Mod 3: Lecture 4 - Leg, Ankle, and Foot Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mod 3: Lecture 4 - Leg, Ankle, and Foot Deck (22)
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1

Foot Osteology

- Talus
- Calcaneus
- Cuboid - tarsal in front of the calcaneus
- Navicular - tarsal in front of the talus, above the cuboid

2

Talocural Joint

- stability and mobility
- between fibula/tibia and the talus
---- inferior surface of tibia and the medial and lateral malleolus
---- superior, lateral, and medial sides of the trochlea (scroll-like) on the top of the talus
- synovial hinge type
---- dorsiflexion/plantar flexion of the foot
- Proximal Portion
---- concave distal tibia
---- concave distal fibula
- Distal Component
---- convex dome of talus

3

Subtalar Joint

- stability and mobility
- between the talus and calcaneus
---- the talus sits on the calcaneus
- Proximal Portion
---- inferior aspect of talus
- Distal Component
---- superior aspect of calcaneus
- Synovial plane type
---- eversion/inversion of the foot
---- foot rotates as calcaneus glides against talus

4

Ligaments of the ankle

- many ligaments stabilize and support this joint

5

Plantar Aponeurosis

- protects structures on the sole of the foot
- makes foot rigid
- supports longitudinal arches
- tendon sheet that goes from the ball of the foot to the heel
---- vertical fibers

6

Ligaments Supporting Foot Arches

- Calcaneoavicular: calcaneus to navicular bone
- Long Plantar: calcaneus to 2,3,4th metatarsals
---- runs across the foot longitudinally

7

Anterior and Lateral Leg Compartment

- Tibius Anterior
- Extensor Digitorum Longus
- Peroneus Longus
- Peroneus Brevis
- Extensor Hallicus Longus
- Peroneus Tertius
- all are innervated by the Peroneal Nerve

8

Posterior Compartment

- Gastrocnemius
- Soleus
- Popliteus
- Tibialis Posterior
- Flexor Digitorum Longus
- Flexor Hallicus Longus
- all are innervated by the Tibial Nerve

9

Intrinsic Foot Muscles

- analogous in structure and function to the intrinsic muscles of the hand

10

Lower Extremity Blood Supply

- abdominal aorta is the continuation of the thoracic aorta after it transverses the diaphragm
- abdominal aorta bifurcates at the level of the iliac crests to form the bilateral common iliac arteries

11

Clinical Correlation: femoral artery

- bc the femoral artery is relatively superficial at the femoral triangle, it is important for clinical procedures
---- it may be cannulated just inferior to the midpoint of the inguinal ligament
- left cardial angiography
- angiogram

12

Clinical Correlation: Left Cardial Angiograph

- a long slender catheter is inserted into the femoral artery
- and passed up the external iliac to the common iliac, the aorta, and then the left ventricle of the heart

13

Origin of the Femoral Artery

- at the level of the L5/S1 intervertebral disc
- each common iliac artery ---> internal and external iliac
- internal ---> superior gluteal, inferior gluteal, and obturator arteries
- as the external iliac passed below the inguinal ligament, its name changes to the femoral artery

13

Clinical Correlation: femoral artery

- bc the femoral artery is relatively superficial at the femoral triangle, it is important for clinical procedures
---- it may be cannulated just inferior to the midpoint of the inguinal ligament
- left cardial angiography
- angiogram

15

Clinical Correlation: Left Cardial Angiography

- a long slender catheter is inserted into the femoral artery
- and passed up the external iliac to the common iliac, the aorta to the left ventricle of the heart

16

Clinical Correlation: Angiogram

- a contrast medium or dye is injected which is visible by X-ray
- the resulting image is referred to as an angiogram

17

Deep Artery of the Thigh

- also called the profunda femoris artery
- arises from the posterolateral aspect of the femoral artery within the femoral triangle
- largest branch of the femoral artery and chief artery of the thigh
- gives off perforating arteries that wrap around the posterior aspect of the femur

18

Popliteal Artery

- after passing through the adductor hiatus, the femoral artery courses into the popliteal fossa on the posterior aspect of the knee as the popliteal artery
- deepest structure in the fossa
---- runs in close proximity to the joint capsule of the knee
- ends in the knee region by dividing into the posterior and anterior tibial arteries

19

Leg Blood Supply

- Posterior
---- popliteal artery --branches-> posterior tibial ---> medial plantar and lateral plantar arteries
---- posterior tibial --branches-> fibular (peroneal) artery of the lateral compartment
- Anterior
---- anterior tibial (from the popliteal) ----> dorsalis pedis

20

Foot Blood Supply

- Dorsum (Back) of Foot
---- dorsalis pedis artery
---- terminal branch of the anterior tibial artery
- Plantar (Sole) Surface of Foot
---- medial and lateral plantar arteries
---- terminal branches of the posterior tibial artery

21

Leg Surface Anatomy: anterior view

- Vastus Lateralis: bump to lateral side right above the knee
- Vastus Medialis: bump to the medial side right above the knee
- Tendon of the Quadriceps Femoris: hard, centered directly above the knee
- Patella: knee cap
- Patellar Ligament: hard, directly below the knee cap

22

Leg Surface Anatomy: posterior view

- Popliteal Fossa: back of the knee
- Tendon of Biceps Femoris Muscle: tendon you can feel on the lateral side of the fossa
- Tendon of the Semi-Membranosus Muscle: tendon you can feel on the medial side of the fossa