoma

104

aka hypercortisotism, caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol

cushing's syndrome

105

condition of excessive secretion of hormones by the sex glands

hypergonadism

106

deficient secretion of hormones by the sex glands

hypogonadism

107

condition of excessive mammary development in the male

gynecomastia

108

uses radioactive iodine administered orally to measure thyroid function

radioactive iodine uptake test

109

diagnostic test to measure the circulating blood level of thyroid stimulating hormone

thyroid-stimulating hormone assay

110

measures thyroid function, is a form of nuclear medicine

thyroid scan

111

measures the glucose levels after the patient has not eaten for 8-12 hours

fasting blood test

112

performed to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and to aid in diagnosing hypoglycemia

oral glucose tolerance test

113

measures the current blood sugar level. requires a drop of blod

home blood glucose monitoring

114

measures average glucose levels over the previous 3 weeks

fructosamine test

115

synthetic version of growth hormone

human growth hormone

116

removal of abnormal glandular tissue performed through the nasal passages

hypophysectomy

117

surgical removal of the pineal gland

pinealectomy

118

a medication administered to slow the ability of the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones

antithyroid drug

119

oral administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells

radioactive iodine treatment

120

surgical removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland

lobectomy

121

administered to replace lost thyroid function

synthetic thyroid hormones

122

surgical removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands

parathyroidectomy

123

the surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas

pancreatectomy

124

minimally invasive surgical procedure to remove one or both adrenal glands

laparoscopic adrenalectomy

125

aka hydrocortisone, synthetic equivalent of corticosteroids produced by the body, administered to suppress inflammation and as an immunosuppressant

cortisone

126

ALD

aldosterone

127

ADH

antidiuretic hormone

128

DI

diabetes insipidus

129

DM

diabetes mellitus

130

Epi, EPI

epinephrine

131

FBS

fasting blood sugar

132

FA

fructosamine test

133

GD

Graves' disease

134

HG

hypoglycemia

135

LADA

latent autoimmune diabetes

136

LEP, LPT

leptin

137

TSH

thyroid stimulating hormone