Mod 3: Lecture 2 - Gluteal Region and Hip Joint Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mod 3: Lecture 2 - Gluteal Region and Hip Joint Deck (43)
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1

Pelvic Bone/ Innominant Bone

- Fusion of three bones
---- ilium
---- ischium
---- pubis
---- fusion occurs between 15-17 years of age
- Acetabulum
---- where the 3 bones unite
---- the circle at the bottom of the pelvis
---- location of femoral head articulation

2

Ilium

- big round flat top part
- Iliac Crest: top curve of the bone
---- at the L4 vertebral level
- ASIS: anterior superior iliac spine
---- the front end of the iliac curve
- AIIS: anterior inferior iliac spine
----- below the iliac curve, the bump after the inward curve
- PSIS: posterior superior iliac spine

3

Ischium

- bottom and back of the inferior circle
- Ischial Tuberosity: a bump at the posterior inferior part
---- supports you when you sit
- Ischial Spine: a pointy projection at the back of the pelvis
- Ramus of Ischium: extends from the ischial tuberosity to inferior pubic ramus
---- contributes to the ischiopubic ramus

4

Pubis

- top and center of the inferior circle
- Infer Pubic Ramus: contributes to the ischiopubic ramus
- Super Pubic Ramus: the top part of the inferior circle
- Pubic Tubercle: a little jutting out right before the pubic symphysis

5

Pelvis/ Pelvic Girdle

- formed by two pelvic bones and the sacrum
---- each pelvic bone consists of three fused bones
---- the sacrum is five fused bones
- False Pelvis/ Pelvis Major: contains abdominal viscera
---- the space between the ilium
- True Pelvis/ Pelvis Minor: contains pelvic viscera
---- the stuff in the giant circle below the ilium
- Pelvic Brim: separates true from false pelvis

6

Joints within the Pelvis

- Pubic Symphysis: syndesmosis
---- a cartilaginous disc between the right and left pubis
----- anterior
- Sacroiliac (SI) Joint: synovial joint
---- between the sacrum and the ilium
---- posterior

7

Obturator Foramen

- formed by the ischium and pubis
---- inferior circle
---- directly below the acetabulum
- nearly closed by the obturator membrane

8

Greater Sciatic Notch

- superior to ischial spine
---- curved indent in the ilium, right above the ischium
---- seen in a lateral view
- converted to a foramen by the sacrospinous ligament

9

Lesser Sciatic Notch

- inferior to the ischial spine
---- curved indent in the ischium
---- seen in a lateral view
- converted to a foramen by the sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments

10

Ligament Attachments
1. Sacrospinous
2. Sacrotuberous

1. sacrum and coccyx to ischial spine
2. PSIS and sacrum to ischial spine

11

Greater Sciatic Foramen

- further divided by piriformis muscle
- Above piriformis: superior gluteal nerves
- Below piriformis:
---- inferior gluteal nerves
---- sciatic and pudendal nerves
---- cutaneous nerves
---- nerves to lateral rotators

12

Lesser Sciatic Foramen

- tendon of obturator internus
- pudendal nerves to perineum

13

Obturator Canal

- obturator nerve and vessels

14

Proximal Femur

- Femoral Head: fits deep within the acetabulum
- Femoral Neck: frequent site of fractures
- Greater and Lesser Trochanter: both are the site of multiple muscle attachments
- Intertrochanteric Line: located anteriorly between the greater and lesser trochanters, the site of ligaments support the hip joint (iliofemoral)

15

Proximal/Body of the Femur

- Linea Aspera: vertical ridge of bone which serves as an area for multiple muscle attachments
- Gluteal Tuberosity: ridge of bone between greater trochanter and linea aspera
---- bumps out more than the linea aspera
- Pectineal Line (posterior): ridge of bone between the lesser trochanter and linea aspera
---- kind of diagonal

16

Distal Femur

- Linea Aspera: vertical ridge of bone which serves as an area for multiple muscle attachments
- Medial and Lateral Supracondylar Ridge: posterior, extend down from the aspera to the medial and lateral condyles
- Adductor Tubercle: site of muscle attachment
---- found above the medial condyle

17

Hip Joint

- formed by the acetabulum of the pelvic bone and head of the femur
- ball and socket joint

18

Acetabulum (bony)

- formed by ilium, pubis, and ischium right above the obturator foramen
- bony cup does not extend inferiorly
---- this area is closed by the transverse acetabular ligament (which is important for stability)
---- this is where the acetabulum runs into the obturator foramen

19

Acetabular Labrum

- fibrocartilagenous structure
- attaches to bony rim of acetabulum
---- continuous with the transverse acetabular ligament
- deepens the acetabulum and contributes to joint stability
- Lunate Surface: acetabular hyaline cartilage on the ridge of the labrum
---- horseshoe shaped, does not cover the ligament
---- fat is located centrally

20

Movements of the Femur

- Flexion/Extension
- Abduction/Adduction
- Medial/Lateral Rotation

21

Pelvic Motion

- Anterior and Posterior Tilt
---- sagittal plane around coronal axis
---- anterior: hip flexion, pubic symphysis forward, ilium back
---- posterior: hip extension, pubic symphysis back, ilium forward
- Lateral Tilt
---- frontal plane around sagittal axis
---- produces hip abduction: ilium tilts down
---- produces hip adduction: ilium tilts up

22

Ligaments of the Hip

- Anterior and Posterior Sacroiliac Ligament
- Iliofemoral
- Pubofemoral
- Ischiofemoral

23

Anterior and Posterior Sacroiliac Ligament

- support sacroiliac joint
---- in between the ilium and sacrum
- synovial plane
- one in the front (anterior) and one in the back (posterior) per side
---- so there is a left set and a right set

24

1. Iliofemoral Ligament
2. Pubofemoral Ligament
3. Ischiofemoral Ligament

1, 2, 3. - connect the femur to the pelvis
- wrap around the femur head and the hip by the acetabulum
- reinforce and stabilize the hip joint
- fibers are oriented in a spiral and are taut in extension
1. anterior - seen from the front
2. anteroinferior - same spot as 1, just lower, also seen from the front
3. posterior - seen from the back

25

A. Iliacus Muscle
B. Psoas Major
1. Attachments
2. Action
3. Innervation

A ,B. - posterior abdominal wall
- paired
- often referred to as the iliopsoas
1 A. - top of ilium, - proximal femur
1 B. - lumbar spine, - proximal femur
2 A, B. - together, they are the strongest flexors in the hip
3 A, B. femoral nerve

26

A. Psoas Minor
B. Quadratus Lumborum
1. Attachments
2. Action
3. Innervation

A, B. - posterior abdominal wall
- paired
- does not cross the hip joint
1 A. - lumbar spine, - ilium
1 B. - lower rib, - ilium
2.
3 A, B. ventral rami of upper lumbar levels

27

Gluteal Muscles

- Gluteus Maximus
- Gluteus Medius
- Gluteus Minimus
- Tensor Fascia Latae

28

Gluteus Maximus
1. Attachments
2. Action
3. Innervation

- superficial
1. - butt cheek
2.
3. inferior gluteal nerve

29

A. Gluteus Medius
B. Gluteus Minimus
1. Attachments
2. Action
3. Innervation

A. deep
B. deepest, directly under A
1 A, B. superior and lateral diagonal of butt cheek
2 A, B. when walking, constriction on stance side of the hip prevents excessive pelvic tilt during swing phase of the leg on the opposite side of the hip
3 A, B. superior gluteal nerve

30

Tensor Fascia Latae
1. Attachments
2. Action
3. Innervation

- small muscle in the gluteal region
1. - the connective tissue on the lateral side of the thigh
2.
3.