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Flashcards in Module 1 Deck (149)
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1

sagittal plane

divides the body into left and right halves

2

median plane

-mid-sagittal plane
- except in the hands and feet
---- goes through the third digit

3

anatomical position

facing forward, with feet and palms forward

4

parasagittal plane

parallel to the median (mid sagittal) plane

5

frontal (coronal) plane

passes through the body at any level and divides the body into front and back

6

transverse (horizontal) plane

passes through the body at any level and divides the body into upper and lower portions

7

1a. superior
1b. inferior
2a. rostral
2b. caudal
3a. cephalic

1. going to the top of the body
1b. going to the bottom of the body
2a. same as 1a
2b. same as 1b
3a. same as 1a

8

1a. anterior
1b. posterior
2a. ventral
2b. dorsal

1a/2a. to the front/belly
1b/2b. to the back

9

1a. medial
1b. lateral

1a. to the mid-sagittal plane
1b. away from the mid-sagittal plane

10

1a. proximal
1b. distal

1a. toward the trunk of the body
1b. away from the trunk of the body
these terms are used to refer to the limbs/extremities

11

1a. palmar
1b. dorsal

refer to the hands
1a. palm of the hand
1b. back of hand

12

1a. dorsal
1b. plantar

refer to the feet
1a. top of the foot
1b. sole of the foot

13

1a. extrinsic
1b. intrinsic

refer to muscles
1a. has an attachment outside the region of interest and one inside the region
1b. has both attachments inside the region of interest

14

1a. valgus
1b. varus

-used for the extremities
- refers to the bone distal to a joint
---- and its angle of deviation from the midline
1a. the bone distal to the joint deviates away from the midline
---- ex: feet splayed out from knees
1b. the bone distal to the joint deviates toward the midline
---- ex: the feet are farther in than the knees, like a ballet plie

15

1a. superficial
1b. deep

1a. external, towards the periphery
1b. toward the interior

16

1. bilateral
2. unilateral
3. ipsilateral
4. contralateral

1. occurs on both sides
2. occurs on one side
3. on the same side as...
4. on the side opposite to...
ipsilateral and contralateral require a point of reference

17

1a. flexion
1b. extension

-describe an arc of motion occurring in a sagittal plane
- descriptions usually include the name of the joint, bone, or body part (ex: shoulder, humerus, arm)
1a. a bending movement around a joint in a limb (as the knee or elbow) that decreases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint
1b. an unbending movement around a joint in a limb (as the knee or elbow) that increases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint

18

1. lateral flexion
2. rotation

refer to movement of the vertebral column
1. -motion in a coronal plane
-lateral flexion of the trunk: moving your body from side to side
2. moving your body circularly

19

1a. abduction
1b. adduction

Coronal Plane
1a. movement away from the body
1b. movement toward the body

Horizontal Plane (ex: arm pointing straight out)
1a. movement away from the body
1b. movement across the body

20

1a. medial (internal) rotation
1b. lateral (external) rotation

1a. rotating in an arc toward the center of the body
1b. rotating in an arc away from the center of the body

21

1a. elevation
1b. depression

1a. movement up
1b. movement down

22

1a. protrusion
1b. retrusion

specific to the mandible/jaw
1a. jutting the jaw out
1b. pulling the jaw back

23

1a. supination
1b. pronation

specific to the arms/hands
1a. spinning the hand so the palm is facing up
1b. spinning the hand so the palm is facing down

24

1a. opposition
1b. reposition

specific to the hands
1a. bringing the thumb and pinky together across the hand
1b. opening the hand by putting the thumb and pinky back on the sides

25

1a. dorsiflexion
1b. plarflexion

specific to the ankle/foot
1a. flexion of the ankle upward, pulling the toes up toward the shin
1b. flexion of the ankle downward, pointing the toes toward the floor

26

1a. inversion
1b. eversion

-specific to the ankle/foot
-the ankle does not rotate nearly as much as the arm/wrist
1a. twisting the foot so the big toe is up and the sole faces inward to the midline
1b. twisting the foot so the pinky toe is up and the sole faces outward away from the body
----like when you have worn down a pair of shoes from putting too much weight on the inside of your foot

27

Bone Function

- protection for vital structures
- support for the body
- the mechanical basis for movement
- storage for salts (eg calcium)
- a continuous supply of new blood cells
---- made in bone marrow

28

Number of bones in the skeleton

206 bones

29

Classification of Bones by Location

-Axial
----- skull, vertebra, sternum, ribs
----- bones on the midline
-Appendicular
---- bones on the appendages, extremities
---- pelvis, scapula, arms, legs

30

Classification of Bones by Shape

- Long - humerus
- Short - carpal bones
- Irregular - vertebra
- Flat - skull